Browsing by Subject "Diabetic nephropathy"

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  • Harjutsalo, Valma; Maric-Bilkan, Christine; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; FinnDiane Study Grp (2016)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among age at onset of diabetes, age at onset of menarche and risk of diabetic nephropathy and laser-treated retinopathy in type 1 diabetes. Methods Data related to age at menarche were collected through questionnaires and were available for 1,304 women who participated in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study (FinnDiane). A possible association between age at menarche and diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy was investigated. Results There was an inverse relationship between the age at onset of diabetes and age at menarche: the younger the age at onset of diabetes, the higher the age at menarche (p <0.0001). A non-linear relationship between the age of menarche and risk of diabetic microvascular complications was found in patients with diabetes onset before menarche, but there was no such association in patients with diabetes onset after menarche. Women with delayed menarche (> mean age+ 2 years) had a 2.30 (95% CI 1.27, 4.17; p <0.006) times higher risk of nephropathy compared with the women who underwent menarche at the mean age +/- 2 years. Delayed menarche also increased the risk of retinopathy (OR 2.34 [95% CI 1.36, 4.01]). After excluding patients with nephropathy, the OR for retinopathy was 2.11 (95% CI 1.15, 3.90). Earlier menarche (<mean age-2 years) did not have any effect on this risk. Conclusions/interpretation Delayed menarche was associated with an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy, whereas early menarche was not. Delayed menarche may be used as a new tool to identify women at risk of diabetic microvascular complications.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Härma, Mari-Anne; Dahlström, Emma H.; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku (2020)
    Aims/hypothesis Plasma kallikrein is the central mediator of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system, which is involved both in vascular control and thrombin formation cascades. The plasma kallikrein-kinin system has also been considered protective in pathological conditions, but the impact of plasma kallikreins on diabetic nephropathy remains unknown. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association of plasma kallikrein with diabetic nephropathy. Methods We measured plasma kallikrein activity in 295 individuals with type 1 diabetes at various stages of diabetic nephropathy, and we tested the genetic association between the plasma kallikrein-kinin system and kidney function in 4400 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Results Plasma kallikrein activity was associated with diabetes duration (p <0.001) and eGFR (p <0.001), and plasma kallikrein activity was lower with more advanced diabetic nephropathy, being lowest in individuals on dialysis. The minor alleles of theKNG1rs5030062 and rs710446 variants, which have previously been associated with increased plasma pre-kallikrein and/or factor XI (FXI) protein levels, were associated with higher eGFR (rs5030062 beta = 0.03,p = 0.01; rs710446 beta = 0.03,p = 0.005) in the FinnDiane cohort of 4400 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation Plasma kallikrein activity and genetic variants known to increase the plasma kallikrein level are associated with higher eGFR in individuals with type 1 diabetes, suggesting that plasma kallikrein might have a protective effect in diabetic nephropathy.
  • Gordin, Daniel; Saraheimo, Markku; Tuomikangas, Jaana; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Forsblom, Carol; Paavonen, Karri; Steckel-Hamann, Birgit; Harjutsalo, Valma; Nicolaou, Loizos; Pavo, Imre; Koivisto, Veikko; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Aims Insulin possesses both vasodilatory and sympathomimetic activities. The aim was to examine the relationship between changes in insulin exposure and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Patients with T2D with (n = 22) or without (n = 24) albuminuria, and non-diabetic controls (n = 25) were randomized to a crossover study having a breakfast with or without pre-meal rapid-acting insulin. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured at 30 min before and at 60-min intervals up to 240 min after the breakfast. Results At baseline, both postprandial aortic (p = 0.022) and brachial (p = 0.011) PWV were higher in individuals with T2D than in healthy controls irrespective of the presence of albuminuria. In patients with albuminuria, weight-adjusted insulin dose correlated inversely with the excursion of the aortic (r = - 0.412, p = 0.006) and brachial (r = - 0.372; p = 0.014) PWV. Similarly, circulating endogenous insulin concentrations correlated inversely with the aortic (r = - 0.347, p = 0.026) and brachial (r = - 0.622, p =
