Browsing by Subject "E-CADHERIN"

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  • Lechuga, Susana; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.; Khan, Afshin; Crawford, Bert; Narayanan, Vani; Conway, Daniel E.; Lehtimäki, Jaakko; Lappalainen, Pekka; Rieder, Florian; Longworth, Michelle S.; Ivanov, Andrei I. (2022)
    The actomyosin cytoskeleton serves as a key regulator of the integrity and remodeling of epithelial barriers by controlling assembly and functions of intercellular junctions and cell-matrix adhesions. Although biochemical mechanisms that regulate the activity of non-muscle myosin II (NM-II) in epithelial cells have been extensively investigated, little is known about assembly of the contractile myosin structures at the epithelial adhesion sites. UNC-45A is a cytoskeletal chaperone that is essential for proper folding of NM-II heavy chains and myofilament assembly. We found abundant expression of UNC-45A in human intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines and in the epithelial layer of the normal human colon. Interestingly, protein level of UNC-45A was decreased in colonic epithelium of patients with ulcerative colitis. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-out of UNC-45A in HT-29cf8 and SK-CO15 IEC disrupted epithelial barrier integrity, impaired assembly of epithelial adherence and tight junctions and attenuated cell migration. Consistently, decreased UNC-45 expression increased permeability of the Drosophila gut in vivo. The mechanisms underlying barrier disruptive and anti-migratory effects of UNC-45A depletion involved disorganization of the actomyosin bundles at epithelial junctions and the migrating cell edge. Loss of UNC-45A also decreased contractile forces at apical junctions and matrix adhesions. Expression of deletion mutants revealed roles for the myosin binding domain of UNC-45A in controlling IEC junctions and motility. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism that regulates integrity and restitution of the intestinal epithelial barrier, which may be impaired during mucosal inflammation.
  • Strauss, Robert; Li, Zong-Yi; Liu, Ying; Beyer, Ines; Persson, Jonas; Sova, Pavel; Moeller, Thomas; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli; Hamerlik, Petra; Drescher, Charles; Urban, Nicole; Bartek, Jiri; Lieber, Andre (2011)
  • Anttonen, Tommi; Kirjavainen, Anna; Belevich, Ilya; Laos, Maarja; Richardson, William D.; Jokitalo, Eija; Brakebusch, Cord; Pirvola, Ulla (2012)
  • Kuony, Alison; Michon, Frederic (2017)
    As an element of the lacrimal apparatus, the lacrimal gland (LG) produces the aqueous part of the tear film, which protects the eye surface. Therefore, a defective LG can lead to serious eyesight impairment. Up to now, little is known about LG morphogenesis and subsequent maturation. In this study, we delineated elements of the cellular and molecular events involved in LG formation by using three epithelial markers, namely aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19. While aSMA marked a restricted epithelial population of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the forming LG, Krt14 was found in the whole embryonic LG epithelial basal cell layer. Interestingly. Krt19 specifically labeled the presumptive ductal domain and subsequently, the luminal cell layer. By combining these markers, the Fucci reporter mouse strain and genetic fate mapping of the Krt14+ population, we demonstrated that LG epithelium expansion is fuelled by a patterned cell proliferation, and to a lesser extent by epithelial reorganization and possible mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We pointed out that this epithelial reorganization, which is associated with apoptosis, regulated the lumen formation. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of Notch signaling prevented the ductal identity from setting, and led to a LG covered by ectopic TEBs. Taken together our results bring a deeper understanding on LG morphogenesis, epithelial domain identity, and organ expansion.
