Browsing by Subject "Disease control"

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  • Hiltunen, Lea H.; Tarvainen, Oili; Kelloniemi, Jani; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Karhu, Jouni; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2021)
    Disease suppressive soils are important for managing soil-borne diseases that cannot be controlled with chemicals. One such disease is the potato common scab caused by Streptomyces species. Suppressiveness against common scab can develop spontaneously in fields where potato is grown for years without interruption, and this has been attributed to non-pathogenic Streptomyces strains. Streptomyces spp. have been used as inoculants in biological control, but their long-term effects have gained less attention. In our previous studies, a nonpathogenic Streptomyces strain (Str272) isolated from a potato common scab lesion suppressed common scab in field trials lasting over 5 years. In this study, bacterial communities in the tuberosphere i.e. in the soil adjacent to potato tubers, were analysed by next generation sequencing (NGS). The aim was to compare bacterial communities in untreated control plots to those in which seed tubers were treated with Str272 in one or several growing seasons. Str272 applications increased soil bacterial diversity and affected the bacterial composition in the potato tuberosphere. The most pronounced differences were observed between the untreated control and the treatments in which the antagonist had been applied in three or four consecutive years. The differences remained similar until the following growing season. Bacterial composition after repeated antagonist applications was associated with lower common scab severity. The antagonist applications had no or only slight effect on the number or abundance of OTUs belonging to Actinobacteria or Streptomyces, and no differences in quantities of pathogenic Streptomyces populations were detected by qPCR. This indicates that suppression of common scab by Str272 may not be based on direct effect on the common scab pathogens but is more likely to be associated with the alterations of the soil bacterial community. The most abundant bacteria phyla in the potato tuberosphere were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. However, the OTUs responding greatest to the antagonist treatments belonged to Bacterioidetes and Gemmatimonadetes. Results indicate that repeated applications of Str272 can change the bacterial community in the potato tuberosphere and lead to development of soil that is suppressive against potato common scab for several growing seasons after the last application.
  • Vennerström, Pia; Välimäki, Elina; Hautaniemi, Maria; Lyytikainen, Tapani; Kapiainen, Suvi; Vidgren, Gabriele; Virtala, Anna-Maija (2018)
    Wild fish were suspected to be the source of reinfection by viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in Finnish brackish water rainbow trout farms located in a restriction zone regarding viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) comprising the entire Province of Aland, Baltic Sea, in the 2000s. Altogether, 1636 wild fish of 17 different species living in the vicinity of infected fish farms were screened for VHSV during the years 2005-2008. Additionally, 2 uninfected wild fish species as well as farmed whitefish were introduced into a VHS-positive fish farm to test whether they became infected by VHSV from the clinically diseased rainbow trout. Wild fish did not test positive for VHSV on any occasion. In contrast, whitefish introduced to a VHS-positive farm were infected with VHSV genotype Id and started to replicate the virus for a short time during the trial. Whitefish are farmed together with, or in the vicinity of, farmed rainbow trout in the study area and, according to this study, are a possible source of the recurring infection in the restriction area. A sprivivirus was isolated from all fish species in the infection trial without causing mortality in the test groups.