Browsing by Subject "Dog"

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  • Puurunen, Jenni; Sulkama, Sini; Tiira, Katriina; Araujo, Cesar; Lehtonen, Marko; Hanhineva, Kati; Lohi, Hannes (2016)
    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes. Methods: We collected fresh plasma samples from 22 German Shepherds with varying ADHD-like behaviours. All dogs were on the same controlled diet for 2 weeks prior to sampling. A liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based non-targeted metabolite profiling was performed to identify plasma metabolites correlating with the ADHD-like behaviour of the dogs. Results: 649 molecular features correlated with ADHD-like behavioural scores (p(raw) <0.05), and three of them [sn-1 LysoPC(18: 3), PC(18: 3/18: 2) and sn-1 LysoPE(18: 2)] had significant correlations also after FDR correction (pFDR <0.05). Phospholipids were found to negatively correlate with ADHD-like behavioural scores, whereas tryptophan metabolites 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) had negative and positive correlations with ADHD-like behavioural scores, respectively. Conclusions: Our study identified associations between canine ADHD-like behaviours and metabolites that are involved in lipid and tryptophan metabolisms. The identified metabolites share similarity with earlier findings in human and rodent ADHD models. However, a larger replication study is warranted to validate the discoveries prior to further studies to understand the biological role of the identified metabolites in canine ADHD-like behaviours.
  • Puurunen, Jenni; Sulkama, Sini; Tiira, Katriina; Araujo, César; Lehtonen, Marko; Hanhineva, Kati; Lohi, Hannes (BioMed Central, 2016)
    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and multifactorial neuropsychiatric disorder in the human population worldwide. Complex etiology and clinical heterogeneity have challenged the research, diagnostics and treatment of the disease. Hyperactive and impulsive behaviour has also been observed in dogs, and they could offer a physiologically relevant model for human ADHD. As a part of our ongoing study to understand the molecular etiology of canine anxiety traits, this study was aimed to pilot an approach to identify metabolic biomarkers in canine ADHD-like behaviours for research, diagnostics and treatment purposes. Methods We collected fresh plasma samples from 22 German Shepherds with varying ADHD-like behaviours. All dogs were on the same controlled diet for 2 weeks prior to sampling. A liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (LC–MS)-based non-targeted metabolite profiling was performed to identify plasma metabolites correlating with the ADHD-like behaviour of the dogs. Results 649 molecular features correlated with ADHD-like behavioural scores (praw < 0.05), and three of them [sn-1 LysoPC(18:3), PC(18:3/18:2) and sn-1 LysoPE(18:2)] had significant correlations also after FDR correction (pFDR < 0.05). Phospholipids were found to negatively correlate with ADHD-like behavioural scores, whereas tryptophan metabolites 3-indolepropionic acid (IPA) and kynurenic acid (KYNA) had negative and positive correlations with ADHD-like behavioural scores, respectively. Conclusions Our study identified associations between canine ADHD-like behaviours and metabolites that are involved in lipid and tryptophan metabolisms. The identified metabolites share similarity with earlier findings in human and rodent ADHD models. However, a larger replication study is warranted to validate the discoveries prior to further studies to understand the biological role of the identified metabolites in canine ADHD-like behaviours.
  • Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Satila, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzen, Janek (2016)
    Nimodipine is an L-type calcium channel blocker and is used to treat vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its putative mechanism of action is relaxation of smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteries. In addition, nimodipine may have pleiotropic effects against vasospasm. Systemic hypotension is an adverse effect when patients are treated with oral or intravenous nimodipine. Intracranial administration of nimodipine formulations may produce higher concentration of nimodipine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) than is possible to achieve orally or intravenously, while resulting in lower incidence of systemic hypotension. The aim of this study was to provide information on plasma and CSF levels of nimodipine in beagle dogs as a comparative data for development of experimental intracranial treatment modalities. Plasma levels of nimodipine were measured after current 30 and 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine (Nimotop(A (R)) 30 mg tablets), a single intravenous bolus 0.72 mg/dog of nimodipine (Nimotop(A (R)) 0.2 mg/ml infusion solution) and CSF levels after 60 mg single oral dose of nimodipine. CSF/Plasma concentration ratio of nimodipine after oral administration of 60 mg at 1 h was 0.013 +/- A 0.0005. The mean terminal elimination half-life of nimodipine after i.v. bolus dose 0.72 mg was 1.8 h and mean plasma clearance was 40.3 and 3.4 l/h/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 22 %. Maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time of administration until the last measurable plasma concentration increased in a dose-proportional manner comparing the exposure parameters at oral doses of 30 and 60 mg. Individual variation in the kinetic profile of nimodipine was measured.
  • Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; Seppala, Eija H.; Weissl, Jutta; Jokinen, Tarja S.; Viitmaa, Ranno; Hanninen, Reetta L.; Quignon, Pascale; Fischer, Andrea; Andre, Catherine; Lohi, Hannes (2017)
    Background: Idiopathic or genetic adult-onset epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in domestic dogs. Genetic association has been reported only with ADAM23 on CFA 37 in few breeds. To identify novel epilepsy genes, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) analyses in four new breeds, and investigated the association of the previously reported ADAM23 haplotype with the epilepsy phenotype in eight breeds. Results: GWA analysis did not reveal new epilepsy loci. ADAM23 association (p <0.05) was identified in five breeds. Combined analysis of all eight breeds showed significant association (p = 4.6e(-6), OR 1.9). Conclusions: Our results further support the role of ADAM23 in multiple breeds as a common risk gene for epilepsy with low penetrance. The lack of findings in the GWA analyses points towards inefficient capture of genetic variation by the current SNP arrays, causal variant(s) with low penetrance and possible phenocopies. Future work will include studies on ADAM23 function and expression in canine neurons, as well as whole-genome sequencing in order to identify additional IE genes.
  • Koskinen, Lotta L E; Seppälä, Eija H.; Weissl, Jutta; Jokinen, Tarja S; Viitmaa, Ranno; Hänninen, Reetta L; Quignon, Pascale; Fischer, Andrea; André, Catherine; Lohi, Hannes (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Idiopathic or genetic adult-onset epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in domestic dogs. Genetic association has been reported only with ADAM23 on CFA 37 in few breeds. To identify novel epilepsy genes, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) analyses in four new breeds, and investigated the association of the previously reported ADAM23 haplotype with the epilepsy phenotype in eight breeds. Results GWA analysis did not reveal new epilepsy loci. ADAM23 association (p < 0.05) was identified in five breeds. Combined analysis of all eight breeds showed significant association (p = 4.6e−6, OR 1.9). Conclusions Our results further support the role of ADAM23 in multiple breeds as a common risk gene for epilepsy with low penetrance. The lack of findings in the GWA analyses points towards inefficient capture of genetic variation by the current SNP arrays, causal variant(s) with low penetrance and possible phenocopies. Future work will include studies on ADAM23 function and expression in canine neurons, as well as whole-genome sequencing in order to identify additional IE genes.
  • Lindh, Lena; Lindeberg, H.; Banting, A; Banting, S.; Sainmaa, S.; Beasley, S.; Korhonen, H.; Peltoniemi, Olli (2020)
    The interest in non-surgical approaches to contraception and fertility control in female dogs has increased in recent years. In this study the effect of an aromatase inhibitor (finrozole) was evaluated in fur production animals, farmed blue fox vixens, as a model for contraception in bitches. A total of 80 vixens were divided into 4 groups, receiving orally placebo (A) or finrozole 0.5 mg/kg (B), 3.5 mg/kg (C) or 24.5 mg/kg (D) for 21 consecutive days beginning in the pre-ovulatory period of heat. Monitoring of the vixens included clinical signs of heat, measurement of vaginal electrical resistance (VER) as well as oestradiol and progesterone concentrations in plasma. The approximate relation of the start of treatment to ovulation varied from 11 days before to one day after ovulation provided that the LH peak occurred 0.5 -2 days before the VER peak and ovulation was then estimated to occur 2 days after the LH peak. Seventy vixens were artificially inseminated within 8 h after a 50 Omega decline in vaginal electrical resistance was detected. Ten vixens were not inseminated. Pregnancy was confirmed by transabdominal ultrasound examination and birth of cubs was recorded. The pregnancy rates in the groups were 89.5% (A), 81.3% (B), 55.6% (C) and 52.9% (D). The average number of live born pups in the four groups was 9.4 (A), 7.0 (B), 5.8 (C), and 3.8 (D), respectively. No deleterious effects (for instance malformations) of finrozole on pups could be verified. The administration of finrozole did not have a significant effect on oestradiol parameters and VER values in vixens. Progesterone values were significantly higher in treatment groups compared with the placebo group. The results indicate that pregnancy could be avoided by finrozole provided that doses of >= 3.5 mg/kg were used and the treatment was initiated at least four days before the day of artificial insemination. This corresponds with two to six days before ovulation provided that the LH peak occurred 0.5-2 days before the VER peak and that ovulation then occurred in average 2 days after the LH peak. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Mikkola, Lea; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Donner, Jonas; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common disease, with a complex genetic background. Dogs with severe CHD sometimes also suffer from osteoarthritis (OA), an inflammatory, often painful and incurable condition. Previous studies have reported breed-specific genetic loci associated with different hip dysplasia and OA phenotypes. However, the independent replication of the known associations within or across breeds has been difficult due to variable phenotype measures, inadequate sample sizes and the existence of population specific variants. Results We execute a validation study of 46 genetic markers in a cohort of nearly 1600 dogs from ten different breeds. We categorize the dogs into cases and controls according to the hip scoring system defined by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). We validate 21 different loci associated on fourteen chromosomes. Twenty of these associated with CHD in specific breeds, whereas one locus is unique to the across-breed study. We show that genes involved in the neddylation pathway are enriched among the genes in the validated loci. Neddylation contributes to many cellular functions including inflammation. Conclusions Our study successfully replicates many loci and highlights the complex genetic architecture of CHD. Further characterisation of the associated loci could reveal CHD-relevant genes and pathways for improved understanding of the disease pathogenesis.
  • Mikkola, Lea; Kyöstilä, Kaisa; Donner, Jonas; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (2021)
    BackgroundCanine hip dysplasia (CHD) is a common disease, with a complex genetic background. Dogs with severe CHD sometimes also suffer from osteoarthritis (OA), an inflammatory, often painful and incurable condition. Previous studies have reported breed-specific genetic loci associated with different hip dysplasia and OA phenotypes. However, the independent replication of the known associations within or across breeds has been difficult due to variable phenotype measures, inadequate sample sizes and the existence of population specific variants.ResultsWe execute a validation study of 46 genetic markers in a cohort of nearly 1600 dogs from ten different breeds. We categorize the dogs into cases and controls according to the hip scoring system defined by the Federation Cynologique Internationale (FCI). We validate 21 different loci associated on fourteen chromosomes. Twenty of these associated with CHD in specific breeds, whereas one locus is unique to the across-breed study. We show that genes involved in the neddylation pathway are enriched among the genes in the validated loci. Neddylation contributes to many cellular functions including inflammation.ConclusionsOur study successfully replicates many loci and highlights the complex genetic architecture of CHD. Further characterisation of the associated loci could reveal CHD-relevant genes and pathways for improved understanding of the disease pathogenesis.
  • Candido, Marcus Vinicius; Syrjä, Pernilla; Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas (2018)
    Background: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The following inclusion criteria were applied to estimate relative risk for metaplasia/dysplasia and GC: dogs from pure breeds with at least five individuals subject to GDS with histopathology of gastric biopsies. Results: Between 2006 and 2016, from a total of 54945 canine patients presented, 423 dogs underwent GDS. Inclusion criteria were met in 180 dogs of 20 different pure breeds. Eight dogs had GCs (mean age = 9.8 +/- 1.7 years): Belgian Tervuren (n = 4), Collie (n = 2), Golden Retriever (n = 1) and Jack Russel Terrier (n = 1). Fourteen dogs of eight breeds had gastric mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A log-binomial statistical model revealed that dogs in the following breeds had a significantly higher probability to undergo GDS than the others in the study population: Australian Terrier, Belgian Tervuren, Cairn Terrier, Collie and Siberian Husky. Belgian Tervuren was found at higher risk to be diagnosed with GC [RR = 19 (5.7-63.9; P <0.0001)], as well as mucosal metaplasia/dysplasia [RR (7.6; 2.95-19.58; P <0.0001)], as compared to the other breeds included. Shetland Sheepdog had an increased RR (5.83; 1.75-19.45; P = 0.0041) for metaplasia. Conclusions: The results indicate a very low incidence of GC in dogs. The Belgian Tervuren, however, appears as predisposed. The histopathologic descriptions of mucosal changes such as metaplasia and dysplasia were also rare, but were more frequent in the Belgian Tervuren. Previous reports of these changes in dogs are very scarce, but they might be presumably related to GC in dogs, as they are in humans. Future research should investigate the possible role of metaplasia and dysplasia in the development of GC in dogs, especially those of predisposed breeds.