  • Nummela, Pirjo; Leinonen, Hannele; Järvinen, Petrus; Thiel, Alexandra; Järvinen, Heikki; Lepisto, Anna; Ristimaki, Ari (2016)
    Pseudomyxoma peritonei is a fatal clinical syndrome with mucinous tumor cells disseminated into peritoneal cavity and secreting abundant mucinous ascites. The serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, and CA125 are used to monitor pseudomyxoma peritonei remission, but their expression at tissue level has not been well characterized. Herein, we analyzed expression of these proteins and the adenocarcinoma marker EpCAM in 92 appendix-derived pseudomyxoma peritonei tumors by immunohistochemistry. All tumors were found to ubiquitously express CEA and EpCAM. In the majority of the tumors (94.6%), CEA showed polarized immunostaining, but in 5 aggressive high-grade tumors containing numerous signet ring cells, a nonpolarized staining was detected. We found preoperative CEA serum values to correlate with peritoneal cancer index. However, the serum values of the advanced cases with nonpolarized staining pattern were normal, and the patients died within 5 years after diagnosis. Thus, serum CEA measurements did not reflect aggressiveness of these tumors. CA19-9 showed strong immunopositivity in most of the tumors (91.3%), and mutated enzyme FUT3 was demonstrated from the cases showing negative or weak staining. CA125 Was infrequently expressed by tumor cells (focal staining in 6.5% of the cases), but in most of the cages (79.3%), adjacent nonneoplastic mesothelial cells showed immunopositivity. As a conclusion, CEA and EpCAM are invariably expressed by pseudomyxoma peritonei tumor cells and could be exploited to targeted therapies against this malignancy. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Shen, Zhanlong; Wang, Bo; Luo, Jianyuan; Jiang, Kewei; Zhang, Hui; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Zhu, Jun; Ye, Yingjiang; Wang, Shan (2016)
    Lysine acetylated modification was indicated to impact colorectal cancer (CRC)'s distant metastasis. However, the global acetylated proteins in CRC and the differential expressed acetylated proteins and acetylated sites between CRC primary and distant metastatic tumor remains unclear. Our aim was to construct a complete atlas of acetylome in CRC and paired liver metastases. Combining high affinity enrichment of acetylated peptides with high sensitive mass spectrometry, we identified 603 acetylation sites from 316 proteins, among which 462 acetylation sites corresponding to 243 proteins were quantified. We further classified them into groups according to cell component, molecular function and biological process and analyzed the metabolic pathways, domain structures and protein interaction networks. Finally, we evaluated the differentially expressed lysine acetylation sites and revealed that 31 acetylated sites of 22 proteins were downregulated in CRC liver metastases compared to that in primary CRC while 40 acetylated sites of 32 proteins were upregulated, of which HIST2H3AK19Ac and H2BLK121Ac were the acetylated histones most changed, while TPM2 K152Ac and ADH1B K331Ac were the acetylated non-histones most altered. These results provide an expanded understanding of acetylome in CRC and its distant metastasis, and might prove applicable in the molecular targeted therapy of metastatic CRC. Biological significance: This study described provides, for the first time, that full-scale profiling of lysine acetylated proteins were identified and quantified in colorectal cancer (CRC) and paired liver metastases. The novelty of the study is that we constructed a complete atlas of acetylome in CRC and paired liver metastases. Moreover, we analyzed these differentially expressed acetylated proteins in cell component, molecular function and biological process. In addition, metabolic pathways, domain structures and protein interaction networks of acetylated proteins were also investigated. Our approaches shows that of the differentially expressed proteins, HIST2H3AK19Ac and H2BLK121Ac were the acetylated histones most changed, while TPM2 K152Ac and ADH1B K331Ac were the acetylated non-histones most altered. Our findings provide an expanded understanding of acetylome in CRC and its distant metastasis, and might prove applicable in the molecular targeted therapy of metastatic CRC. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Karvonen, Hanna; Arjama, Mariliina; Kaleva, Laura; Niininen, Wilhelmiina; Barker, Harlan; Koivisto-Korander, Riitta; Tapper, Johanna; Pakarinen, Päivi; Lassus, Heini; Loukovaara, Mikko; Bützow, Ralf; Kallioniemi, Olli; Murumägi, Astrid; Ungureanu, Daniela (2020)
    Glucocorticoids are routinely used in the clinic as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents as well as adjuvants during cancer treatment to mitigate the undesirable side effects of chemotherapy. However, recent studies have indicated that glucocorticoids may negatively impact the efficacy of chemotherapy by promoting tumor cell survival, heterogeneity, and metastasis. Here, we show that dexamethasone induces upregulation of ROR1 expression in ovarian cancer (OC), including platinum-resistant OC. Increased ROR1 expression resulted in elevated RhoA, YAP/TAZ, and BMI-1 levels in a panel of OC cell lines as well as primary ovarian cancer patient-derived cells, underlining the translational relevance of our studies. Importantly, dexamethasone induced differentiation of OC patient-derived cells ex vivo according to their molecular subtype and the phenotypic expression of cell differentiation markers. High-throughput drug testing with 528 emerging and clinical oncology compounds of OC cell lines and patient-derived cells revealed that dexamethasone treatment increased the sensitivity to several AKT/PI3K targeted kinase inhibitors, while significantly decreasing the efficacy of chemotherapeutics such as taxanes, as well as anti-apoptotic compounds such as SMAC mimetics. On the other hand, targeting ROR1 expression increased the efficacy of taxane drugs and SMAC mimetics, suggesting new combinatorial targeted treatments for patients with OC.
