Browsing by Subject "EARLY-CHILDHOOD"

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  • Huvinen, Emilia; Tuomaala, Anna-Kaisa; Bergman, Paula H.; Meinilä, Jelena; Tammelin, Tuija; Kulmala, Janne; Engberg, Elina; Koivusalo, Saila B. (2021)
    Context: Early growth is associated with childhood adiposity, but the influence of lifestyle remains unknown. Objective: This work aimed to investigate the association of growth profiles from high-risk pregnancies with adiposity at age 5 years, taking into account lifestyle and several antenatal/postnatal exposures. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 609 children born during the Finnish Gestational Diabetes Prevention Study (RADIEL), recruiting women with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30 and/or prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (2008-2013). Altogether 332 children attended the 5-year follow-up (2014-2017). Main outcome measures included growth profiles based on ponderal index (PI = weight/height(3)), investigated using latent class mixed models. Adiposity was assessed with anthropometrics and body composition (InBody720). Results: We identified 3 growth profiles: ascending (n = 82), intermediate (n = 351), and descending (n = 149). Children with ascending growth had a higher body fat percentage, ISO-BMI, and waist circumference (P Conclusion: Accelerated early growth was associated with higher adiposity in 5-year-old children from high-risk pregnancies, even when adjusted for lifestyle. Reducing cesarean deliveries and promoting breastfeeding may be beneficial for postnatal growth.
  • Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen (2018)
    Importance Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. Objective To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. Design, Setting, and Participants This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive’s registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Exposures Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Main Outcomes and Measures Offspring’s initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Results Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in 2012 among survivors was 45.4 (6.58) years. Female offspring of mothers evacuated to Sweden during childhood had an elevated risk of psychiatric hospitalization (hazard ratio for any type of psychiatric disorder: 2.04 [95% CI, 1.04-4.01]; hazard ratio for mood disorder: 4.68 [95% CI, 1.92-11.42]). There was no excess risk of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder among women whose fathers were exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy during World War II or among men whose mothers or fathers were exposed. Conclusions and Relevance In a prior follow-up study of the Finnish evacuees, girls evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II were more likely to be hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder—in particular, a mood disorder—in adulthood than their nonevacuated sisters. The present study found that the offspring of these individuals were also at risk for mental health problems that required hospitalization and suggests that early-life adversities, including war-related exposures, may be associated with mental health disorders that persist across generations.
  • Eshriqui, Ilana; Viljakainen, Heli T.; Ferreira, Sandra; Raju, Sajan C.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Figueiredo, Rejane A. O. (2020)
    Background Breastfeeding contributes to gastrointestinal microbiota colonization in early life, but its long-term impact is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate whether the type of feeding during the first six months of life was associated with oral microbiota in adolescence. Methods This is a cross-sectional sub-study using baseline information of 423 adolescents from the Finnish Health in Teens (Fin-HIT) cohort. Type of feeding was recalled by parents and dichotomized as (i) No infant formula; (ii) Infant formula (breastmilk + formula or only formula). Saliva microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA (V3-V4) sequencing. Alpha diversity and beta diversity were compared between feeding type groups using ANCOVA and PERMANOVA, respectively. Differential bacteria abundance was tested using appropriate general linear models. Results Mean age and body mass index were 11.7 years and 18.0 kg/m(2), respectively. The No formula group contained 41% of the participants. Firmicutes (51.0%), Bacteroidetes (19.1%), and Proteobacteria (16.3%) were the most abundant phyla among all participants. Alpha and beta diversity indices did not differ between the two feeding groups. Three Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to Eubacteria and Veillonella genera (phylum Firmicutes) were more abundant in the No formula than in the Infant formula group (log2fold changes/ p - values - 0.920/ <0.001, - 0.328/ 0.001, - 0.577/ 0.004). Conclusion Differences exist in abundances of some OTUs in adolescence according to feeding type during the first six months of life, but our findings do not support diversity and overall oral microbiota composition in adolescents being affected by early feeding type.
