Browsing by Subject "Depressive symptoms"

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  • Direk, Nese; Williams, Stephanie; Smith, Jennifer A.; Ripke, Stephan; Air, Tracy; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amin, Najaf; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bennett, David A.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Boomsma, Dorret; Breen, Gerome; Buttenschon, Henriette N.; Byrne, Enda M.; Borglum, Anders D.; Castelao, Enrique; Cichon, Sven; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Dannlowski, Udo; De Jager, Philip L.; Demirkan, Ayse; Domenici, Enrico; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Dunn, Erin C.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Esko, Tonu; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fornage, Myriam; de Geus, Eco; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Grabe, Hans Joergen; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hek, Karin; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Horn, Carsten; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kloiber, Stefan; Koenen, Karestan; Kutalik, Zoltan; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lahti, Jari; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Lewis, Glyn; Li, Qingqin S.; Llewellyn, David J.; Lucae, Susanne; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Metspalu, Andres; Milaneschi, Yuri; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mors, Ole; Mosley, Thomas H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nothen, Markus M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Perlis, Roy; Potash, James B.; Preisig, Martin; Purcell, Shaun M.; Quiroz, Jorge A.; Raikkonen, Katri; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Rivera, Margarita; Schulze, Thomas G.; Shi, Jianxin; Shyn, Stanley; Sinnamon, Grant C.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tansey, Katherine E.; Teumer, Alexander; Uher, Rudolf; Umbricht, Daniel; Van der Auwera, Sandra; Ware, Erin B.; Weir, David R.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Tiemeier, Henning; Sullivan, Patrick F. (2017)
    BACKGROUND: The genetics of depression has been explored in genome-wide association studies that focused on either major depressive disorder or depressive symptoms with mostly negative findings. A broad depression phenotype including both phenotypes has not been tested previously using a genome-wide association approach. We aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms significantly associated with a broad phenotype from depressive symptoms to major depressive disorder. METHODS: We analyzed two prior studies of 70,017 participants of European ancestry from general and clinical populations in the discovery stage. We performed a replication meta-analysis of 28,328 participants. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlations were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Discovery and replication analyses were performed using a p-value-based meta-analysis. Lifetime major depressive disorder and depressive symptom scores were used as the outcome measures. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability of major depressive disorder was 0.21 (SE = 0.02), the SNP-based heritability of depressive symptoms was 0.04 (SE = 0.01), and their genetic correlation was 1.001 (SE = 0.2). We found one genome-wide significant locus related to the broad depression phenotype (rs9825823, chromosome 3: 61,082,153, p = 8.2 x 10(-9)) located in an intron of the FHIT gene. We replicated this SNP in independent samples (p = .02) and the overall meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts (1.0 x 10(-9)). CONCLUSIONS: This large study identified a new locus for depression. Our results support a continuum between depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder. A phenotypically more inclusive approach may help to achieve the large sample sizes needed to detect susceptibility loci for depression.
  • Grundström, Jenna; Konttinen, Hanna; Berg, Noora; Kiviruusu, Olli (2021)
    The aim of this study was to assess the associations between relationship status and mental well-being in four different phases during the life course, and to identify whether relationship quality moderated these associations. We used a broader concept of relationship status (instead of marital status) and also included the positive dimension of mental health. Participants in a Finnish cohort study were followed up at ages 22 (N = 1,656), 32 (N = 1,471), 42 (N = 1,334), and 52 (N = 1,159). Measures in all study panels covered relationship status (marriage, cohabitation, dating, single and divorced/widowed), Short Beck Depression Inventory (S-BDI), self-esteem (seven items) and relationship quality (six items). Analyses were carried out using linear regression. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were associated with depressive symptoms at every age in men. For women, in turn, being single - but not being divorced/widowed - was associated with depressive symptoms. Among men, being single or being divorced/widowed were also associated with lower self-esteem at age 32, 42 and 52, but in women, only one association between lower self-esteem and being single was found at age 32. Of the age stages, the age 32 is highlighted in men, at which point all relationship statuses were risk factors compared to marriage. There were only few indications of the moderating role of the relationship quality. Compared to marriage, being single or being divorced/widowed were quite consistently associated with poorer mental well-being during the life course, especially among men. For dating and cohabiting the associations were more fragmented depending on age and gender; particularly among women, these relationship statuses tended not to differ from marriage in terms of mental well-being. These observations on mental well-being across five relationship statuses are important in our contemporary society, where the number of marriages is decreasing, and other forms of relationships are becoming more common.