  • Cserni, Gabor; Floris, Giuseppe; Koufopoulos, Nektarios; Kovacs, Aniko; Nonni, Afroditi; Regitnig, Peter; Ståhls, Anders; Varga, Zsuzsanna (2017)
    Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is known to produce intracellular mucin and has been recognized in single-case reports to show extracellular mucin production, as well. This latter morphology is not only rare but must also be under- or misdiagnosed. The aim was to better characterize this entity. Cases of lobular cancers demonstrating extracellular mucin formation were identified in a multi-institutional effort and their clinical and morphologic features were assessed. Immunohistochemistry was used to characterize the E-cadherin-membrane complex, neuroendocrine differentiation, and to some extent, mucin formation. All but one of the eight cases occurred in postmenopausal patients. Extracellular mucin production was present in 5 to 50% of the tumour samples and rarely also appeared in nodal and distant metastases. The tumours were completely E-cadherin negative and showed cytoplasmic p120 positivity. The majority (n = 6/8) was also completely negative for beta-catenin, but two tumours displayed focal beta-catenin positivity in the mucinous area. MUC1 and MUC2 expression was observed in all and 7/8 tumours, respectively; neuroendocrine differentiation was present in only one. Invasive lobular carcinoma with extracellular mucin formation is a rare morphologic variant of lobular carcinoma prone to be misdiagnosed and warranting further studies.
  • Iherman-Hella, Anneliis; Lume, Maria; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Pirttiniemi, Anniina; Gui, Yujuan; Peränen, Johan; Charron, Jean; Saarma, Mart; Costantini, Frank; Kuure, Satu Helena (2014)
  • Juurikka, K.; Dufour, A.; Pehkonen, K.; Mainoli, B.; Campioni Rodrigues, P.; Solis, N.; Klein, T.; Nyberg, P.; Overall, C. M.; Salo, T.; Åström, P. (2021)
    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) modify bioactive factors via selective processing or degradation resulting in tumour-promoting or tumour-suppressive effects, such as those by MMP8 in various cancers. We mapped the substrates of MMP8 to elucidate its previously shown tumour-protective role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). MMP8 overexpressing (+) HSC-3 cells, previously demonstrated to have reduced migration and invasion, showed enhanced cell-cell adhesion. By analysing the secretomes of MMP8 + and control cells with terminal amine isotopic labelling of substrates (TAILS) coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we identified 36 potential substrates of MMP8, including FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 5 (FXYD5). An anti-adhesive glycoprotein FXYD5 has been previously shown to predict poor survival in OTSCC. Cleavage of FXYD5 by MMP8 was confirmed using recombinant proteins. Furthermore, we detected a loss of FXYD5 levels on cell membrane of MMP8 + cells, which was rescued by inhibition of the proteolytic activity of MMP8. Silencing (si) FXYD5 increased the cell-cell adhesion of control but not that of MMP8 + cells. siFXYD5 diminished the viability and motility of HSC-3 cells independent of MMP8 and similar effects were seen in another tongue cancer cell line, SCC-25. FXYD5 is a novel substrate of MMP8 and reducing FXYD5 levels either with siRNA or cleavage by MMP8 increases cell adhesion leading to reduced motility. FXYD5 being a known prognostic factor in OTSCC, our findings strengthen its potential as a therapeutic target.
  • Mäkelä, Katri; Nordfors, Kristiina; Finne, Jukka; Jokilammi, Anne; Paavonen, Timo; Haapasalo, Hannu; Korja, Miikka; Haapasalo, Joonas (2014)
  • Niinivirta, Aino; Salo, Tuula; Åström, Pirjo; Juurikka, Krista; Risteli, Maija (2022)
    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and novel prognostic factors are reported with increasing numbers. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on cumulative research data are crucial in estimating the true prognostic value of proposed factors. Dysadherin (FXYD Domain Containing Ion Transport Regulator 5; FXYD5) is a cell membrane glycoprotein that modulates Na+, K+-ATPase activity and cell-cell adhesion. It is abundantly expressed in a variety of cancer cells, but only in a limited number of normal cells and its levels are increased in many different tumor types. The expression or level of dysadherin has been suggested as an independent predictor for metastasis and poor prognosis by number of studies, yet we lack a definitive answer. In this study, we systematically evaluated the prognostic value of dysadherin in cancer and summarized the current knowledge on the subject. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and relevant clinical trial and preprint databases were searched for relevant publications and PRISMA and REMARK guidelines were applied in the process. After a careful review, a total of 23 original research articles were included. In each study, dysadherin was pointed as a marker for poor prognosis. Meta-analyses revealed 3- and 1.5-fold increases in the risk of death (fixed effects HR 3.08, 95% CI 1.88-5.06, RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06-2.05 on overall survival, respectively) for patients with high (> 50%) tumoral FXYD5 level. In many studies, a connection between dysadherin expression or level and metastatic behavior of the cancer as well as inverse correlation with E-cadherin level were reported. Thus, we conclude that dysadherin might be a useful prognostic biomarker in the assessment of disease survival of patients with solid tumors.
