Browsing by Subject "Dioxins"

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  • Holma-Suutari, A.; Ruokojärvi, P.; Komarov, A.A.; Makarov, D.A.; Ovcharenko, V.V.; Panin, A.N.; Kiviranta, H.; Laaksonen, S.; Nieminen, M.; Viluksela, M.; Hallikainen, A. (Springer, 2016)
    Background: The Finnish and Russian animal species (semi-domesticated reindeer, Finnish wild moose, Baltic grey seal and Baltic herring) samples were biomonitored in terrestrial and aquatic environments for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Results: Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was clearly the most contaminated species. The mean PBDE concentration in grey seal was 115 ng/g fat, and the highest WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ (toxic equivalent set by WHO) was 327 pg/g fat. In Finnish, reindeer WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ varied from 0.92 pg/g fat in muscle to 90.8 pg/g fat in liver. WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ in moose liver samples was in the range of 0.7–4.26 pg/g fat, and WHO-PCB-TEQ in the range of 0.42–3.34 pg/g fat. Overall moose had clearly lower PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations in their liver than reindeer. Conclusions: Terrestrial animals generally had low POP concentrations, but in reindeer liver dioxin levels were quite high. All Finnish and Russian reindeer liver.
  • Lehikoinen, Annukka Maaria; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet (2019)
    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) of natural resources requires recognition of the systemic intertwining of ecosystems and human society and an inter-sectoral approach. We used a Bayesian influence diagram to integrate different types of knowledge for evaluating alternative sectoral and inter-sectoral strategies to manage the dioxin problem of Baltic salmon and herring fisheries. The following strategies were evaluated: 1) decreasing dioxin and nutrient loading to the ecosystem, 2) herring and salmon fishing strategies, 3) dietary recommendations, and 4) improved information concerning the benefits of fish eating. In total nine decisions and their combinations were evaluated in the light of three alternative assessment criteria: 1) the dioxin concentrations of Baltic herring and salmon, 2) the human consumption of Baltic salmon and herring, and the associated health risks and benefits, and 3) the commercial value of herring and salmon catches. The results demonstrate the requirement to understand the effects of management measures in a holistic way: managing only one species or policy domain may not be effective, and may also have unanticipated systemic effects in the ecosystem. In general, optimal management depends to some extent on the assessment criteria used, as well as the order in which the decisions are made. Unsynchronized management decisions in different sectors may decrease each other’s effectiveness. This implies that to control the dioxin problem as effectively as possible, collaboration between the public health, environmental and fisheries sectors is needed.
  • Tuomisto, Jouni T; Asikainen, Arja; Meriläinen, Päivi; Haapasaari, Päivi (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Health risks linked with dioxin in fish remain a complex policy issue. Fatty Baltic fish contain persistent pollutants, but they are otherwise healthy food. We studied the health benefits and risks associated with Baltic herring and salmon in four countries to identify critical uncertainties and to facilitate an evidence-based discussion. Methods We performed an online survey investigating consumers’ fish consumption and its motivation in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. Dioxin and methylmercury concentrations were estimated based on Finnish studies. Exposure-response functions for several health endpoints were evaluated and quantified based on the scientific literature. We also quantified the infertility risk of men based on a recent European risk assessment estimating childhood dioxin exposure and its effect on sperm concentration later in life. Results Baltic herring and salmon contain omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D, and the beneficial impact of these fishes on cardiovascular diseases, mortality, and the risk of depression and cancer clearly outweighs risks of dioxins and methylmercury in people older than 45 years of age and in young men. Young women may expose their children to pollutants during pregnancy and breast feeding. This study suggests that even in this critical subgroup, the risks are small and the health benefits are greater than or at least similar to the health risks. Value of information analysis demonstrated that the remaining scientific uncertainties are not large. In contrast, there are several critical uncertainties that are inherently value judgements, such as whether exceeding the tolerable weekly intake is an adverse outcome as such; and whether or not subgroup-specific restrictions are problematic. Conclusions The potential health risks attributable to dioxins in Baltic fish have more than halved in the past 10 years. The new risk assessment issued by the European Food Safety Authority clearly increases the fraction of the population exceeding the tolerable dioxin intake, but nonetheless, quantitative estimates of net health impacts change only marginally. Increased use of small herring (which have less pollutants) is a no-regret option. A more relevant value-based policy discussion rather than research is needed to clarify official recommendations related to dioxins in fish.
  • Tuomisto, Jouni; Asikainen, Arja; Meriläinen, Päivi; Haapasaari, Päivi (2020)
    Background: Health risks linked with dioxin in fish remain a complex policy issue. Fatty Baltic fish contain persistent pollutants, but they are otherwise healthy food. We studied the health benefits and risks associated with Baltic herring and salmon in four countries to identify critical uncertainties and to facilitate an evidence-based discussion. Methods: We performed an online survey investigating consumers’ fish consumption and its motivation in Denmark, Estonia, Finland, and Sweden. Dioxin and methylmercury concentrations were estimated based on Finnish studies. Exposure-response functions for several health endpoints were evaluated and quantified based on the scientific literature. We also quantified the infertility risk of men based on a recent European risk assessment estimating childhood dioxin exposure and its effect on sperm concentration later in life. Results: Baltic herring and salmon contain omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D, and the beneficial impact of these fishes on cardiovascular diseases, mortality, and the risk of depression and cancer clearly outweighs risks of dioxins and methylmercury in people older than 45 years of age and in young men. Young women may expose their children to pollutants during pregnancy and breast feeding. This study suggests that even in this critical subgroup, the risks are small and the health benefits are greater than or at least similar to the health risks. Value of information analysis demonstrated that the remaining scientific uncertainties are not large. In contrast, there are several critical uncertainties that are inherently value judgements, such as whether exceeding the tolerable weekly intake is an adverse outcome as such; and whether or not subgroup-specific restrictions are problematic. Conclusions: The potential health risks attributable to dioxins in Baltic fish have more than halved in the past 10 years. The new risk assessment issued by the European Food Safety Authority clearly increases the fraction of the population exceeding the tolerable dioxin intake, but nonetheless, quantitative estimates of net health impacts change only marginally. Increased use of small herring (which have less pollutants) is a no-regret option. A more relevant value-based policy discussion rather than research is needed to clarify official recommendations related to dioxins in fish.
  • EFSA Panel Contaminants Food Chain; Knutsen, Helle; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami,; Bruschweiler,; Ceccatelli,; Cottrill,; Dinovi,; Edler,; Grasl-Kraupp,; Hogstrand,; Nebbia,; Oswald,; Petersen,; Rose,; Roudot,; Schwerdtle,; Vleminckx,; Vollmer,; Wallace,; Furst,; Håkansson, Helen; Halldorsson,; Lundebye,; Pohjanvirta, Raimo Kalevi; Rylander,; Smith,; van Loveren,; Waalkens-Berendsen,; Zeilmaker,; Binaglia,; Gomez Ruiz,; Horvath,; Christoph,; Ciccolallo,; Ramos Bordajandi,; Steinkellner,; Hoogenboom, Ron (2018)
    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.