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Jansson, Fanny J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Wadén, Johan; Elonen, Nina; Ahola, Aila J.; Saraheimo, Markku; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Our aim was to assess regression of albuminuria and its clinical consequences in type 1 diabetes. Methods The analysis included 3642 participants from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study with a 24 h urine sample and a history of albuminuria available at baseline. A total of 2729 individuals had normal AER, 438 a history of microalbuminuria and 475 a history of macroalbuminuria. Regression was defined as a change from a higher category of albuminuria pre-baseline to a lower category in two out of the three most recent urine samples at baseline. The impact of regression on cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary procedure) and mortality was analysed over a follow-up of 14.0 years (interquartile range 11.9-15.9). Results In total, 102 (23.3%) individuals with prior microalbuminuria and 111 (23.4%) with prior macroalbuminuria had regressed at baseline. For individuals with normal AER as a reference, the age-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for cardiovascular events were 1.42 (0.75, 2.68) in individuals with regression from microalbuminuria, 2.62 (1.95, 3.54) in individuals with sustained microalbuminuria, 3.15 (2.02, 4.92) in individuals with regression from macroalbuminuria and 5.49 (4.31, 7.00) in individuals with sustained macroalbuminuria. Furthermore, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates, HRs in regressed individuals were comparable with those with sustained renal status at the achieved level (i.e. those who did not regress but remained at the most advanced level of albuminuria noted pre-baseline). Conclusions/interpretation Progression of diabetic nephropathy confers an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Notably, regression reduces the risk to the same level as for those who did not progress.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Parente, Erika B.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    Background ABO blood groups have previously been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between ABO blood groups and CVD in individuals with type 1 diabetes according to diabetic nephropathy (DN) status. Methods Adults with type 1 diabetes (4531 individuals) from the FinnDiane Study were evaluated. DN was determined by two out of three measurements of urinary albumin excretion rate. Albuminuria was defined as an excretion rate above 20 mu g/min. CVD events were identified by linking the data with the Finnish Care Register for Health Care and the Finnish Cause of Death Register. Follow-up ranged from the baseline visit until a CVD event, death or the end of 2017. The impact of ABO blood groups on CVD risk was estimated by multivariable Cox-regression analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors. Results At baseline, the median age was 38.5 (IQR 29.2-47.9) years, 47.5% were female and median duration of diabetes was 20.9 (11.4-30.7) years. There were 893 incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) events, 301 ischemic strokes (IS), and 415 peripheral artery disease (PAD) events during a median follow up of 16.5 (IQR 12.8-18.6) years. The A blood group showed the highest risk of IHD versus the O blood group, when microalbuminuria was present. Comparing the population with microalbuminuria with those with normoalbuminuria, only the A blood group elevated the risk of IHD. This increased risk was neither explained by the FUT2 secretor phenotype nor by the A-genotype distribution. The risk of IS or PAD was no different among the ABO blood groups regardless of diabetic nephropathy stage. Conclusion The A blood group is a risk factor for IHD in individuals with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
  • Parente, Erika B; Harjutsalo, Valma; Lehto, Markku; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Groop, Per-Henrik (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background ABO blood groups have previously been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the potential relationship between ABO blood groups and CVD in individuals with type 1 diabetes according to diabetic nephropathy (DN) status. Methods Adults with type 1 diabetes (4531 individuals) from the FinnDiane Study were evaluated. DN was determined by two out of three measurements of urinary albumin excretion rate. Albuminuria was defined as an excretion rate above 20 µg/min. CVD events were identified by linking the data with the Finnish Care Register for Health Care and the Finnish Cause of Death Register. Follow-up ranged from the baseline visit until a CVD event, death or the end of 2017. The impact of ABO blood groups on CVD risk was estimated by multivariable Cox-regression analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors. Results At baseline, the median age was 38.5 (IQR 29.2–47.9) years, 47.5% were female and median duration of diabetes was 20.9 (11.4–30.7) years. There were 893 incident ischemic heart disease (IHD) events, 301 ischemic strokes (IS), and 415 peripheral artery disease (PAD) events during a median follow up of 16.5 (IQR 12.8–18.6) years. The A blood group showed the highest risk of IHD versus the O blood group, when microalbuminuria was present. Comparing the population with microalbuminuria with those with normoalbuminuria, only the A blood group elevated the risk of IHD. This increased risk was neither explained by the FUT2 secretor phenotype nor by the A-genotype distribution. The risk of IS or PAD was no different among the ABO blood groups regardless of diabetic nephropathy stage. Conclusion The A blood group is a risk factor for IHD in individuals with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
  • Feodoroff, Maija; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Thorn, Lena; Waden, Johan; Tolonen, Nina; Lithovius, Raija; Groop, Per-Henrik (2016)