  • Saukkonen, Kapo; Hagstrom, Jaana; Mustonen, Harri; Juuti, Anne; Nordling, Stig; Kallio, Pauliina; Alitalo, Kari; Seppanen, Hanna; Haglund, Caj (2016)
    Background: The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway has a key role in regulating cellular processes and its aberrant signaling can lead to cancer development. The role of beta-catenin expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is somewhat controversial. Transcription factor PROX1 is a target of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and it is involved in carcinogenesis through alterations in its expression. The actions can be either oncogenic or tumor suppressive depending on the tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate PROX1 and beta-catenin expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Methods: Expression of PROX1 and beta-catenin were evaluated in 156 patients by immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays. Associations between tumor marker expression and clinicopathological parameters were assessed by the Fischer's exact-test or the linear-by-linear association test. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used for survival analysis. Uni- and multivariate survival analyses were carried out by the Cox regression proportional hazard model. Results: High PROX1 expression was seen in 74 (48 %) tumors, and high beta-catenin expression in 100 (65 %). High beta-catenin expression was associated with lower tumor grade (p = 0.025). High PROX1 and beta-catenin expression associated significantly with lower risk of death from PDAC in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.63; 95 % CI 0.42-0.95, p = 0.026; and HR = 0.54; 95 % CI 0.35-0.82, p = 0.004; respectively). The combined high expression of PROX1 and beta-catenin also predicted lower risk of death from PDAC (HR = 0.46; 95 % CI 0.28-0.76, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In conclusion, high PROX1 and beta-catenin expression were independent factors for better prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Huang, Yunxian; Gui, Jinghua; Myllymäki, Satu-Marja; Roy, Kallol; Tonissoo, Tambet; Mikkola, Marja L.; Shimmi, Osamu (2022)
    Epithelial homeostasis is an emergent property of both physical and biochemical signals emanating from neighboring cells and across tissue. A recent study reveals that Scribble, an apico-basal polarity determinant, cooperates with alpha-Catenin, an adherens junction component, to regulate tissue homeostasis in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. However, it remains to be addressed whether similar mechanisms are utilized in vertebrates. In this study, we first address how alpha-Catenin cooperates with Scribble to regulate epithelial homeostasis and growth in mammalian cells. Our data show that alpha-Catenin and Scribble interact physically in mammalian cells. We then found that both alpha-Catenin and Scribble are required for regulating nuclear translocation of YAP, an effector of the Hippo signaling pathway. Furthermore, ectopic Scribble suffices to suppress YAP in an alpha-Catenin-dependent manner. Then, to test our hypothesis that Scribble amounts impact epithelial growth, we use the Drosophila wing imaginal disc. We show that Scribble expression is complementary to Yorkie signal, the Drosophila ortholog of YAP. Ectopic expression of full-length Scribble or Scribble Leucine Rich Region (LRR):alpha-Catenin chimera sufficiently down-regulates Yorkie signal, leading to smaller wing size. Moreover, Scribble LRR:alpha-Catenin chimera rescues scribble mutant clones in the wing imaginal disc to maintain tissue homeostasis. Taken together, our studies suggest that the association of cell polarity component Scribble with alpha-Catenin plays a conserved role in epithelial homeostasis and growth.
