Browsing by Subject "Dose"

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  • Heikman, Pertti Kalevi; Muhonen, Leea Hellevi; Ojanpera, Ilkka Antero (2017)
    Background: Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. Methods: This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Results: Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Conclusions: Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.
  • Heikman, Pertti K; Muhonen, Leea H; Ojanperä, Ilkka A (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. Methods This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Results Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Conclusions Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.
  • Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Teichgraeber, Ulf; Kitrou, Panagiotis; Del Giudice, Costantino; Björkman, Patrick; Bisdas, Theodosios; de Boer, Sanne; Krokidis, Miltiadis; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios (2022)
    Objective: There have been concerns about the long term safety of paclitaxel coated devices in the lower limbs. A formal systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to examine the long term risk of major amputation using paclitaxel coated balloons in peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Method: This systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (ID 227761). A broad bibliographic search was performed for RCTs investigating paclitaxel coated balloons in the peripheral arteries (femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal) for treatment of intermittent claudication or critical limb ischaemia (CLI). The literature search was last updated on 20 February 2021 without any restrictions on publication language, date, or status. Major amputations were analysed with time to event methods employing one and two stage models. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses, combinatorial meta-analysis, and a multivariable dose response meta-analysis to examine presence of a biological gradient were also performed. Results: In all, 21 RCTs with 3 760 lower limbs were analysed (52% intermittent claudication and 48% CLI; median follow up two years). There were 87 major amputations of 2 216 limbs in the paclitaxel arms (4.0% crude risk) compared with 41 major amputations in 1 544 limbs in the control arms (2.7% crude risk). The risk of major amputation was significantly higher for paclitaxel coated balloons with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.66 (95% CI 1.14 - 2.42; p = .008, one stage stratified Cox model). The prediction interval was 95% CI 1.10 - 2.46 (two stage model). The observed amputation risk was consistent for both femoropopliteal (p = .055) and infrapopliteal (p = .055) vessels. Number needed to harm was 35 for CLI. There was good evidence of a significant non-linear dose response relationship with accelerated risk per cumulative paclitaxel dose (chi square model p = .007). There was no evidence of publication bias (p = .80) and no significant statistical heterogeneity between studies (I-2 = 0%, p = .77). Results were stable across sensitivity analyses (different models and subgroups based on anatomy and clinical indication and excluding unpublished trials). There were no influential single trials. Level of certainty in evidence was downrated from high to moderate because of sparse events in some studies. Conclusion: There appears to be heightened risk of major amputation after use of paclitaxel coated balloons in the peripheral arteries. Further investigations are warranted urgently.