  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Gluschkoff, Kia; Kivimäki, Mika; Rosenström, Tom (2019)
    Background: Depression is a heterogeneous mental disorder with multiple symptoms, but only few studies have examined whether associations of risk factors with depression are symptom-specific. We examined whether chronic diseases and social risk factors (poverty, divorce, and perceived lack of emotional support) are differently associated with somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms of depression. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses were based on individual-level data from the 31,191 participants of six cross-sectional U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) carried out between 2005 and 2016. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Information on chronic diseases and social risk factors was self-reported by participants. Results: After adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and all the of other symptoms besides the outcome symptom, higher number of chronic diseases was independently related to fatigue, psychomotor retardation/agitation, and sleep problems in a dose-response pattern (range of odds ratios: 1.21 to 2.59). Except for concentration problems, social risk factors were associated with almost all of the cognitive/affective symptoms (range of odds ratios: 1.02 to 2.09) but only sporadically with somatic symptoms. Limitations: All measures were self-reported by the participants, which may have introduced bias to the associations. Cross-sectional data did not allow us to study temporal dynamics. Conclusions: Specific symptoms of depression may be useful in characterizing the heterogeneous etiology of depression with respect to somatic versus social risk factors.
  • Castaneda, Anu E.; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Aronen, Eeva T.; Marttunen, Mauri; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2013)
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (2019)
    Background: Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results: Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R-2 = 0.048) and WC (R-2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P <0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions: Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; van Strien, Tatjana; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Haukkala, Ari (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. Methods Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. Results Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. Conclusions Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.
  • Ranjit, Anu; Latvala, Antti; Kinnunen, Taru H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo (2020)
    Depression has been suggested to hinder smoking cessation, especially when co-occurring with nicotine dependence. The study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of depressive symptoms with smoking cessation among daily smokers. The study utilized adult Finnish twin cohort where 1,438 daily smokers (mean age: 38.3, range: 33-45) in 1990 were re-examined for their smoking status in 2011. We assessed baseline depressive symptoms with the Beck Depression Inventory, and the self-reported smoking status at follow-up. The methods included multinomial logistic regression and time to event analyses, adjusted for multiple covariates (age, sex, marital status, social class, heavy drinking occasions, and health status) and smoking heaviness at baseline assessed by cigarettes per day (CPD). Additionally, within-twin-pair analyses were conducted. Results indicated that moderate/severe depressive symptoms at baseline were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation two decades later. Adjusting for covariates, those with moderate/severe depressive symptoms (vs. no/minimal depressive symptoms) had 46% lower likelihood of quitting (relative risk ratio, RRR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.30-0.96). After including CPD, the association of depressive symptoms with smoking cessation attenuated modestly (RRR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.34-1.12). Further, time to event analysis for quitting year since baseline yielded similar findings. In the within-pair analysis, depressive symptoms were not associated with quitting smoking. The results suggest that reporting more depressive symptoms is associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation during a 20-year period. The baseline amount of smoking and familial factors partly explain the observed association. Smoking cessation programs should monitor depressive symptoms.
  • Hu, Yaoyue; Ruiz, Milagros; Bobak, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka (2020)
    Background: While living alone predicts depression in diverse ageing populations, the impact of multi-generational living is unclear. This study compared mid-late life depressive symptoms by living arrangements between societies with distinct kinship ties. Methods: Repeated data on depressive symptoms and living arrangements over 4 years from 16,229 Chinese (age >= 45) and 10,403 English adults (age >= 50) were analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression. Elevated depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Depression Scale criteria in each study. Results: Higher odds ratios (ORs) of elevated depressive symptoms were found in both Chinese and English adults aged Limitations: Bias may exist because depressed participants are more likely to experience divorce or separation prior to baseline. Conclusions: The relationship between living arrangements and depressive symptoms appears robust and consistent across social contexts, although the mechanisms differ. The protective role of partners in both China and England supports targeting those who do not live with partners to reduce depression.
  • Wesolowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Pitkänen, Niina; Lipsanen, Jari; Tukiainen, Janne; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2017)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with depressive symptoms, but the causal direction of this association and the underlying mechanisms, such as increased glucose levels, remain unclear. We used instrumental-variable regression with a genetic instrument (Mendelian randomization) to examine a causal role of increased glucose concentrations in the development of depressive symptoms. Data were from the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (n = 1217). Depressive symptoms were assessed in 2012 using a modified Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-I). Fasting glucose was measured concurrently with depressive symptoms. A genetic risk score for fasting glucose (with 35 single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used as an instrumental variable for glucose. Glucose was not associated with depressive symptoms in the standard linear regression (B = -0.04, 95% CI [-0.12, 0.04], p = .34), but the instrumental-variable regression showed an inverse association between glucose and depressive symptoms (B = -0.43, 95% CI [-0.79, -0.07], p = .020). The difference between the estimates of standard linear regression and instrumental-variable regression was significant (p = .026) Our results suggest that the association between T2D and depressive symptoms is unlikely to be caused by increased glucose concentrations. It seems possible that T2D might be linked to depressive symptoms due to low glucose levels.
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    Background: Both hostile parenting and parental psychopathology have been shown to predict depression in the offspring. However, whether and how they interact in predicting the longitudinal course of depression from adolescence to adulthood remains unclear. Methods: Participants were from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. We used multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine the associations of hostile parenting (i.e., parental intolerance and emotional distance) and parental history of psychopathology with trajectories of depressive symptoms across five study phases from 1992 to 2012. Results: On average, depressive symptoms decreased in a curvilinear pattern with age. A relatively steep decreasing trend was also observed among offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology but low intolerance. By contrast, among the offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology and high intolerance there was a rising trend in depressive symptoms starting from young adulthood. There was no similar interaction between parental history of psychopathology, emotional distance, and age. Limitations: Non-standardized, parental self-report scales were used to measure hostile parenting. The observed effects were small, and the depressive symptoms scale applied in the study may not be used for measuring clinical depression. Conclusions: Parental psychopathology might render individuals sensitive to the unfavorable characteristics of the caregiving environment. Intolerance towards the child can exacerbate the effects of parental psychopathology and have a long-term significance on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms over the life course.
  • Toffol, Elena; Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Lahti, Jari; Tuovinen, Soile; Lipsanen, Jari; Villa, Pia M.; Laivuori, Hannele; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Whether infant regulatory behavior problems already in the first month of life indicate an increased risk of childhood neurobehavioral problems, and whether maternal depression in the postpartum and early childhood underpins these associations remain unclear. Altogether, 2049-2364 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Neonatal Perception Inventory on regulatory behavior problems at the infant's age of 15.6 days (SD 3.2, range 1-30), the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised on temperament at 6.5 months (SD 0.9, range 4.2-12.4), and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 on developmental milestones and the Child Behavior Checklist on behavioral problems at 3.5 years (SD 0.7, range 1.9-6.0). Maternal depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (infancy follow-ups) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (childhood follow-up). Father-rated infant temperament and paternal depressive symptoms were also available (n = 1474). Higher levels of infant regulatory behavior problems predicted higher levels of mother- and father-rated negative affectivity temperament (0.13 SD units per SD unit, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.17; and 0.09, 0.04-0.14, respectively), lower levels of mother-rated orienting/regulation temperament (- 0.09, - 0.13 to - 0.05) and problem-solving skills (- 0.12, - 0.21 to - 0.04), and higher levels of Externalizing (0.07, 0.03-0.11) and Total behavioral problems (0.07, 0.03-0.11). Regulatory behaviors partially mediated the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Regulatory behavior problems already during the first month of life predict neurobehavioral outcomes, and partially mediate the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Our study may inform design of interventions aimed at timely prevention in children at risk.
