Browsing by Subject "Dietary patterns"

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  • FinnDiane Study Grp (2018)
    Background and aims: Increased arterial stiffness contributes to diabetic vascular complications. We identified dietary factors related to arterial stiffness in individuals with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods and results: Altogether, 612 participants (40% men, mean +/- standard deviation age 45 +/- 13 years) completed a validated diet questionnaire and underwent measurements of arterial stiffness. Of these, 470 additionally completed a food record. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns from the diet questionnaires, and nutrient intakes were calculated from food record entries. Arterial stiffness was measured by applanation tonometry. Of the seven dietary factors formed, the factor scores of "Full-fat cheese and eggs" and "Sweet" patterns were negatively associated with measures of arterial stiffness. In the multivariable macronutrient substitution models, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with higher aortic mean arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity. When carbohydrates were consumed in place of proteins, higher aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index were recorded. Replacing energy from alcohol with proteins, was associated with lower aortic pulse pressure, aortic mean arterial pressure, and augmentation index. Relative distributions of dietary fatty acids were neutral with respect to the measures of arterial stiffness. Conclusion: The macronutrient distribution of the diet is likely to affect the resilience of the arteries. Our observations suggest that reducing energy intake from carbohydrates and alcohol may be beneficial. These observations, especially those dealing with dietary patterns, need to be confirmed in a longitudinal study. (C) 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Aim Diet plays an important role in the kidney health of individuals with type 1 diabetes. However, not much is known about dietary practices at different stages of diabetic nephropathy. We aimed at investigating food intake, dietary patterns, and nutrient intakes in individuals with type 1 diabetes differing in renal status. Methods Data were available from 1874 individuals with type 1 diabetes (45% men, age 48 ± 13 years). Diet was assessed at the levels of food items and diet patterns (diet questionnaire), and energy and nutrient intakes (food record). Six groups were formed based on the eGFR or dialysis and transplantation status. Results Reductions in liquid-milk product and salt consumption, and increase in special diet adherence were observed at the early stages of eGFR decline. Reduced coffee consumption was observed after eGFR was
  • Lim, SX; Colega, MT; Ayob, MNM; Robinson, SM; Godfrey, KM; Bernard, JY; Lee, YS; Tan, KH; Yap, F; Shek, LPC; Chong, YS; Eriksson, JG; Chan, JKY; Chan, SY; Chong, MFF (2021)
    Objective: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns among women planning pregnancy and assess the reproducibility of these patterns in a subsample using two dietary assessment methods. Design: A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered to women enrolled in the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes study. Dietary patterns from the FFQ were identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In a subsample of women (n 289), 3-d food diaries (3DFD) were also completed and analysed. Reproducibility of the identified patterns was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the subsample, and goodness of fit of the CFA models was examined using several fit indices. Subsequently, EFA was conducted in the subsample and dietary patterns of the FFQ and the 3DFD were compared. Setting: Singapore. Participants: 1007 women planning pregnancy (18-45 years). Results: Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ: the 'Fish, Poultry/Meat and Noodles' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fish, poultry/meat and noodles in soup; 'Fast Food and Sweetened Beverages' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fast food, sweetened beverages and fried snacks; 'Bread, Legumes and Dairy' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of buns/ethnic breads, nuts/legumes and dairy products. The comparative fit indices from the CFA models were 0 center dot 79 and 0 center dot 34 for the FFQ and 3DFD of the subsample, respectively. In the subsample, three similar patterns were identified in the FFQ while only two for the 3DFD. Conclusions: Dietary patterns from the FFQ are reproducible within this cohort, providing a basis for future investigations on diet and health outcomes.
  • IDEFICS Consortium (2018)
    Purpose This prospective study explores high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in relation to dietary patterns at two time points in European children. Methods Out of the baseline sample of the IDEFICS study (n = 16,228), 4020 children, aged 2-9 years at baseline, with available hs-CRP levels and valid data from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline (T0) and 2 years later (T1) were included. K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between relative food consumption frequencies of the FFQ was applied. hs-CRP was dichotomized according to sex-specific cutoff points. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and hs-CRP adjusting for covariates. Results Three consistent dietary patterns were found at T0 and T1: 'animal protein and refined carbohydrate', 'sweet and processed' and 'healthy'. Children allocated to the 'protein' and 'sweet and processed' clusters at both time points had significantly higher odds of being in the highest category of hs-CRP (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.03-2.09 for 'animal protein and refined carbohydrate' and OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.08-1.92 for 'sweet and processed') compared to the 'healthy' cluster. The odds remained significantly higher for the 'sweet and processed' pattern (OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.05-1.84) when covariates were included. Conclusions A dietary pattern characterized by frequent consumption of sugar and processed products and infrequent consumption of vegetables and fruits over time was independently related with inflammation in European children. Efforts to improve the quality of the diet in childhood may prevent future diseases related with chronic inflammation.