  • Suhonen, Eira; Sajaniemi, Nina K.; Alijoki, Alisa; Nislin, Mari A. (2018)
    We aimed to investigate stress response regulation, temperament, cognitive and language abilities and family SES in children who entered kindergarten before two years of age. Whilst childrens stress regulatory systems are vulnerable to environmental influences little is known about how temperament and family characteristics impact on stress regulation in early years. Participants were 129 children (age 7 to 23 months) from 29 kindergartens. Stress response regulation was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Cognitive and language abilities were assessed using Bayley-III and children temperament with ECBQ-questionnaire. Family characteristics were assessed with surveys. Results suggest that children are alerted during kindergarten day, but their stress response regulation is balanced. Girls and boys differed in cognitive and language abilities. We propose that childrens individual needs should be better acknowledged in kindergartens.
  • Veijalainen, Jouni; Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira (2019)
    Background: A large body of earlier research has focused on studying children's self-regulation (SR) skills and frustration with different methods. However, considerably less attention has been given to hearing children's own voice. The current study sought to demonstrate children's own comprehension and highlight it as a valuable and unique tendency to fill the scientific gap in the research area. Aim: This research aimed to contribute the empirical understanding of how SR, as mental ability, supported children's coping strategies and comprehensions which they will possibly use in a hypothetical frustrated context in the Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC) environment. Setting: Self-regulation and strategies in a frustrating context were studied with mixed methods in a sample (n = 383) of 48-87-month-old children in Finland. Self-regulation was assessed by their own teachers with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied by interview where the children's open-ended descriptions provided the strategies told by themselves. Methods: The study's was conducted by using mixed methods. Two independent instruments to measure SR and strategies for frustration were used. Self-regulation was assessed by teacher with an evaluation form. The coping strategies of frustration were studied via child interview. Results: Good SR skills were related to persistent coping strategies and not giving up in a simulated situation. Weak SR skills related more with uncertain or withdrawal coping strategies, like giving up, or abandoning the situation. Conclusion: Self-regulation skills have an important role in guiding children with their use and narration of suitable coping strategies on overcoming the frustration effectively. The concrete strategies would allow teachers to work concretely with children in enhancing their SR skills and coping strategies further.
  • Rautakoski, Pirkko; Ursin, Piia af; Carter, Alice S.; Kaljonen, Anne; Nylund, Annette; Pihlaja, Päivi (2021)
    Introduction Studies have shown that many children with early language difficulties also have delays in social-emotional competencies as well as social-emotional and behavioral problems. It is unclear if these conditions are causally related, if they share a common underlying etiology, or if there are bidirectional effects. Studies investigating these associations have mostly involved children who are already using words to communicate, but it is important to know whether delays in preverbal communication and language development have any effects on these associations. The aim of the present study was to examine associations between preverbal communication and early verbal skills in infancy and subsequent social-emotional competencies and ensuing social-emotional and behavioral problems in early toddlerhood. The role of background factors known to influence early language development was also examined. Methods The sample consisted of 395 children (51.6% boys) from the Finnish Steps Study cohort. Language was assessed at age 13 months (+ 1 month) with the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for Infants (CDI-I), and the social-emotional domain was assessed at age < 17 months with the Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA). Results Infants with lower preverbal gestural communication and receptive language skills had a higher risk of delays in social-emotional competencies in toddlerhood than children with better communication skills, but not of elevated social-emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions The results indicate that lower early communication skills can predict delays in the development of social-emotional competencies, which has been found to be a risk factor for later development of social-emotional and behavioral problems. It is important to monitor early communication skills to provide guidance to parents in supporting early pragmatic communication and language development in infancy, if needed.
  • Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Osmond, Clive; Forsen, Tom; Yliharsila, Hilkka; Paile-Hyvarinen, Maria; Barker, D. J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G. (2011)
  • Korhonen, Laura; Seiskari, Tapio; Lehtonen, Jussi; Puustinen, Leena; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Haapala, Anna-Maija; Niemelä, Onni; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Honkanen, Hanna; Karjalainen, Mira; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Lönnrot, Maria; Hyöty, Heikki (2018)
    Background: Prenatal environment has been shown to influence child's risk of atopic diseases. Laboratory-confirmed data about the role of maternal infections during pregnancy is scarce. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the associations between serologically confirmed maternal infections during pregnancy and atopic disease in the offspring. Methods: This was a nested case-control study within a prospective birth cohort study. Altogether 202 atopic case children and 333 matched non-atopic control children were included. Atopic outcome was defined as having an atopic disease and IgE sensitization by the age of 5 years. We analysed serologically acute enterovirus (EV), influenza virus A (IAV) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infections during pregnancy, and mother's seropositivity against human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Helicobacter pylori. Results: Maternal EV infection during pregnancy was inversely associated with atopic outcome in the offspring (odds ratio 0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.23-0.80, P = 0.008). Acute IAV or M. pneumoniae infections or seropositivity against CMV or Helicobacter pylori were not associated with the atopic outcome. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Our results suggest that maternal EV infections during pregnancy are inversely associated with atopic disease in the offspring. Our finding provides further support to the previous studies suggesting an important role of the in utero environment in the development of atopic diseases.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Korkalo, Liisa; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Mäkitie, Outi M.; Andersson, Sture; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2017)
    The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739 healthy infants were studied. Dietary intake and breastfeeding frequency were assessed with a three-day food record at 1 year of age. Dietary intake was calculated separately for non-breastfed and breastfed infants. One-third (36%) of the infants were partially breastfed and 95% consumed mass-produced baby foods. The infants' diet consisted mainly of infant formula, dairy milk, porridges, fruit and berry foods, and meat dishes. The mean vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was 199 g/day. Most nutrient intakes were adequate except for fat, linoleic acid, vitamin D and iron from food. Mean sucrose intake, as a percentage of total energy intake (E%), was 5-6 E%. High protein intake (>20 E%) was observed in 19% of non-breastfed infants. Overall, the infants' diet was favorable since vegetable and fruit consumption was reasonably high and nutrient intake was mostly adequate. However, the fat intake was lower, and protein intake higher than recommended. Increasing the consumption of vegetable oils and reducing the intake of red meat and dairy milk may further improve the diet of 1-year-olds.
  • Rosendahl, Jenni; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Helve, Otto; Hauta-alus, Helena; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Valkama, Saara; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Viljakainen, Heli; Hytinantti, Timo; Mäkitie, Outi; Andersson, Sture; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2019)
    Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation dose on allergic sensitization and allergic diseases in infants, and to evaluate whether vitamin D status in pregnancy and at birth are associated with infant allergy outcomes. Study design Altogether, 975 infants participated in a randomized, controlled trial of daily vitamin D supplementation of 10 mu g (400 IU) or 30 mu g (1200 IU) from the age of 2 weeks. At 12 months of age, food and aeroallergen IgE antibodies were measured, and the occurrence of allergic diseases and wheezing were evaluated. Results We found no differences between the vitamin D supplementation groups in food (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.66-1.46) or aeroallergen sensitization at 12 months (OR, 0.76; 95% CI,0.34-1.71). Allergic diseases or wheezing did not differ between groups, except for milk allergy which occurred more often in infants administered 30 mu g vitamin D compared with the 10 mu g dose (OR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.00-4.96). Infants with high cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D (>= 100 nmol/L) had a higher risk of food allergen sensitization compared with those with lower 25(OH)D concentration (75-99.9 nmol/L; OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.19-3.39). Conclusions High-dose vitamin D supplementation did not prevent allergic sensitization, allergic diseases, or wheezing during the first year of life. In contrast, we observed an increased risk of milk allergy in infants randomized to higher vitamin D supplementation, and an increased risk of allergic sensitization in infants with high cord blood vitamin D status, indicating a possible adverse effect of high concentrations of vitamin D.
  • Määttä, Suvi; Konttinen, Hanna; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Haukkala, Ari; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2020)
    Background Prechoolers' significant portions of sedentary time (ST) is a public-health concern due to its high prevalence and negative health consequences. However, few studies have explored correlates of preschoolers' ST covering individual-, home- and preschool- factors within one study. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between multiple individual-, home- and preschool-level factors and preschoolers' ST. In addition, it was studied how much individual-, home- and preschool-level factors explained the variance in children's ST. Methods A total of 864 children aged three to six, their parents and 66 preschools participated in the cross-sectional DAGIS study, which occurred between 2015 and 2016. The children wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Guardians, principals and early educators completed questionnaires covering the potential correlates of children's ST, for example, temperament, practices, self-efficacy and regulations. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted in multiple steps; calculation of marginal and conditional R-2 values occurred in the final phase. Results Of the 29 studied correlates, the following factors remained significant in the final models. Being a boy (p <0.001) and having high levels of surgency temperament (p <0.001) were associated with lower ST. Regarding the home setting, frequent co-visits in physical activity (PA) places (p = 0.014) were associated with lower ST. Higher parental perceived barriers related to children's outside PA (p = 0.032) was associated with higher ST. None of the preschool setting factors remained significant in the final model. Approximately 11% of the variance in children's ST was attributed to factors related to the individual level whereas 5% was attributed to home-level factors; and 2% to preschool-level factors. Conclusions This study identified a set of correlates of preschool children's ST. Interventions aimed at reducing children's ST should develop strategies targeting established correlates of preschoolers' ST covering individual-, home- and preschool-level factors. The preschool-level factors included in this study explained little the variance in children's ST. However, the included measures may not have captured the essential preschool-level factors that specifically influence children's ST. Therefore, more studies are needed regarding potential preschool-level factors.