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Rod, Naja H.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2020)
    Job insecurity has been linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Our aim was to assess the extent to which this association is mediated through life style, physiological, or psychological factors. A total of 3917 men and women free from CHD provided data on job insecurity in the Whitehall II cohort study in 1997-1999. The association between job insecurity and CHD was decomposed into a direct and indirect effect mediated through unhealthy behaviors (smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity), sleep disturbances, 'allostatic load', or psychological distress. The counterfactual analyses on psychological distress indicated a marginally significant association between job insecurity and incident CHD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.75). This association was decomposed into a direct (HR 1.22, 95 %CI 0.92-1.63) and indirect association (1.08, 95 %CI 1.01-1.15), suggesting that about 30 % of the total relationship was mediated by psychological distress. No mediation was indicated via health behaviors, sleep disturbances, or allostatic load, although job insecurity was related to disturbed sleep and C-reactive protein, which, in turn were associated with CHD. In conclusion, our results suggest that psychological distress may play a role in the relation between job insecurity and CHD.
  • Virtanen, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Depression is a psychiatric disorder composed of several clusters of symptoms, which do not necessarily reflect common pathways of pathophysiological processes. Thus, a new conceptualization of depression has been proposed, which suggests that depression should be dissected to its key components instead of treating it as one homogeneous concept. Personality trait neuroticism is a risk factor that is consistently linked with depression. Several models have been suggested for the association between neuroticism and depression. One of them is a so-called common cause -model, which assumes that a shared etiology explains the co-occurrence of the two. Research from twin studies supports this notion, as neuroticism and depression have been found to share a large proportion of their genetic basis. However, earlier research has examined depression as a composite concept, and there are no studies to date which would have examined the shared genetic basis of specific symptoms of depression in relation with neuroticism. This study tests the common cause -model by estimating, whether the same genetic and environmental components are relevant in explaining the covariation between neuroticism and specific symptoms of depression. The data used in this study was from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study (n = 1515, av. age = 62.0). Depression was measured with The Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D), and separate analyses were conducted for three factors: somatic complaints, (lack of) positive affect and depressed affect. The results showed that all of the depressive symptoms shared the same genetic and environmental components when modeling the association with neuroticism, which supports the common cause -model. Over a half of the phenotypic correlation was explained by genetic influences between neuroticism and somatic complaints, as well as neuroticism and positive affect. Half of the co-variation between neuroticism and depressed affect was due to genetic influences. Findings of the current study suggest, that genetic and individual specific environmental influences are important in explaining the relationship in all of the symptoms. For future endeavors, it is suggested to search for concrete risk factors and neurobiological endophenotypes that are shared between specific symptoms and neuroticism. While the use of composite concept of depression was supported in this study, the research question has not been yet examined in molecular genetic studies. A twin model can only differentiate sources of variation, not concrete risk factors. Thus, the results presented here only apply in the context of twin modeling. Also, the robustness of the results should be tested by replicating the results among younger samples.
  • Liskola, Krista; Raaska, Hanna; Lapinleimu, Helena; Elovainio, Marko (2018)
    Parental depressive symptoms have shown to be associated with offspring depression but much of the research has been focused on maternal depression. The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which depressive symptoms of both parents associate with offspring depressive symptoms and whether social factors mediate these associations using data from adopted children with no shared genetic background. Data were derived from the Finnish Adoption survey study (a subsample of adopted children aged between 9 and 12years, n=548). Parental depressive symptoms were measured using short version of the General Health Questionnaire and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adoptees. Paternal depressive symptoms were related to the total CDI (B=0.33, p=0.05) and two dimensions of offspring depressive symptoms: negative mood (B=0.10, p=0.03) and interpersonal problems (B=0.06, p=0.009). These associations remained significant even when adjusted for child's age and gender, age at adoption, type of placement before adoption, continent of birth and adoptive family's SES. No associations were found between maternal and any dimensions of offspring depressive symptoms. No information about the mental health of biological parents was available. We interpret the results as demonstrating that intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms is not solely related to shared genes. Also, the results highlight the association of paternal depression with offspring depressive symptoms.
