Browsing by Subject "Dogs"

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  • Mikkola, Salla; Salonen, Milla; Hakanen, Emma; Lohi, Hannes (2022)
    Problematic behavior is a remarkable welfare issue in cats (Felis catus), as it is one of the most common reasons for relinquishment. The probability of developing problematic behaviors is likely influenced by several variables, but these remain little studied. In this study, we examined the associations of fearfulness, aggression toward humans, and excessive grooming with nearly thirty variables in a survey dataset of over 3,200 cats. To identify the most important variables influencing these behaviors, we used generalized linear models. All behaviors were associated with each other suggesting comorbidity between problematic behaviors. Breed and several environmental variables were also associated with behaviors. Poor socialization with humans and a history of being a rescue cat were associated with higher fearfulness, indicating that the proper socialization of kittens is beneficial for avoiding fear-related problematic behaviors. Overall, our study highlights the complexity of three problematic behaviors in cats.
  • Gershony, Liza C.; Belanger, Janelle M.; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Famula, Thomas R.; Oberbauer, Anita M. (2020)
    Background Primary hypoadrenocorticism (or Addison's disease, AD) is an autoimmune disease that results in destruction of the adrenal cortex and consequent adrenal insufficiency. The disease has been described in purebred and mixed breed dogs, although some breeds, including the Bearded Collie, are at increased risk for AD. Candidate gene approaches have yielded few associations that appear to be breed-specific. A single other genome-wide association study reported no significant regions of association for AD in Standard Poodles. The present study aimed to identify genomic regions of association for canine AD in Bearded Collies. Results Our study consists of the first genome-wide association analysis to identify a genome-wide significant region of association with canine AD (CFA18). Peaks of suggestive association were also noted on chromosomes 11, 16 and 29. Logistic regression analysis supported an additive effect of risk genotypes at these smaller effect loci on the probability of disease associated with carrying a risk genotype on CFA18. Potential candidate genes involved in adrenal steroidogenesis, regulation of immune responses and/or inflammation were identified within the associated regions of chromosomes 11 and 16. The gene-poor regions of chromosomes 18 and 29 may, however, harbor regulatory sequences that can modulate gene expression and contribute to disease susceptibility. Conclusion Our findings support the polygenic and complex nature of canine AD and identified a strongly associated locus on CFA18 that, when combined with three other smaller effect loci, was predictive of disease. The results offer progress in the identification of susceptibility loci for canine AD in the Bearded Collie. Further studies are needed to confirm association with the suggested candidate genes and identify actual causative mutations involved with AD susceptibility in this breed.
  • Gershony, Liza C.; Belanger, Janelle M.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Famula, Thomas R; Oberbauer, Anita M. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Primary hypoadrenocorticism (or Addison’s disease, AD) is an autoimmune disease that results in destruction of the adrenal cortex and consequent adrenal insufficiency. The disease has been described in purebred and mixed breed dogs, although some breeds, including the Bearded Collie, are at increased risk for AD. Candidate gene approaches have yielded few associations that appear to be breed-specific. A single other genome-wide association study reported no significant regions of association for AD in Standard Poodles. The present study aimed to identify genomic regions of association for canine AD in Bearded Collies. Results Our study consists of the first genome-wide association analysis to identify a genome-wide significant region of association with canine AD (CFA18). Peaks of suggestive association were also noted on chromosomes 11, 16 and 29. Logistic regression analysis supported an additive effect of risk genotypes at these smaller effect loci on the probability of disease associated with carrying a risk genotype on CFA18. Potential candidate genes involved in adrenal steroidogenesis, regulation of immune responses and/or inflammation were identified within the associated regions of chromosomes 11 and 16. The gene-poor regions of chromosomes 18 and 29 may, however, harbor regulatory sequences that can modulate gene expression and contribute to disease susceptibility. Conclusion Our findings support the polygenic and complex nature of canine AD and identified a strongly associated locus on CFA18 that, when combined with three other smaller effect loci, was predictive of disease. The results offer progress in the identification of susceptibility loci for canine AD in the Bearded Collie. Further studies are needed to confirm association with the suggested candidate genes and identify actual causative mutations involved with AD susceptibility in this breed.
  • Johansson, Venla; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Rossow, Heidi; Heikinheimo, Annamari (2022)
    Objectives: Extended spectrum ,B-lactamase (ESBL)-and ampicillinase C (AmpC)-carrying Enterobacteriaceae have been widely reported among companion animals. According to previous studies, dogs with a shelter or stray background might be at risk of carrying such bacteria. The aim of this study was to ex-plore, with whole-genome sequencing (WGS), the genomic characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from imported dogs with a stray or shelter background. Methods: E. coli (n = 58) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2) isolates from imported dogs originating from seven countries were included. Phenotypic resistance was investigated by selective isolation and antibiotic sus-ceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing was used to study the genomic characteristics and the pres-ence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence determinants of the ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. Results: A high diversity of different ARGs (n = 56) and sequence types (STs) (n = 32), including high -risk clonal lineages ST410 (n = 3) and ST307 (n = 1), was identified in E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, respectively. Genes encoding resistance to ,beta-lactams accounted for the majority, with the most frequent being blaCTX-M-15. Moreover, 17 (29%) E. coli isolates qualified as presumptive extraintestinal pathogenic and/or uropathogenic E. coli. Conclusions: Our results highlight the multiplicity of genetic backgrounds disseminating ESBL/AmpC-genes in the studied dogs, calling for further investigation of possible drivers responsible for the dissem-ination of ARGs in animal shelters and amongst stray dogs. From a public health perspective, enhanced genomic surveillance of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in dogs is needed in Finland. (C) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
  • Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes (2016)
  • Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Perez; Vapalahti, Olli (2016)
    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Aland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Aland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Vera, Cristina Perez; Kapiainen, Suvi; Junnikkala, Sami; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Spillmann, Thomas; Vapalahti, Olli (2014)
  • Ståhl, Aada (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Objectives The human-pet attachment can substantially impact the life of the human and the pet. A few studies suggest that human personality and unwanted behaviour of dogs are related to pet attachment, but the relationship between pet personality and the attachment has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to elucidate the links from human, dog (Canis familiaris), and cat (Felis silvestris catus) personalities and unwanted pet behaviour to the attachment. Methods The online survey data, from the OnePersonality project, captured responses of 2 724 pet owners (92,1% women) to the Short Five questionnaire, the Pet Attachment Questionnaire and the dog and cat personality and behaviour questionnaires. I utilised a series of linear and generalized linear mixed-effect models to examine the associations. Results Neuroticism was associated with attachment anxiety to dogs and cats. Dog owners scoring lower on extraversion and conscientiousness and owners of less human-social and more perseverant dogs were more anxiously attached. Cat’s human aggression, fearfulness and low human sociability associated with attachment anxiety and excessive grooming and lower human sociability with attachment avoidance. Less conscientious, extraverted, and agreeable dog owners and owners of more insecure, energetic, aggressive, less training focused, and less human social dogs were more avoidantly attached. Nine out of ten dog’s unwanted behaviour traits were related to avoidant attachment. Conclusions Both human and pet traits contribute to the owner-perceived attachment. Owner’s personality may have a bigger role in anxious attachment, while the dog’s individuality may be more related to attachment avoidance.