  • Haapala, Sini; Niemitalo-Haapola, Elina; Raappana, Antti; Kujala, Tiia; Suominen, Kalervo; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Kujala, Teija (2016)
    Background: A large group of young children are exposed to repetitive middle ear infections but the effects of the fluctuating hearing sensations on immature central auditory system are not fully understood. The present study investigated the consequences of early childhood recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) on involuntary auditory attention switching. Methods: By utilizing auditory event-related potentials, neural mechanisms of involuntary attention were studied in 22-26 month-old children (N = 18) who had had an early childhood RAOM and healthy controls (N = 19). The earlier and later phase of the P3a (eP3a and lP3a) and the late negativity (LN) were measured for embedded novel sounds in the passive multi-feature paradigm with repeating standard and deviant syllable stimuli. The children with RAOM had tympanostomy tubes inserted and all the children in both study groups had to have clinically healthy ears at the time of the measurement assessed by an otolaryngologist. Results: The results showed that lP3a amplitude diminished less from frontal to central and parietal areas in the children with RAOM than the controls. This might reflect an immature control of involuntary attention switch. Furthermore, the LN latency was longer in children with RAOM than in the controls, which suggests delayed reorientation of attention in RAOM. Conclusions: The lP3a and LN responses are affected in toddlers who have had a RAOM even when their ears are healthy. This suggests detrimental long-term effects of RAOM on the neural mechanisms of involuntary attention.
  • Toffol, Elena; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Lahti, Jari; Lipsanen, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Villa, Pia M.; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Objective: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with poor offspring sleep. Yet, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain time periods in pregnancy, whether associations are specific to pregnancy stage, whether maternal symptomatology after pregnancy mediates or adds to the prenatal effects, and whether any effects are specific to some child sleep characteristics. Methods: A total of 2321 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly between gestational weeks thorn days 12 + 0/13 + 6 and 38 + 0/39 + 6. At child's mean age of 3.5 (standard deviation = 0.7) years, mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and answered questions on child sleep quantity and quality using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and sleep disorders using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Results: Maternal depressive symptoms showed high stability throughout pregnancy. Children of mothers with clinically significant symptomatology throughout pregnancy had shorter mother-rated sleep duration, longer sleep latency, higher odds for waking up two or more times during the night and for total and several specific sleep disorders. These associations were robust to covariates. However, maternal depressive symptoms at the child follow-up fully mediated the associations with sleep duration and awakenings, partially mediated those with sleep latency and disorders, and added to the effects on sleep disorders. Conclusion: Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with mother-rated child sleep quantity, quality, and disorders. Maternal depressive symptoms at child follow-up mediate and add to the prenatal adverse effects on child sleep characteristics. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tuokkola, Jetta; Luukkainen, Päivi; Kaila, Minna; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Niinisto, Sari; Veijola, Riitta; Virta, Lauri J.; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2016)
    Maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation potentially influences the development of allergic diseases. Cows' milk allergy (CMA) is often the first manifestation of atopic diseases, but the impact of early nutritional influences on CMA has not been explored. The associations between maternal intakes of folate, folic acid and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation were addressed in a prospective, population-based birth cohort within the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. Mothers of 4921 children during pregnancy and 2940 children during lactation provided information on maternal dietary intake during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation using a detailed, validated FFQ. Information on diagnosed CMA in the offspring was obtained from a medical registry as well as queried from the parents. The Finnish food composition database was used to calculate nutrient intake. Logistic regression was applied for statistical analyses. Folate intake and folic acid and vitamin D supplement use were associated with an increased risk of CMA in the offspring, whereas vitamin D intake from foods during pregnancy was associated with a decreased risk of CMA. Thus, maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy and lactation may affect the development of CMA in offspring. Supplementation with folic acid may not be beneficial in terms of CMA development, especially in children of allergic mothers. The association between dietary supplement use and CMA risk can at least partly be explained by increased health-seeking behaviour among more educated mothers who also use more dietary supplements.