  • Sahrakorpi, Niina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Roine, Risto P. (2017)
    Objectives To assess the associations of perceived financial satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms in an unselected pregnant population in early pregnancy. Methods 750 consecutive pregnant women attending the first communal ultrasound examination before gestational week 14 were invited to participate. Questionnaires assessing HRQoL (15D), depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Depression Scale, EPDS), medical, obstetric, and socioeconomic status were handed out. The participants were divided into three groups according to their satisfaction with their financial status, (unsatisfied, somewhat satisfied, and satisfied). Main outcome measures were 15D and EPDS-scores and dimensions of HRQoL. Results 325 (43,3%) questionnaires were returned. The mean 15D-score for HRQoL was 0,926 (SD 0,056). The financially unsatisfied women had lower HRQoL than women in more satisfied groups (0.906, 0.923 and 0.931, p = 0.012). The result remained significant, even after adjusting for age and education(p = 0.032). The unsatisfied women had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (25.4, 24.4 and 23.2 kg/m(2), p for linearity = 0.002), were more often smokers, (13 vs. 4 and 3%, p = 0.029), and had experienced at least one abortion (18, 14 and 7%, p = 0.017). Dimensions of depression, distress and sleep explained the differences between the groups. 27% of unsatisfied women scored EPDS ae10 points suggesting increased risk of depression. Conclusions Financial satisfaction in early pregnancy associates with HRQoL and risk of perinatal depressive symptoms. Unsatisfied women more often have risk factors for unfavourable pregnancy outcomes which may influence the later health and wellbeing of the mother and child.
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsanen, Mirka; Mullola, Sari; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Hintsa, Taina (2017)
    We examined the association of perfectionism with depressive symptoms and tested whether psychological detachment from work would both mediate and moderate the association. The participants were 76 primary school teachers (87% female) who responded to measures of perfectionism (Multidimensional Inventory on Perfectionism in Sports adapted for teachers), psychological detachment from work (The Recovery Experience Questionnaire), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II). Perfectionism comprised both adaptive and maladaptive dimensions. Adaptive perfectionism referred to striving for perfection, whereas maladaptive perfectionism involved negative reactions to imperfection and perceived pressure to be perfect. According to our results, negative reactions to imperfection were associated with higher depressive symptoms, and lower level of psychological detachment from work played a minor mediating role in the association. There was, however, no association between negative reactions to imperfection and higher depressive symptoms when detachment from work was high. Our findings suggest that striving for perfection and perceived pressure to be perfect might not contribute to depressive symptoms in teaching. Instead, teachers experiencing negative reactions to imperfection and low psychological detachment from work could be at risk for developing depressive symptoms. Finding ways to psychologically detach from work may benefit teachers characterized by negative reactions to imperfection. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ranjit, Anu; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Latvala, Antti; Heikkila, Kauko; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo (2019)
    Longitudinal, genetically informative studies of the association between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescents are limited. We examined the longitudinal association of cigarette smoking with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence in a Finnish twin cohort. We used prospective data from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (maximum N = 4152 individuals, 1910 twin pairs). Current smoking status and a number of lifetime cigarettes smoked were assessed at the age of 14 and depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Negative binomial regression was conducted to model the association between smoking behavior and subsequent depressive symptoms among individuals, and within-pair analyses were conducted to control for unmeasured familial confounding. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, school grades, drinking alcohol to intoxication, health status, family structure, parental education, and smoking, as well as for pre-existing depressiveness. The results of the individual-level analyses showed that cigarette smoking at the age of 14 predicted depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Compared to never smokers, those who had smoked over 50 cigarettes (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.28-1.60) and regular smokers (IRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.62) had higher depression scores. The associations were attenuated when adjusted for measured covariates and further reduced in within-pair analyses. In the within-pair results, the estimates were lower within monozygotic (MZ) pairs compared to dizygotic (DZ) pairs, suggesting that shared genetic factors contribute to the associations observed in individual-based analyses. Thus, we conclude that cigarette smoking is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence, but the association is not independent of measured confounding factors and shared genetic influences.
