Browsing by Subject "Denmark"

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  • Sigrist, Jonathan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis analyses the development of Danish foreign and security policy towards the Arctic ever since the end of the Second World War up until today. It draws primarily on Denmark’s relation to the United States, having been Denmark’s main ally for the last 75 years on all security related matters - but especially since the end of the Cold War. Both Denmark and the US are considered Arctic coastal states, with Denmark accessing the Arctic ocean through its sovereign claim over Greenland, and the US through the state of Alaska. The thesis supports other scholarly studies that argue that a ‘new Cold War’ has been taking place in the years following the election of Donald Trump as President of the United States in 2016 between the US, China and Russia, with potentially grave ramifications for Arctic regional security, given its growing importance as a region for resource extraction and commercial passage through the Northern Sea Route. For Denmark, this new Cold War threatens its sovereign claim over Greenland – a crucial geostrategic location for a potential Arctic militarization - being challenged as a small nation by the great power competitions accelerating in the Arctic. The thesis divides the last 75 years into three categorized eras: 1) The Cold War (1945-1991); 2) The post-Cold War era (1991-2017); 3) The ‘new Cold War’ as a developing era (2017 - ; denoted in the thesis), and analyses for each era the fundamentals of Denmark – US relations, first providing a more general overview of their political relations as security partners on non-Arctic related matters, in order to then draw parallels to the development of Denmark – US relations in the Arctic and their roles as state actors in shaping the geopolitical climate of the region. As I show, a lot can be learned from the Cold War to understand what is and may happen in the Arctic in the new Cold War. The thesis makes use of foreign policy analysis, as well as two variations of discourse analysis – poststructuralist discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis – as tools to engage with the empirical data available and answer the thesis’s main research questions: what is the perceived effect of the Trump administration's policy to the position of Denmark in the Arctic? The question is answered on the basis of two main theoretical frameworks: Securitization Theory and Region-Building Theory. These frameworks build the necessary foundation which along with the mentioned methodologies can provide a holistic overview and perspective on the matter with scientific validity. The thesis ends by discussing what can be expected in the near future, based on the knowledge acquired and the answers provided to the research question. A new administration led by president elect Joe Biden took over the White House on January 20st, and with it many new questions are yet to be answered, regarding the future of Denmark – US relations, the future of Arctic governance and the course of the new Cold War. I ponder on what options Denmark might have that could guarantee its security while also maintaining its sovereignty over Greenland – one option being a potential turn towards the EU as its new main security partner. Yet doing so would mean breaking a long-lasting relationship with the US while standing up to the world’s biggest economic and military superpower.
  • Wang, Cong; Steiner, PhD, Prof. Bodo (2019)
    Motivated by the limited evidence on the positive link between social capital and firm performance, this paper explores this potential driver of firm performance at the firm rather than macro-level by employing a novel approach: we capture social capital at a community level rather than focus on the narrow aspect of entrepreneurs’ own social network. Using principal component analysis to aggregate various trust, norm and network-related variables to construct social capital variables with more than 150,000 firm-level observations for firm performance variables, this paper identifies an overall positive and significant effect of social capital on firm performance in Denmark. These effects are robust to firm-level social capital measures, different sampling years and alternative measures of firm performance (return on asset, current ratio, solvency ratio and profit margin) and network perspectives (Putnam and Olson).
  • Henriksen, Sofie Malm (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis investigates the affective economies present in Danish-Greenlandic encounters when the Danish-Greenlandic relationship is discussed, in order to understand how certain feelings are constitutive of Danish colonial aphasia. Moreover, inspired by Indigenous research ethics and methodologies, the author employs a reflexive research approach to scrutinize her positionality and to start a discussion about epistemic injustice within Danish academia. In the study, colonial aphasia is theorized as an occlusion of knowledge and a conceptual dissociation with coloniality, which results in the inability of previous colonial powers to link present postcolonial issues with colonialism. The sources consist of namely a recorded conversation as well as autoethnography produced throughout the thesis process. By employing analytic autoethnography, the study shows how feelings of protectiveness, entitlement, shame and guilt are circulated by the author, a Dane, vis-à-vis Greenlandic people when discussing the Danish-Greenlandic relationship. The study concludes that feelings of protectiveness, entitlement and shame are present as coloniality, but that the Dane perceives coloniality as existing through the struggles of the Other, or as structural, but not as present within us as individuals. Consequently, these feelings are constitutive of colonial aphasia. Finally, the study suggests that the absence of researcher reflexivity in Danish research focusing on Danish-Greenlandic contexts is ultimately sustaining epistemic injustice. Concludingly, the study argues that employing reflexivity and introspection to investigate the particular is not only apt in understanding Danish colonial aphasia, but also in scrutinizing our own colonial complicity as Danish students and researchers investigating Greenlandic or Danish-Greenlandic contexts.
