Browsing by Subject "Diagnostic reference levels"

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  • Bebbington, Natalie A.; Haddock, Bryan T.; Bertilsson, Henrik; Hippeläinen, Eero; Husby, Ellen M.; Tunninen, Virpi I.; Söderberg, Marcus (2019)
    Background Computed tomography (CT) scans are routinely performed in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) examinations globally, yet few surveys have been conducted to gather national diagnostic reference level (NDRL) data for CT radiation doses in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). In this first Nordic-wide study of CT doses in hybrid imaging, Nordic NDRL CT doses are suggested for PET/CT and SPECT/CT examinations specific to the clinical purpose of CT, and the scope for optimisation is evaluated. Data on hybrid imaging CT exposures and clinical purpose of CT were gathered for 5 PET/CT and 8 SPECT/CT examinations via designed booklet. For each included dataset for a given facility and scanner type, the computed tomography dose index by volume (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) was interpolated for a 75-kg person (referred to as CTDIvol,75kg and DLP75kg). Suggested NDRL (75th percentile) and achievable doses (50th percentile) were determined for CTDIvol,75kg and DLP75kg according to clinical purpose of CT. Differences in maximum and minimum doses (derived for a 75-kg patient) between facilities were also calculated for each examination and clinical purpose. Results Data were processed from 83 scanners from 43 facilities. Data were sufficient to suggest Nordic NDRL CT doses for the following: PET/CT oncology (localisation/characterisation, 15 systems); infection/inflammation (localisation/characterisation, 13 systems); brain (attenuation correction (AC) only, 11 systems); cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT (AC only, 30 systems); SPECT/CT lung (localisation/characterisation, 12 systems); bone (localisation/characterisation, 30 systems); and parathyroid (localisation/characterisation, 13 systems). Great variations in dose were seen for all aforementioned examinations. Greatest differences in DLP75kg for each examination, specific to clinical purpose, were as follows: SPECT/CT lung AC only (27.4); PET/CT and SPECT/CT cardiac AC only (19.6); infection/inflammation AC only (18.1); PET/CT brain localisation/characterisation (16.8); SPECT/CT bone localisation/characterisation (10.0); PET/CT oncology AC only (9.0); and SPECT/CT parathyroid localisation/characterisation (7.8). Conclusions Suggested Nordic NDRL CT doses are presented according to clinical purpose of CT for PET/CT oncology, infection/inflammation, brain, PET/CT and SPECT/CT cardiac, and SPECT/CT lung, bone, and parathyroid. The large variation in doses suggests great scope for optimisation in all 8 examinations.
  • Granata, Claudio; Sorantin, Erich; Seuri, Raija; Owens, Catherine M. (2018)
    The recent European Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM requires the establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) to optimise radiation dose in diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures. At the time this directive was enacted, just a few European countries had already set paediatric DRLs and many of these were outdated. For this reason, the European Commission launched a project addressing European Guidelines on Diagnostic Reference Levels for Paediatric Imaging that was awarded to a consortium led by the European Society of Radiology with the collaboration of the European Society of Paediatric Radiology and other European stakeholders involved in the radiation protection of children. The main aims of this project were to establish European DRLs to be used by countries without their own national paediatric DRLs and to provide a consistent method to establish new DRLs in the future. These European guidelines have been very recently endorsed by the European Commission and published in issue N degrees 185 of the Radiation Protection series. The purpose of this article is to introduce these guidelines to the wide community of paediatric radiologists.