  • Cândido, Marcus V.; Syrjä, Pernilla; Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The following inclusion criteria were applied to estimate relative risk for metaplasia/dysplasia and GC: dogs from pure breeds with at least five individuals subject to GDS with histopathology of gastric biopsies. Results Between 2006 and 2016, from a total of 54945 canine patients presented, 423 dogs underwent GDS. Inclusion criteria were met in 180 dogs of 20 different pure breeds. Eight dogs had GCs (mean age = 9.8 ± 1.7 years): Belgian Tervuren (n = 4), Collie (n = 2), Golden Retriever (n = 1) and Jack Russel Terrier (n = 1). Fourteen dogs of eight breeds had gastric mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A log-binomial statistical model revealed that dogs in the following breeds had a significantly higher probability to undergo GDS than the others in the study population: Australian Terrier, Belgian Tervuren, Cairn Terrier, Collie and Siberian Husky. Belgian Tervuren was found at higher risk to be diagnosed with GC [RR = 19 (5.7–63.9; P < 0.0001)], as well as mucosal metaplasia/dysplasia [RR (7.6; 2.95–19.58; P < 0.0001)], as compared to the other breeds included. Shetland Sheepdog had an increased RR (5.83; 1.75–19.45; P = 0.0041) for metaplasia. Conclusions The results indicate a very low incidence of GC in dogs. The Belgian Tervuren, however, appears as predisposed. The histopathologic descriptions of mucosal changes such as metaplasia and dysplasia were also rare, but were more frequent in the Belgian Tervuren. Previous reports of these changes in dogs are very scarce, but they might be presumably related to GC in dogs, as they are in humans. Future research should investigate the possible role of metaplasia and dysplasia in the development of GC in dogs, especially those of predisposed breeds.
  • Hanninen, Reetta L.; Ahonen, Saija; Marquez, Merce; Myohanen, Maarit J.; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (2015)
    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes (MDS) are often serious autosomal recessively inherited disorders characterized by tissue-specific mtDNA copy number reduction. Many genes, including MPV17, are associated with the hepatocerebral form of MDS. MPV17 encodes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein with a poorly characterized function. Several MPV17 mutations have been reported in association with a heterogeneous group of early-onset manifestations, including liver disease and neurological problems. Mpv17-deficient mice present renal and hearing defects. We describe here a MPV17 truncation mutation in dogs. We found a 1-bp insertion in exon 4 of the MPV17 gene, resulting in a frameshift and early truncation of the encoded protein. The mutation halves MPV17 expression in the lymphocytes of the homozygous dogs and the truncated protein is not translated in transfected cells. The insertion mutation is recurrent and exists in many unrelated breeds, although is highly enriched in the Boxer breed. Unexpectedly, despite the truncation of MPV17, we could not find any common phenotypes in the genetically affected dogs. The lack of observable phenotype could be due to a late onset, mild symptoms or potential tissue-specific compensatory mechanisms. This study suggests species-specific differences in the manifestation of the MPV17 defects and establishes a novel large animal model to further study MPV17 function and role in mitochondrial biology.
  • Lahdenoja, Olli; Hurnanen, Tero; Kaisti, Matti; Koskinen, Juho; Tuominen, Jarno; Vähä-Heikkilä, Matti; Parikka, Laura; Wiberg, Maria; Koivisto, Tero; Pänkäälä, Mikko (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background In the context of monitoring dogs, usually, accelerometers have been used to measure the dog’s movement activity. Here, we study another application of the accelerometers (and gyroscopes)—seismocardiography (SCG) and gyrocardiography (GCG)—to monitor the dog’s heart. Together, 3-axis SCG and 3-axis GCG constitute of 6-axis mechanocardiography (MCG), which is inbuilt to most modern smartphones. Thus, the objective of this study is to assess the feasibility of using a smartphone-only solution to studying dog’s heart. Methods A clinical trial (CT) was conducted at the University Small Animal Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland. 14 dogs (3 breeds) including 18 measurements (about one half of all) where the dog’s status was such that it was still and not panting were further selected for the heart rate (HR) analysis (each signal with a duration of 1 min). The measurement device in the CT was a custom Holter monitor including synchronized 6-axis MCG and ECG. In addition, 16 dogs (9 breeds, one mixed-breed) were measured at home settings by the dog owners themselves using Sony Xperia Android smartphone sensor to further validate the applicability of the method. Results The developed algorithm was able to select 10 good-quality signals from the 18 CT measurements, and for 7 of these, the automated algorithm was able to detect HR with deviation below or equal to 5 bpm (compared to ECG). Further visual analysis verified that, for approximately half of the dogs, the signal quality at home environment was sufficient for HR extraction at least in some signal locations, while the motion artifacts due to dog’s movements are the main challenges of the method. Conclusion With improved data analysis techniques for managing noisy measurements, the proposed approach could be useful in home use. The advantage of the method is that it can operate as a stand-alone application without requiring any extra equipment (such as smart collar or ECG patch).