  • Tigerstedt, Christoffer; Agahi, Neda; Bye, Elin; Ekholm, Ola; Härkönen, Janne; Jensen, Heidi Rosendahl; Lau, Cathrine Juel; Mäkelä, Pia; Moan, Inger Synnove; Parikka, Suvi; Raninen, Jonas; Vilkko, Anni; Bloomfield, Kim (2020)
    Aim: The present article summarises status and trends in the 21st century in older people's (60-79 years) drinking behaviour in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and concludes this thematic issue. Each country provided a detailed report analysing four indicators of alcohol use: the prevalence of alcohol consumers, the prevalence of frequent use, typical amounts of use, and the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking (HED). The specific aim of this article is to compare the results of the country reports. Findings: Older people's drinking became more common first in Denmark in the 1970s and then in the other countries by the 1980s. Since 2000 the picture is mixed. Denmark showed decreases in drinking frequency, typically consumed amounts and HED, while in Sweden upward trends were dominant regarding prevalence of consumers and frequency of drinking as well as HED. Finland and Norway displayed both stable indicators except for drinking frequency and proportion of women consumers where trends increased. In all four countries, the gender gap diminished with regard to prevalence and frequency of drinking, but remained stable in regard to consuming large amounts. In Norway the share of alcohol consumers among women aged 60-69 years exceeded the share among men. During the late 2010s, Denmark had the highest prevalence of alcohol consumers as well as the highest proportion drinking at a higher frequency. Next in ranking was Finland, followed by Sweden and Norway. This overall rank ordering was observed for both men and women. Conclusion: As the populations aged 60 years and older in the Nordic countries continue to grow, explanations for the drivers and consequences of changes in older people's drinking will become an increasingly relevant topic for future research. Importantly, people aged 80 years and older should also be included as an integral part of that research.
  • Hashemi, Fatemeh; Pohle, Ina; Pullens, Johannes W. M; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Kyllmar, Katarina; Marttila, Hannu; Lepistö, Ahti; Klove, Bjorn; Futter, Martyn; Kronvang, Brian (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 6 (2020)
    Optimal nutrient pollution monitoring and management in catchments requires an in-depth understanding of spatial and temporal factors controlling nutrient dynamics. Such an understanding can potentially be obtained by analysing stream concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships for hysteresis behaviours and export regimes. Here, a classification scheme including nine different C-Q types was applied to a total of 87 Nordic streams draining mini-catchments (0.1–65 km2). The classification applied is based on a combination of stream export behaviour (dilution, constant, enrichment) and hysteresis rotational pattern (clock-wise, no rotation, anti-clockwise). The scheme has been applied to an 8-year data series (2010–2017) from small streams in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland on daily discharge and discrete nutrient concentrations, including nitrate (NO3−), total organic N (TON), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP). The dominant nutrient export regimes were enrichment for NO3− and constant for TON, DRP, and PP. Nutrient hysteresis patterns were primarily clockwise or no hysteresis. Similarities in types of C-Q relationships were investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) considering effects of catchment size, land use, climate, and dominant soil type. The PCA analysis revealed that land use and air temperature were the dominant factors controlling nutrient C-Q types. Therefore, the nutrient export behaviour in streams draining Nordic mini-catchments seems to be dominantly controlled by their land use characteristics and, to a lesser extent, their climate.
  • Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Ollikka, K.; Ahola, J.; Kim, Y. (Elsevier Science, 2021)
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 150: 111356
    Smart energy transition includes a widespread deployment of clean energy technologies and intelligent energy management with information and communication technologies (ICTs). In this paper, the smart energy transition is studied from the viewpoint of the technology convergence of renewable energy sources (RESs) and ICTs. Two important, fast-growing and weather-dependent renewable energy generation technologies: wind power and solar PV (photovoltaic) are studied. This paper provides technology convergence analyses of RES and ICT inventions based on international patent data. Digitalisation is changing the whole of society, and according to the results, this transition can also be seen in the studied renewable energy generation technologies. The digitalisation of RES production covers technologies that control, manage and optimise electricity production in different intelligent ways. Differences between wind power and solar PV technologies are found: in the case of wind power, the development from virtually no ICT solutions to partial technology convergence with the ICT sector is straightforward. However, in the case of solar PV, the development of basic technologies has been even faster than the development of the solar PV ICT solutions, which may indicate the immature nature of solar PV technologies during the studied years. The digitalisation of the renewable energy sector poses challenges for RES companies in following and predicting ICT development and opportunities for innovations and collaborations with ICT companies. This conclusion can also be expanded to society and policy levels because focusing on only a narrow field when planning innovation policy instruments can negatively impact the country's competitiveness.