  • Lampio, Laura; Saaresranta, Tarja; Engblom, Janne; Polo, Olli; Polo-Kantola, Paivi (2016)
    Objective: This follow-up study aimed to evaluate risk factors for menopausal sleep disturbances already identifiable before menopause. Methods: At baseline, all 81 women were premenopausal. At year-five follow-up, 27 of the women were premenopausal, 40 postmenopausal, and 14 postmenopausal and using hormone therapy. We used the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire to study sleep; additional questionnaires evaluated risk factors for sleep impairment. Results: Sleep quality differed only marginally between the groups. The following baseline variables were associated with impaired sleep quality at follow-up: depressive symptoms increased the risk of nocturnal awakenings (OR 1.16 (95%CI 1.02-1.32), p = 0.025), morning tiredness (OR 1.22 (95%CI 1.06-1.40), p = 0.007), daytime tiredness (OR 1.24 (95%CI 1.06-1.44), p = 0.007) and propensity to fall asleep during work or leisure time (OR 1.18 (95%CI 1.01-1.37), p = 0.036). Personal crises increased the risk of longer sleep latency (OR 5.46 (95%CI 1.13-26.32), p = 0.035) and of propensity to fall asleep when not active (OR 5.41 (95%CI 1.42-20.83), p = 0.014). Use of medications affecting the CNS increased the risk of worse general sleep quality (OR 11.44 (95% CI 1.07-121.79), p = 0.044). Perceived impaired general health (OR 2.87 (95%CI 1.04-7.94), p = 0.043) and frequent night sweats (OR 10.50 (95%CI 2.25-49.01), p = 0.003) increased the risk of difficulty falling asleep. Conclusions: Various premenopausal health-related factors seem to predict poor sleep in menopausal transition. Menopause itself appears to have only minor effects. Thus, it is essential to identify high risk women to allow timely interventions that may prevent the development of sleep disturbances at menopause. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Nikolakaros, Georgios; Vahlberg, Tero; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Sourander, Andre (2020)
    Background: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) strongly influences health, but very little is known about the childhood determinants of adult CRF. Our longitudinal study investigated whether childhood psychopathology and socioeconomic status (SES) were related to adult CRF in 1647 Finnish male military conscripts. Methods: Childhood psychopathology was assessed at the age of eight using the Rutter and Children's Depression Inventory questionnaires. Parental education and family structure were used to assess childhood SES. In late adolescence, depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and smoking with a questionnaire. CRF in early adulthood was examined with the Cooper's 12-minute run test. Results: General linear models showed that low parental education (p = 0.001), depressive symptoms in childhood (p = 0.035) and late adolescence, smoking, underweight, and overweight/obesity (all p <0.001) independently predicted lower CRF. The interaction between depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence was significant (p = 0.003). In adolescents with depressive symptoms, childhood depressive symptoms (p =0.001) and overweight/obesity (p <0.001) predicted lower CRF. In adolescents without depressive symptoms, conduct problems in childhood predicted lower CRF in the initial models, but the effect disappeared after taking into account smoking and body mass index. Mediational analysis confirmed these results. Limitations: We lacked data on physical activity and only studied males at three time-points. Conclusions: Recurrent depression in childhood and adolescence and low SES in childhood predict lower adult CRF. Conduct problems in childhood predict lower CRF, but the effect is mediated by overweight/obesity and smoking. Psychiatric treatment for children and adolescents should promote physical activity, particularly for children with low SES.
  • Sorkkila, Matilda; Ryba, Tatiana V.; Aunola, Kaisa; Selänne, Harri; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2020)
    Background: The pressure of pursuing an athletic career simultaneously with education may set adolescent student-athletes at risk for sport and school burnout. Although the 2 life domains of student-athletes are strongly intertwined, so far, there has not been an instrument for investigating sport burnout parallel to school burnout. The aim of the present study was to introduce a sport burnout measure for adolescents in a dual career context and investigate its validity and reliability by using confirmatory factor analysis. Methods: The participants were 391 student-athletes (51% females) who filled in a questionnaire of sport burnout and background variables in the beginning of upper secondary school. Results: A 3-factor model or a second-order-factor model described the data better and gave better reliability indices than a 1-factor model. The 3 dimensions of sport burnout were shown to be separate, but closely related constructs. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity was obtained by correlating the 3 sport burnout dimensions with depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and sport task values. Conclusion: The results suggest that Sport Burnout Inventory-Dual Career Form (SpBI-DC) is a valid and reliable instrument for investigating sport burnout among adolescent student-athletes.