  • Toresson, L.; Steiner, J. M.; Suchodolski, J. S. (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background In people, bile acid diarrhoea is a prevalent complication of Crohn’s disease and diarrhoea-associated irritable bowel syndrome. Affected patients typically respond to bile acid sequestrants, such as cholestyramine, but human gastroenterologists often fail to recognize bile acid diarrhoea. Consequently, bile acid diarrhoea is regarded as an underrecognized and undertreated condition in human medicine. Due to lack of diagnostic tools, clinical response to bile acid sequestrants is often used to confirm a diagnosis of bile acid diarrhoea in people. Several recent studies have shown that bile acid dysmetabolism also occurs in dogs with chronic enteropathies. It has further been shown that dogs with chronic enteropathies have significantly decreased expression of a bile acid transport protein in the ileum compared to healthy dogs, which correlates with faecal bile acid dysmetabolism. Consequently, in spite of the lack of reports in the literature, bile acid diarrhoea is likely to exist in dogs as well. Case descriptions Two dogs, an 8-year old Rottweiler and a 4.5-year old Siberian Husky were evaluated for chronic watery diarrhoea. Neither dog responded to dietary trials, probiotics, cyclosporine, faecal microbial transplantations or metronidazole. One of the dogs responded to high daily doses of corticosteroids, which were however associated with unacceptable side effects. The other dog was refractory to all standard treatment protocols, including cyclosporine and corticosteroids. Since none of the dogs responded satisfactorily to standard treatment or modulation of the intestinal microbiome, a suspicion of possible bile acid diarrhoea was raised. Treatment with cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant was initiated and resulted in marked improvement of faecal consistency, frequency of defecation and activity level in both dogs. Conclusion This report presents two dogs with presumed bile acid diarrhoea that were successfully treated with cholestyramine. Therefore, bile acid diarrhoea should be considered as a possible diagnosis in dogs with treatment-refractory chronic diarrhoea.
  • Eklund, Marjut; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Grönthal, Thomas; Nordgren, Heli; Pitkälä, Anna; Vapalahti, Olli; Rantala, Merja (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Streptococcus halichoeri infections have been reported in grey seals, a European badger, a Stellar sea lion and humans, but its presence in companion and fur animals is unknown. Since 2010, S. halichoeri-like bacteria (SHL) have been isolated from fur animals and dogs in Finland. Our aim was to retrospectively investigate laboratory records for SHL from canine and fur animal infections, characterize the isolates and compare their genetic relatedness in relation to three reference strains: CCUG 48324T, originating from a grey seal, and strains 67100 and 61265, originally isolated from humans. Results A total of 138 and 36 SHLs from canine and fur animal infections, respectively, were identified in the laboratory records. SHL was commonly associated with skin infections, but rarely as the only species. A set of 49 canine and 23 fur animal SHLs were further characterized. MALDI-TOF confirmed them as being S. halichoeri. The growth characteristics were consistent with the original findings, but isolates were catalase positive. In total, 17 distinct API 20 Strep patterns were recorded among all 75 isolates tested, of which pattern 5563100 was the most common (n = 30). Antimicrobial resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was common in canine isolates, but rare in fur animal isolates. Three clusters were observed by PFGE, and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed 98.1–100% similarities with the human strains and 98.1–99.5% with the seal strain. A phylogenetic tree of concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB revealed closely related isolates with two clades. Fifteen canine isolates were identical to the human strains based on concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing. Conclusions Streptococcus halichoeri appears to be quite a common bacterial species in the skin of dogs and fur animals. The clinical significance of S. halichoeri is uncertain, as it was rarely isolated as a monoculture. No apparent temporal or spatial clustering was detected, but isolates from different sources were genetically very similar. Because many canine isolates were genetically similar to the human reference strains, transmission between dogs and humans may be possible. WGS sequencing of strains from different sources is needed to further investigate the epidemiology and virulence of S. halichoeri.