  • Lepola, P.; Wang, Siri; Tötterman, A.M.; Gullberg, Ninna; Harboe, Kristine Moll; Kimland, Elin E. (2020)
    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the marketing status of the new paediatric medicinal products listed in the 10-year report as initially authorised between 2007 and 2016, reflecting the product availability in four Nordic countries. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Setting Analysis of the national medicine agency's databases in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Data source New medicinal products with paediatric indications and new paediatric formulations listed in the Annex of European Medicines Agency's EU Paediatric Regulation 10-year report. Data analysis The products were classified according to national marketing status between January 2019 and March 2019, whether a product was authorised and whether the product was marketed. Main outcome measures The percentages of the new medicinal products with paediatric indications and new paediatric formulations having a valid marketing authorisation and being marketed, both in terms of the sums of all countries and separately for each country. Results Across the four countries, 21%-32% (16/76-24/76) of the new medicinal products were not marketed. Of the new formulations relevant to children, 29%-50% (16/56-28/56) were not marketed, and a significant proportion of these products had never been marketed. Conclusions This study reflects the reality of the implementation of the Paediatric Regulation. The results show that several new paediatric medicines and new formulations are not marketed. This affects the product availability. Similar data from other countries are needed to evaluate the overall European status to find remedies to current situation and increase the availability of the medicines for children. ©
  • Johnstone, Phil; Rogge, Karoline S.; Kivimaa, Paula; Farné Fratini, Chiara; Primmer, Eeva (Elsevier, 2021)
    Energy Research & Social Science 74
    Industrial policy has re-emerged as an area of policy discussion in recent years, but the characteristics and role of industrial policy vary across national contexts. Particularly, the role of industrial policy in the ongoing energy transitions of different countries has received little attention. We introduce an analytical framework to explore the relationship between industrial policy and different energy policy trajectories and apply this framework in an empirical analysis of the perceptions of key stakeholders in the energy sector in Germany, the United Kingdom and Denmark. We identify four key elements of industrial policy – industrial visions, industrial policy instruments, industrial policy governance, and employment concerns – and based on these analyse perceptions of how industrial policy has facilitated changes in the energy system of the three countries. We find significant differences in industrial policy styles for low-carbon transitions, reflecting broader differences in political institutions and cultures. Our analysis shows how sustainability transitions relate to industrial policy, and which elements can act as enablers and barriers to low-carbon transitions.
  • de Wit, Heleen A.; Lepistö, Ahti; Marttila, Hannu; Wenng, Hannah; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Eklöf, Karin; Futter, Martyn N.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kronvang, Brian; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rakovic, Jelena (Wiley, 2020)
    Hydrological Processes 34, 25 (2020)
    Agricultural, forestry-impacted and natural catchments are all vectors of nutrient loading in the Nordic countries. Here, we present concentrations and fluxes of total nitrogen (totN) and phosphorus (totP) from 69 Nordic headwater catchments (Denmark: 12, Finland:18, Norway:17, Sweden:22) between 2000 and 2018. Catchments span the range of Nordic climatic and environmental conditions and include natural sites and sites impacted by agricultural and forest management. Concentrations and fluxes of totN and totP were highest in agricultural catchments, intermediate in forestry-impacted and lowest in natural catchments, and were positively related %agricultural land cover and summer temperature. Summer temperature may be a proxy for terrestrial productivity, while %agricultural land cover might be a proxy for catchment nutrient inputs. A regional trend analysis showed significant declines in N concentrations and export across agricultural (−15 μg totN L−1 year−1) and natural (−0.4 μg NO3-N L−1 year−1) catchments, but individual sites displayed few long-term trends in concentrations (totN: 22%, totP: 25%) or export (totN: 6%, totP: 9%). Forestry-impacted sites had a significant decline in totP (−0.1 μg P L−1 year−1). A small but significant increase in totP fluxes (+0.4 kg P km−2 year−1) from agricultural catchments was found, and countries showed contrasting patterns. Trends in annual concentrations and fluxes of totP and totN could not be explained in a straightforward way by changes in runoff or climate. Explanations for the totN decline include national mitigation measures in agriculture international policy to reduced air pollution and, possibly, large-scale increases in forest growth. Mitigation to reduce phosphorus appears to be more challenging than for nitrogen. If the green shift entails intensification of agricultural and forest production, new challenges for protection of water quality will emerge possible exacerbated by climate change. Further analysis of headwater totN and totP export should include seasonal trends, aquatic nutrient species and a focus on catchment nutrient inputs.