    To evaluate the effect of cumulative smoking on the development of diabetic nephropathy. Study included 3613 patients with type 1 diabetes, participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. The 12-year cumulative risk of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was estimated for current, ex- and nonsmokers. Cox regression analyses, with multivariable adjustments for other risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, were used to evaluate the risk at different stages of diabetic nephropathy based on the cumulative amount of smoking in pack-years. The 12-year cumulative risk of microalbuminuria was 18.9 % (95 % CI 14.6-23.0, P <0.0001) for current smokers and 15.1 % (10.3-19.6, P = 0.087) for ex-smokers, compared with 10.0 % (7.8-12.1) for nonsmokers. The corresponding risks of macroalbuminuria were 14.4 % (95 % CI 10.8-17.9, P <0.0001), 6.1 % (3.5-8.6, P = 0.082) and 4.7 % (3.0-6.4), respectively. The 12-year cumulative risk of ESRD was 10.3 % (95 % CI 8.4-12.4, P <0.0001) for current smokers and 10.0 % (7.9-12.3, P <0.0001) for ex-smokers, compared with 5.6 % (4.6-6.7) for nonsmokers. In the current smokers, one pack-year increased the risk of macroalbuminuria with a HR of 1.025 (1.010-1.041) and the risk of ESRD with a HR of 1.014 (1.001-1.026) compared with nonsmokers, in the fully adjusted model. In the ex-smokers, the risk of macroalbuminuria and ESRD was no different from the risk in nonsmokers after multivariable adjustment. Current smoking is a risk factor for the progression of diabetic nephropathy and the risk increases with the increasing dose of smoking. Ex-smokers seem to carry a similar risk of progression of diabetic nephropathy as nonsmokers.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Waden, Jenny M.; Dahlström, Emma H.; Elonen, Nina; Thorn, Lena M.; Waden, Johan; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Activation of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) has been shown to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The soluble isoform of RAGE (sRAGE) is considered to function as a decoy receptor for RAGE ligands and thereby protects against diabetic complications. A possible association between sRAGE and diabetic nephropathy is still, however, controversial and a more comprehensive analysis of sRAGE with respect to diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is therefore warranted. Methods sRAGE was measured in baseline serum samples from 3647 participants with type 1 diabetes from the nationwide multicentre Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. Associations between sRAGE and diabetic nephropathy, as well as sRAGE and diabetic nephropathy progression, were evaluated by regression, competing risks and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The non-synonymous SNP rs2070600 (G82S) was used to test causality in the Mendelian randomisation analysis. Results Baseline sRAGE concentrations were highest in participants with diabetic nephropathy, compared with participants with a normal AER or those with microalbuminuria. Baseline sRAGE was associated with progression from macroalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the competing risks analyses, but this association disappeared when eGFR was entered into the model. The SNP rs2070600 was strongly associated with sRAGE concentrations and with progression from macroalbuminuria to ESRD. However, Mendelian randomisation analysis did not support a causal role for sRAGE in progression to ESRD. Conclusions/interpretations RAGE is associated with progression from macroalbuminuria to ESRD, but does not add predictive value on top of conventional risk factors. Although sRAGE is a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy, in light of the Mendelian randomisation analysis it does not seem to be causally related to progression from macroalbuminuria to ESRD.
  • Mutter, Stefan; Valo, Erkka; Aittomäki, Viljami; Nybo, Kristian; Raivonen, Lassi; Thorn, Lena M.; Forsblom, Carol; Sandholm, Niina; Würtz, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik (2022)
    Aims/hypothesis This prospective, observational study examines associations between 51 urinary metabolites and risk of progression of diabetic nephropathy in individuals with type 1 diabetes by employing an automated NMR metabolomics technique suitable for large-scale urine sample collections. Methods We collected 24-h urine samples for 2670 individuals with type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy study and measured metabolite concentrations by NMR. Individuals were followed up for 9.0 +/- 5.0 years until their first sign of progression of diabetic nephropathy, end-stage kidney disease or study end. Cox regressions were performed on the entire study population (overall progression), on 1999 individuals with normoalbuminuria and 347 individuals with macroalbuminuria at baseline. Results Seven urinary metabolites were associated with overall progression after adjustment for baseline albuminuria and chronic kidney disease stage (p < 8 x 10(-4)): leucine (HR 1.47 [95% CI 1.30, 1.66] per 1-SD creatinine-scaled metabolite concentration), valine (1.38 [1.22, 1.56]), isoleucine (1.33 [1.18, 1.50]), pseudouridine (1.25 [1.11, 1.42]), threonine (1.27 [1.11, 1.46]) and citrate (0.84 [0.75, 0.93]). 2-Hydroxyisobutyrate was associated with overall progression (1.30 [1.16, 1.45]) and also progression from normoalbuminuria (1.56 [1.25, 1.95]). Six amino acids and pyroglutamate were associated with progression from macroalbuminuria. Conclusions/interpretation Branched-chain amino acids and other urinary metabolites were associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy on top of baseline albuminuria and chronic kidney disease. We found differences in associations for overall progression and progression from normo- and macroalbuminuria. These novel discoveries illustrate the utility of analysing urinary metabolites in entire population cohorts.