  • Eklund, Marjut; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Sironen, Tarja; Raunio-Saarnisto, Mirja; Grönthal, Thomas; Nordgren, Heli; Pitkälä, Anna; Vapalahti, Olli; Rantala, Merja (2020)
    Background Streptococcus halichoeri infections have been reported in grey seals, a European badger, a Stellar sea lion and humans, but its presence in companion and fur animals is unknown. Since 2010, S. halichoeri-like bacteria (SHL) have been isolated from fur animals and dogs in Finland. Our aim was to retrospectively investigate laboratory records for SHL from canine and fur animal infections, characterize the isolates and compare their genetic relatedness in relation to three reference strains: CCUG 48324(T), originating from a grey seal, and strains 67100 and 61265, originally isolated from humans. Results A total of 138 and 36 SHLs from canine and fur animal infections, respectively, were identified in the laboratory records. SHL was commonly associated with skin infections, but rarely as the only species. A set of 49 canine and 23 fur animal SHLs were further characterized. MALDI-TOF confirmed them as being S. halichoeri. The growth characteristics were consistent with the original findings, but isolates were catalase positive. In total, 17 distinct API 20 Strep patterns were recorded among all 75 isolates tested, of which pattern 5563100 was the most common (n = 30). Antimicrobial resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was common in canine isolates, but rare in fur animal isolates. Three clusters were observed by PFGE, and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed 98.1-100% similarities with the human strains and 98.1-99.5% with the seal strain. A phylogenetic tree of concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB revealed closely related isolates with two clades. Fifteen canine isolates were identical to the human strains based on concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing. Conclusions Streptococcus halichoeri appears to be quite a common bacterial species in the skin of dogs and fur animals. The clinical significance of S. halichoeri is uncertain, as it was rarely isolated as a monoculture. No apparent temporal or spatial clustering was detected, but isolates from different sources were genetically very similar. Because many canine isolates were genetically similar to the human reference strains, transmission between dogs and humans may be possible. WGS sequencing of strains from different sources is needed to further investigate the epidemiology and virulence of S. halichoeri.
  • Tiira, Katriina (2021)
    Separation-related behaviour problems are common in domestic dogs. Vocalization is one of the most common symptoms in dogs, and neighbors often complain about dog barking and howling. We investigated the effect of digital application Digital Dogsitter® on the dogs’ vocalization (barking, howling, whining) when left alone. Digital Dogsitter® is an application, used via laptop or pc, and it activates as a reaction to the dog's vocalization and then plays a short owner-recorded feedback. Altogether 40 participants who had a laptop/pc at home and a dog that suffered from separation related symptoms, specifically vocalization, completed the study. Dogs’ vocalization (when alone at home) was recorded before and after using Digital Dogsitter® for two weeks, in order to investigate whether Digital Dogsitter® reduces dog's vocalization. The amount of total dog vocalization noise (in milliseconds) was significantly reduced (P < 0.001, N = 40) after using Digital Dogsitter® for two weeks. The reduction in the dogs’ vocalization after Digital Dogsitter® was 95.7%, which is very large compared to earlier studies. Owners’ opinions were also asked, and only 9.4% of the owners felt that no improvement was seen. Finally, we wanted to know, whether the effect of Digital Dogsitter® was long lasting, and sent a questionnaire to participants an average of eight months after the first study. Out of 35 participants that responded, 68.7% felt that Digital Dogsitter® did reduce the vocalization either rather well / extremely well, and only 14.3% felt, that no long-lasting effect was noticed. In addition, after eight months the owners also reported significantly less dogs’ destructive behavior compared to the starting situation. Digital Dogsitter® clearly reduces dogs’ vocalization, possibly also alleviating the separation-related stress.