  • Handal, Marte; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Mahic, Milada; Øhman, Inger; Wikner, Birgitta Norstedt; Tjagvad, Christian; Kieler, Helle; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lund, Ingunn Olea (2020)
    Background: WHO guidelines emphasise the need for descriptions of clinical practice and observational studies on risk and benefits of pharmacotherapies in pregnancy. The aims of the present study were to: (1) Describe opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) in the Scandinavian countries in general, and specifically for pregnant women, (2) Describe a project which utilises a new approach using registry-linkage data to examine associations between prenatal exposure to OMT and child outcomes: a Scandinavian cohort study of pregnant women in OMT during pregnancy (ScopeOMT). Data: Guidelines describing the treatment of persons with opioid use disorders in general, and specifically for pregnant women. Scandinavian registry-linkage data from ScopeOMT. Results: Registry data show that approximately 800 pregnant women received OMT during pregnancy in the period of the ScopeOMT study. Similarities across the Scandinavian countries include access to free healthcare and treatment; multidisciplinary teams trained to support pregnant women in OMT; buprenorphine as the recommended drug when initiating therapy; and a holistic focus on the patients' lives. An important difference is that Norwegian women who use illegal substances that may harm the foetus may be admitted - voluntarily, or against their will - for parts of, or the remainder of the pregnancy to inpatient treatment at specialised clinics. Conclusion: Many similarities in the treatment provided to opioid-dependent persons in the Scandinavian countries place this area in an excellent position to combine the efforts and carry out observational studies concerning the safety of OMT during pregnancy.
  • Gedeon, Charlotte; Sandell, Mikael; Birkemose, Inge; Kakko, Johan; Runarsdottir, Valgerdur; Simojoki, Kaarlo; Clausen, Thomas; Nyberg, Fred; Littlewood, Richard; Alho, Hannu (2019)
    Aims: Outcomes in opioid use disorder (OUD) in Nordic countries have improved with integrated treatment and harm-reduction programmes. Approaches and the standard of care are different across the region. Evidence of treatment needs and current approaches are defined from evidence to inform development of a common standard. Method: Evidence of population sizes and treatment approach collected. Common standards for care (harm reduction, pharmacotherapy, psychology/social therapy) defined for each country. Results: Evidence defines number in treatment; potential population needing treatment not defined for all countries. Populations sizes, treatment access (ratio in treatment programme compared to total country population) defined: Sweden 4,000 in OUD care (access ratio 40); Finland 3,000 (55); Norway 8,000 (154); Denmark 7,500 (132). Approach to treatment similar: integrated treatment programmes standard. Care provided by specialists in outpatient clinics/primary care; secondary care/inpatient services are available. Harm reduction is limited in Sweden but available and more accessible elsewhere. Treatment entry criteria: access relatively unlimited in Norway and Denmark, more limited in Finland and Sweden. Standards of care defined: easy access to high-quality services, individual planning, care not limited by time, management of relapse, education for patients, continuous engagement, holistic approach including management of comorbidities, needle equipment programmes without limit, treatment in prisons as community. Conclusion: There are opportunities to improve OUD care in the Nordics. Policy makers and clinicians can advance OUD care and share common success factors. Collaborative work across the Nordic countries is valuable. Further research in clinical practice development can yield important results for the benefit of patients with OUD.
  • Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas (2008)
    Albert O. Hirschman argued in 1945 that asymmetrical interdependence is an important source of power for the less-dependent country. Since then, many scholars have supported this argument. However, students of asymmetrical interdependence have given little attention to the administrative aspects of trade or to the significance of trade regimes. Most have assumed that governments can manipulate trade relations if they wish in order to use them as tools of policy. In this thesis it will be argued that the ability of a government to do this is crucially dependent on institutional factors, particularly regarding its ability to control foreign trade. A government that has inadequate regulatory tools to direct the flow of trade cannot benefit from asymmetrical dependence. This kind of dependence is therefore not as important a source of economic power to the government of a larger country as most scholars seem to think. During the period looked at in this study, Argentina, Denmark and Finland were all strongly dependent on the UK for trade. Based on the theories of asymmetrical interdependence, one could conclude that the British government must have been capable of putting effective pressure on these smaller countries. In the 1930s this was certainly the case, but after the war the British influence declined dramatically. In the cases of Finland and Argentina, this initially reflected a British need to buy primary products from these countries. However, in the long run, the main factor that reduced the British government’s bargaining power was the liberalisation of foreign trade that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. After liberalisation, most foreign goods entered the UK without government involvement; it was difficult for the authorities to cut or limit this trade simply because they wanted to put pressure on those countries that were reluctant to buy enough British goods. Furthermore, as the other governments similarly relinquished control of their foreign trade, their ability to implement policies beneficial to the British declined. This study is mostly based on the previously classified internal records of the British government, as well as on published works.