Browsing by Subject "Drug delivery system"

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  • Viidik, Laura; Seera, Dagmar; Antikainen, Osmo; Kogermann, Karin; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Laidmäe, Ivo (2019)
    Printing technologies combined with a computer-aided design (CAD) have found an increasing number of uses in pharmaceutical applications. In extrusion-based printing, the material is forced through a nozzle to form a three-dimensional (3D) structure pre-designed by CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3D-printability of biocompatible aqueous poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) gels and to investigate the effects of three formulation parameters on the 3D printing process. The impact of PEO concentration (gel viscosity), printing head speed and printing plate temperature was investigated at three different levels using a full factorial experimental design. The aqueous PEO gels were printed with a bench-top extrusion-based 3D printing system at an ambient room temperature. The viscosity measurements confirmed that the aqueous PEO gels follow a shear-thinning behaviour suitable for extrusion-based printing. Heating the printing plate allowed the gel to dry faster resulting in more precise printing outcome. With the non-heated plate, the gel formed a dumbbell-shaped grid instead of straight lines. Higher concentration and more viscous PEO gels formed the best structured 3D-printed lattices. In conclusion, the accuracy and precision of extrusion-based 3D printing of aqueous PEO gels is highly dependent on the formulation (PEO concentration) and printing parameters (printing head speed, plate temperature). By optimizing these critical process parameters, PEO may be suitable for printing novel drug delivery systems.
  • Kääriäinen, Tommi Olavi; Kemell, Marianna Leena; Vehkamäki, Marko Juhani; Kääriäinen, Marja-Leena; Correia, Alexandra; Almeida Santos, Helder; Marques dos Santos Bimbo, Luis Maria; Hirvonen, Jouni Tapio; Hoppu, Pekka; George, Steven M.; Cameron, David C.; Ritala, Mikko Kalervo; Leskelä, Markku Antero (2017)
    Organic solid pharmaceutical powders are used for the preparation of various drug dosage forms. Primary particles in powder form undergo several processing steps first in pharmaceutical formulations followed by pharmaceutical manufacturing to final dosage form of a drug. These unit operations involve both handling of powders in aqueous or solvent solutions and drying. There will be a probable rise for a demand for the different unit operations in the requirements of protecting the active pharmaceutical ingredient or challenges in powder handling. Besides pharmaceutical manufacturing, there are many biological interfaces where control of surface characteristics of pharmaceutical powders can improve the therapeutic response and bioavailability. In this work, we have modified acetaminophen particles with atomic layer deposition (ALD) by conformal nanometer scale coatings in a one-step coating process. According to the results, ALD comprising common chemistries for Al2O3, TiO2 and ZnO is shown to be a promising coating method for solid pharmaceutical powders. Acetaminophen does not undergo degradation during the ALD coating and maintains its stable polymorphic structure. The nanometer scale ALD coating can sustain the drug release. ALD oxide coated acetaminophen particles show different cytocompatibility assessed in in vitro intestinal Caco-2 cells.
  • Lajunen, Tatu; Nurmi, Riikka; Wilbie, Danny; Ruoslahti, Teemu; Johansson, Niklas G.; Korhonen, Ossi; Rog, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto (2018)
    Light triggered drug delivery systems offer attractive possibilities for sophisticated therapy, providing both temporal and spatial control of drug release. We have developed light triggered liposomes with clinically approved indocyanine green (ICG) as the light sensitizing compound. Amphiphilic ICG can be localized in different compartments of the liposomes, but the effect of its presence, on both triggered release and long term stability, has not been studied. In this work, we report that ICG localization has a significant effect on the properties of the liposomes. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating of the liposomes leads to binding and stabilization of the ICG molecules on the surface of the lipid bilayer. This formulation showed both good storage stability in buffer solution (at +4-37 degrees C) and adequate stability in serum and vitreous (at +37 degrees C). The combination of ICG within the lipid bilayer and PEG coating lead to poor stability at elevated temperatures of +22 degrees C and +37 degrees C. The mechanisms of the increased instability due to ICG insertion in the lipid bilayer was elucidated with molecular dynamics simulations. Significant PEG insertion into the bilayer was induced in the presence of ICG in the lipid bilayer. Finally, feasibility of freeze-drying as a long term storage method for the ICG liposomes was demonstrated. Overall, this is the first detailed study on the interactions of lipid bilayer, light sensitizer (ICG) and PEG coating on the liposome stability. The localization of the light triggering agent significantly alters the structure of the liposomes and it is important to consider these aspects in triggered drug delivery system design.