Browsing by Subject "Drug screening"

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  • Lou, Yan-Ru; Leung, Alan W. (2018)
    Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous. Currently, major challenges facing human organoid technology include (i) improving the range of cellular heterogeneity for a particular organoid system, (ii) mimicking the native micro- and matrix-environment encountered by cells within organoids, and (iii) developing robust protocols for the in vitro maturation of organoids that remain mostly fetal-like in cultures. To tackle these challenges, we advocate the principle of reverse engineering that replicates the inner workings of in vivo systems with the goal of achieving functionality and maturation of the resulting organoid structures with the input of minimal intrinsic (cellular) and environmental (matrix and niche) constituents. Here, we present an overview of organoid technology development in several systems that employ cell materials derived from fetal and adult tissues and pluripotent stem cell cultures. We focus on key studies that exploit the self-organizing property of embryonic progenitors and the role of designer matrices and cell-free scaffolds in assisting organoid formation. We further explore the relationship between adult stem cells, niche factors, and other current developments that aim to enhance robust organoid maturation. From these works, we propose a standardized pipeline for the development of future protocols that would help generate more physiologically relevant human organoids for various biomedical applications.
  • Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Tuomainen, Katja; Kivimäki, Anne; Salem, Abdelhakim; Al-Kubati, Sakhr; Hyytiäinen, Aini; Parikka, Mataleena; Mesimäki, Karri; Wilkman, Tommy; Mäkitie, Antti; Grénman, Reidar; Salo, Tuula (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Currently, in vivo model for personalised cancer drug testing is challenging. A zebrafish larvae xenograft model has been applied in recent years to cancer research, particularly for drug testing purposes, showing promising results in drug testing against patient-derived tumour xenografts. Currently, these xenograft models apply imaging techniques to measure drug efficacy. However, this method carries several limitations, including timely imaging, thereby reducing the available number of tested fish and drugs. Here, we propose a PCR-based fast assay to evaluate drug efficacy in a zebrafish larvae xenograft model. Methods We tested two primary and corresponding metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and patient-derived tongue cancer sample applying zebrafish larvae xenograft model. Cisplatin efficacy was tested using imaging technique and compared the results with PCR-based methods. Drug screening of eight compounds was applied on both cell lines and patient sample using PCR. Results In a head-to-head comparison, all the three techniques (imaging, quantitative PCR, and droplet digital PCR) showed similar reduction of the cancer cells growth after cisplatin treatment. Using the quantitative PCR assay, we demonstrated a dose-dependent response of HNSCC cells to cisplatin. Drug screening results of four HNSCC cell lines and patient sample revealed different drug efficacy between tested cancer cells. Conclusion We introduce a novel, easy, fast and cost-effective PCR-based in vivo zebrafish larvae assay to test the response of cell lines and clinical tumour samples to anti-cancer drugs. This method goes hand-by-hand with the commonly used imaging assay.
  • Heikman, Pertti Kalevi; Muhonen, Leea Hellevi; Ojanpera, Ilkka Antero (2017)
    Background: Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. Methods: This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Results: Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Conclusions: Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.
  • Heikman, Pertti K; Muhonen, Leea H; Ojanperä, Ilkka A (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Polydrug abuse is a known problem among opioid-dependent patients receiving opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). However, improved laboratory diagnostics is required to reveal polydrug abuse in its current scope. Furthermore, there are few studies focusing on the relationship between polydrug abuse and adequacy of the dose of OMT medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the polydrug abuse among opioid-dependent patients receiving OMT with inadequate (Group IA) and adequate (Group A) doses of OMT medicine as experienced by the patients. Craving for opioids and withdrawal symptoms were evaluated as indicators of the adequacy rating. Methods This is a retrospective register-based study of 60 OMT patients on either methadone or sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone medication, whose polydrug abuse was studied from urine samples by means of a comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometry method. Results Inadequate doses of the OMT medicines were associated with higher subjective withdrawal scores and craving for opioids. Six groups of abused substances (benzodiazepines, amphetamines, opioids, cannabis, new psychoactive substances, and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines) were found among OMT patients. Group IA patients showed significantly more abuse of benzodiazepines and amphetamines than the Group A patients. All the new psychoactive substances and most of the non-prescribed psychotropic medicines were detected from the Group IA patients. There was no difference in the doses of the OMT medicine between Groups IA and A patients. Conclusions Polydrug abuse, detected by definitive laboratory methods, was widespread and more common among Group IA than Group A patients, emphasizing the requirement for individual OMT medicine dose adjustment.
  • Wang, Tianduanyi; Gautam, Prson; Rousu, Juho; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    While high-throughput drug screening offers possibilities to profile phenotypic responses of hundreds of compounds, elucidation of the cell context-specific mechanisms of drug action requires additional analyses. To that end, we developed a computational target deconvolution pipeline that identifies the key target dependencies based on collective drug response patterns in each cell line separately. The pipeline combines quantitative drug-cell line responses with drug-target interaction networks among both intended on- and potent off-targets to identify pharmaceutically actionable and selective therapeutic targets. To demonstrate its performance, the target deconvolution pipeline was applied to 310 small molecules tested on 20 genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines to identify cell line-specific target mechanisms in terms of cytotoxic and cytostatic drug target vulnerabilities. The functional essentiality of each protein target was quantified with a target addiction score (TAS), as a measure of dependency of the cell line on the therapeutic target. The target dependency profiling was shown to capture inhibitory information that is complementary to that obtained from the structure or sensitivity of the drugs. Comparison of the TAS profiles and gene essentiality scores from CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens revealed that certain proteins with low gene essentiality showed high target addictions, suggesting that they might be functioning as protein groups, and therefore be resistant to single gene knock-out. The comparative analysis discovered protein groups of potential multi-target synthetic lethal interactions, for instance, among histone deacetylases (HDACs). Our integrated approach also recovered a number of well-established TNBC cell line-specific drivers and known TNBC therapeutic targets, such as HDACs and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The present work provides novel insights into druggable vulnerabilities for TNBC, and opportunities to identify multi-target synthetic lethal interactions for further studies. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.