  • Heinosalo, T.; Gabriel, M.; Kallio, L.; Adhikari, P.; Huhtinen, K.; Laajala, T. D.; Kaikkonen, E.; Mehmood, A.; Suvitie, P.; Kujari, H.; Aittokallio, T.; Perheentupa, A.; Poutanen, M. (2018)
    STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of SFRP2 in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: SFRP2 acts as a canonical WNT/CTNNBI signaling agonist in endometriosis, regulating endometriosis lesion growth and indicating endometriosis lesion borders together with CTNNBI (also known as beta catenin). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriosis is a common, chronic disease that affects women of reproductive age, causing pain and infertility, and has significant economic impact on national health systems. Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of endometriosis is poorly understood, and targeted medical treatments are lacking. WNT signaling is dysregulated in various human diseases, but its role in extraovarian endometriosis has not been fully elucidated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We evaluated the significance of WNT signaling, and especially secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2), in extraovarian endometriosis, including peritoneal and deep lesions. The study design was based on a cohort of clinical samples collected by laparoscopy or curettage and questionnaire data from healthy controls and endometriosis patients. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Global gene expression analysis in human endometrium ( n = 104) and endometriosis (n = 177) specimens from 47 healthy controls and 103 endometriosis patients was followed by bioinformatics and supportive qPCR analyses. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, primary cell culture and siRNA knockdown approaches were used to validate the findings. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Among the 220 WNT signaling and CTNNBI target genes analysed, 184 genes showed differential expression in extraovarian endometriosis (P <0.05) compared with endometrium tissue, including SFRP2 and CTNNI. Menstrual cycle-dependent regulation of WNT genes observed in the endometrium was lost in endometriosis lesions, as shown by hierarchical clustering. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that SFRP2 and CTNNBI are novel endometriosis lesion border markers, complementing immunostaining for the known marker CD10 (also known as MME). SFRP2 and CTNNBI localized similarly in both the epithelium and stroma of extraovarian endometriosis tissue, and interestingly, both also indicated an additional distant lesion border, suggesting that WNT signaling is altered in the endometriosis stroma beyond the primary border indicated by the known marker CD10. SFRP2 expression was positively associated with pain symptoms experienced by patients (P <0.05), and functional loss of SFRP2 in extraovarian endometriosis primary cell cultures resulted in decreased cell proliferation (P <0.05) associated with reduced CTNNBI protein expression (P = 0.05). LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION: SFRP2 and CTNNBI improved extraovarian endometriosis lesion border detection in a relatively small cohort (n = 20), although larger studies with different endometriosis subtypes in variable cycle phases and under hormonal medication are required. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The highly expressed SFRP2 and CTNNBI improve endometriosis lesion border detection, which can have clinical implications for better visualization of endometriosis lesions over CD10. Furthermore, SFRP2 acts as a canonical WNT/CTNNBI signaling agonist in endometriosis and positively regulates endometriosis lesion growth, suggesting that the WNT pathway may be an important therapeutic target for endometriosis.
  • Hildebrand, Sebastian; Hultin, Sara; Subramani, Aravindh; Petropoulos, Sophie; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xiaofang; Mpindi, John; Kallioniemi, Olli; Johansson, Staffan; Majumdar, Arindam; Lanner, Fredrik; Holmgren, Lars (2017)
    Epithelial cells connect via cell-cell junctions to form sheets of cells with separate cellular compartments. These cellular connections are essential for the generation of cellular forms and shapes consistent with organ function. Tissue modulation is dependent on the fine-tuning of mechanical forces that are transmitted in part through the actin connection to E-cadherin as well as other components in the adherens junctions. In this report we show that p100 amotL2 forms a complex with E-cadherin that associates with radial actin filaments connecting cells over multiple layers. Genetic inactivation or depletion of amotL2 in epithelial cells in vitro or zebrafish and mouse in vivo, resulted in the loss of contractile actin filaments and perturbed epithelial packing geometry. We further showed that AMOTL2 mRNA and protein was expressed in the trophectoderm of human and mouse blastocysts. Genetic inactivation of amotL2 did not affect cellular differentiation but blocked hatching of the blastocysts from the zona pellucida. These results were mimicked by treatment with the myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin. We propose that the tension generated by the E-cadherin/AmotL2/actin filaments plays a crucial role in developmental processes such as epithelial geometrical packing as well as generation of forces required for blastocyst hatching.
  • de Back, Walter; Zimm, Roland; Brusch, Lutz (2013)
    Background: Replacement of dysfunctional beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells has been proposed as a regenerative therapy for diabetes. Adult acinar cells spontaneously revert to a multipotent state upon tissue dissociation in vitro and can be stimulated to redifferentiate into beta-cells. Despite accumulating evidence that contact-mediated signals are involved, the mechanisms regulating acinar-to-islet cell transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. Results: In this study, we propose that the crosstalk between two contact-mediated signaling mechanisms, lateral inhibition and lateral stabilization, controls cell fate stability and transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells. Analysis of a mathematical model combining gene regulation with contact-mediated signaling reveals the multistability of acinar and islet cell fates. Inhibition of one or both modes of signaling results in transdifferentiation from the acinar to the islet cell fate, either by dedifferentiation to a multipotent state or by direct lineage switching. Conclusions: This study provides a theoretical framework to understand the role of contact-mediated signaling in pancreatic cell fate control that may help to improve acinar-to-islet cell transdifferentiation strategies for beta-cell neogenesis.