  • Kumpulainen, Pekka; Valldeoriola Cardó, Anna; Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Väätäjä, Heli; Majaranta, Päivi; Gizatdinova, Yulia; Antink, Christoph Hoog; Surakka, Veikko; V. Kujala, Miiamaaria; Vainio, Outi; Vehkaoja, Antti (2021)
    Dog owners' understanding of the daily behaviour of their dogs may be enhanced by movement measurements that can detect repeatable dog behaviour, such as levels of daily activity and rest as well as their changes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of supervised machine learning methods utilising accelerometer and gyroscope data provided by wearable movement sensors in classification of seven typical dog activities in a semi-controlled test situation. Forty-five middle to large sized dogs participated in the study. Two sensor devices were attached to each dog, one on the back of the dog in a harness and one on the neck collar. Altogether 54 features were extracted from the acceleration and gyroscope signals divided in two-second segments. The performance of four classifiers were compared using features derived from both sensor modalities. and from the acceleration data only. The results were promising; the movement sensor at the back yielded up to 91 % accuracy in classifying the dog activities and the sensor placed at the collar yielded 75 % accuracy at best. Including the gyroscope features improved the classification accuracy by 0.7-2.6 %, depending on the classifier and the sensor location. The most distinct activity was sniffing, whereas the static postures (lying on chest, sitting and standing) were the most challenging behaviours to classify, especially from the data of the neck collar sensor. The data used in this article as well as the signal processing scripts are openly available in Mendeley Data, https://doi.org/10.17632/vxhx934tbn.1.
  • Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M.; Spodsberg, Eva; Olmedal, Gunilla; Suchodolski, Jan; Lidbury, Jonathan; Spillmann, Thomas (2021)
    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum cobalamin concentrations before and after oral cobalamin supplementation in dogs with low serum cobalamin concentrations and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). Eighteen dogs with serum trypsin-like immunoreactivities between < 1.0-2.7 mu g/L (reference interval, 5.2-35 mu g/L) and serum cobalamin concentrations < 350 ng/L (reference interval, 244-959 ng/L) were enrolled. All dogs were treated with oral cyanocobalamin according to a previously described protocol (0.25-1.0 mg daily, depending on bodyweight). Median (range) serum cobalamin concentrations at inclusion was 188 ng/L (< 111-350 ng/L), which increased significantly to 1000 ng/L (794-2385 ng/L; P < 0.001) after cobalamin supplementation for 19-199 days (median, 41 days). Oral cobalamin supplementation is a potential alternative to parenteral supplementation in dogs with EPI.
  • Toresson, L.; Steiner, J. M.; Spodsberg, E.; Olmedal, G.; Suchodolski, J. S.; Lidbury, J. A.; Spillmann, T. (2019)
    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of parenteral (PE) versus oral (PO) cobalamin supplementation on serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HCY) concentrations in dogs with hypocobalaminaemia. Thirty-six dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations below 285 ng/L (reference interval (RI): 244-959 ng/L) were treated with PO (0.25-1.0 mg daily) or PE cobalamin (0.25-1.2 mg/injection) using a block-randomized schedule. Serum MMA and HCY concentrations were analysed at day 0, 28 and 90 after start of supplementation. There was no significant difference between the PO and PE group regarding serum MMA or HCY concentrations at any time point. Median (range, P comparing baseline and 28 days, P comparing 28 days and 90 days) serum MMA concentrations (nmol/L; RI 415-1193) were 932 (566-2468) in the PO and 943 (508-1900) in the PE group at baseline, respectively, 705 (386-1465, P
  • Boström, Anna F.; Parzefall, Birgit; Blutke, Andreas; Davies, Emma S. (2022)
    Cross-sectional area (CSA) decreases and fat infiltration increases in epaxial muscles of Dachshunds with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), but less is known about large breed dogs with IVDD. The aim here was to investigate thoracolumbar epaxial muscle CSA and fat infiltration in large breed dogs with compressive IVDD and acute non-compressive nucleus pulposus extrusion (ANNPE) or fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE). This retrospective study included large breed dogs with MRI-confirmed IVDD (n = 17) and ANNPE or FCE (n = 13). The CSA and fat infiltration of the thoracolumbar M. longissimus and Mm. multifidi were assessed from T1-weighted transverse MR images using Osirix. The CSA was significantly smaller in dogs with compressive IVDD than in dogs with non-compressive ANNPE or FCE for Mm. multifidi (p = 0.015), M. longissimus (p = 0.070), and these two muscles combined (p = 0.016). Fat infiltration in all muscle measurements was significantly higher in dogs with compressive IVDD than in dogs with non-compressive ANNPE or FCE (all P < 0.050). A significant positive correlation existed between age, duration of clinical signs, and fat infiltration, suggesting more fat infiltration in older dogs with more chronic signs. These signs of muscle atrophy are likely caused by denervation and secondary disuse due to chronic spinal cord compression and prolonged duration of clinical signs.