Browsing by Subject "Defibrillators"

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  • Sovijärvi, Anssi (2019)
  • Nordenswan, Hanna-Kaisa; Pöyhönen, Pauli; Lehtonen, Jukka; Ekström, Kaj; Uusitalo, Valtteri; Niemelä, Meri; Vihinen, Tapani; Kaikkonen, Kari; Haataja, Petri; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Tuomas T.; Alatalo, Aleksi; Pietilä-Effati, Päivi; Kupari, Markku (2022)
    Background: Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) predisposes to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in CS have been issued by the Heart Rhythm Society in 2014 and the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society consortium in 2017. How well they discriminate high from low risk remains unknown. Methods: We analyzed the data of 398 patients with CS detected in Finland from 1988 through 2017. All had clinical cardiac manifestations. Histological diagnosis was myocardial in 193 patients (definite CS) and extracardiac in 205 (probable CS). Patients with and without Class I or IIa ICD indications at presentation were identified, and subsequent occurrences of SCD (fatal or aborted) and sustained ventricular tachycardia were recorded, as were ICD indications emerging first on follow-up. Results: Over a median of 4.8 years, 41 patients (10.3%) had fatal (n=8) or aborted (n=33) SCD, and 98 (24.6%) experienced SCD or sustained ventricular tachycardia as the first event. By the Heart Rhythm Society guideline, Class I or IIa ICD indications were present in 339 patients (85%) and absent in 59 (15%), of whom 264 (78%) and 30 (51%), respectively, received an ICD. Cumulative 5-year incidence of SCD was 10.7% (95% CI, 7.4%-15.4%) in patients with ICD indications versus 4.8% (95% CI, 1.2%-19.1%) in those without (chi(2)=1.834, P=0.176). The corresponding rates of SCD were 13.8% (95% CI, 9.1%-21.0%) versus 6.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-54.0%; chi(2)=0.814, P=0.367) in definite CS and 7.6% (95% CI, 3.8%-15.1%) versus 3.3% (95% CI, 0.5%-22.9%; chi(2)=0.680, P=0.410) in probable CS. In multivariable regression analysis, SCD was predicted by definite histological diagnosis (P=0.033) but not by Class I or IIa ICD indications (P=0.210). In patients without ICD indications at presentation, 5-year incidence of SCD, sustained ventricular tachycardia, and emerging Class I or IIa indications was 53% (95% CI, 40%-71%). By the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society guideline, all patients with complete data (n=245) had Class I or IIa indications for ICD implantation. Conclusions: Current ICD guidelines fail to distinguish a truly low-risk group of patients with clinically manifest CS, the 5-year risk of SCD approaching 5% despite absent ICD indications. Further research is needed on prognostic factors, including the role of diagnostic histology. Meanwhile, all patients with CS presenting with clinical cardiac manifestations should be considered for an ICD implantation.
  • Vuorinen, Aino-Maija; Lehmonen, Lauri; Karvonen, Jarkko; Holmström, Miia; Kivisto, Sari; Kaasalainen, Touko (2023)
    Objectives Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED)-induced metal artefacts possibly significantly diminish the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly cardiac MR (CMR). Right-sided generator implantation, wideband late-gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique and raising the ipsilateral arm to the generator during CMR scanning may reduce the CIED-induced image artefacts. We assessed the impact of generator location and the arm-raised imaging position on the CIED-induced artefacts in CMR. Methods We included all clinically indicated CMRs performed on patients with normal cardiac anatomy and a permanent CIED with endocardial pacing leads between November 2011 and October 2019 in our institution (n = 171). We analysed cine and LGE sequences using the American Heart Association 17-segment model for the presence of artefacts. Results Right-sided generator implantation and arm-raised imaging associated with a significantly increased number of artefact-free segments. In patients with a right-sided pacemaker, the median percentage of artefact-free segments in short-axis balanced steady-state free precession LGE was 93.8% (IQR 9.4%, n = 53) compared with 78.1% (IQR 20.3%, n = 58) for left-sided pacemaker (p < 0.001). In patients with a left-sided implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, the median percentage of artefact-free segments reached 87.5% (IQR 6.3%, n = 9) using arm-raised imaging, which fell to 62.5% (IQR 34.4%, n = 9) using arm-down imaging in spoiled gradient echo short-axis cine (p = 0.02). Conclusions Arm-raised imaging represents a straightforward method to reduce CMR artefacts in patients with left-sided generators and can be used alongside other image quality improvement methods. Right-sided generator implantation could be considered in CIED patients requiring subsequent CMR imaging to ensure sufficient image quality.
  • Hallikainen, Juhana (2016)