  • Siljander, Heli; Honkanen, Jarno; Knip, Mikael (2019)
    The steep increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D), in the Western world after World War II, cannot be explained solely by genetic factors but implies that this rise must be due to crucial interactions between predisposing genes and environmental changes. Three parallel phenomena in early childhood – the dynamic development of the immune system, maturation of the gut microbiome, and the appearance of the first T1D-associated autoantibodies – raise the question whether these phenomena might reflect causative relationships. Plenty of novel data on the role of the microbiome in the development of T1D has been published over recent years and this review summarizes recent findings regarding the associations between islet autoimmunity, T1D, and the intestinal microbiota.
  • Mäkelä, Tiina E.; Peltola, Mikko J.; Nieminen, Pirkko; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli (2018)
    Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (>= 3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (
  • Määttä, Suvi; Konttinen, Hanna; Haukkala, Ari; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2017)
    Objectives This study examined the associations of parental socioeconomic status (SES) with preschoolers' objectively measured sedentary time (SED) over the course of a week and with parent-reported children's screen and reading times at home as indicators of sedentary behaviours (SB). Design Cross-sectional. Setting In years 2015 and 2016 in Finland. Participants 864 children, aged 3-6 years, with their parents. Outcome measures Children's accelerometer data were transformed into average SED minutes per hour in different contexts (preschool, home during preschool days, weekend and total). Parent-reported children's screen and reading times were expressed as average daily minutes. The SES indicators (maternal and paternal education and relative household income) were grouped into three categories. Linear or logistic regression analyses were used, with municipality, season, and children's gender and age as covariates. CIs were adjusted for clustering at the preschool group level. Results Children with low maternal (beta=17.21, 95% CI: 8.71 to 25.71) and paternal (beta=10.54, 95% CI: 0.77 to 20.30) education had more overall screen time at home than their more advantaged counterparts. SES differences in overall screen time were mostly explained by TV viewing. Children with low as opposed to high maternal education (beta=-2.66, 95% CI: -4.95 to -0.38) had less reading time at home. Children whose fathers were on the middle (beta=-1.15, 95% CI: -2.01 to -0.29) educational level had less weekend SED than those with high paternal education. Otherwise, parental SES was not related to objectively measured SED. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the fact that the associations between parental SES and preschoolers' SB are dependent on the indicators of SES and SBs, and vary between different contexts. Generally, parental SES was not associated with SED, whereas some SES differences existed in screen time and reading time at home. Interventions aiming to diminish SES differences in children's SB should focus on home hours.
  • Määttä, Suvi; Konttinen, Hanna; Lehto, Reetta; Haukkala, Ari; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Preschool children's high levels of sedentary time (ST) is a public health concern. As preschool reaches a large population of children from different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds, more knowledge on how the preschool setting is associated with children's ST is relevant. Our aims were to examine (1) the associations of preschool setting (covering social, physical, and organizational level) with children's ST, and (2) the moderating role of the setting on the association between parental SES and children's ST. In the cross-sectional DAGIS (increased health and wellbeing in preschools) study, the participating children (n = 864, aged 3-6 years) were asked to wear an accelerometer for one week. In total, 779 children had valid ST accelerometer data during preschool hours. Preschool setting and parental SES was assessed by questionnaires and observation. Multilevel linear regression models with cross-level interactions were applied to examine the associations. Early educators' practice of breaking children's ST often, more frequent physical activity (PA) theme weeks, and higher number of physical education (PE) lessons were associated with lower children's ST. Higher parental SES was associated with higher children's ST in preschools (1) with organized sedentary behavior theme weeks, (2) with a lower number of PA theme weeks, and (3) with a lower number of PE lessons. The factors identified in this study could be targeted in future interventions.
  • Maria, Ambika; Nissilä, Ilkka; Shekhar, Shashank; Kotilahti, Kalle; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Hirvi, Pauliina; Huotilainen, Minna; Heiskala, Juha; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse (2020)
    Background: Maternal pregnancy-related anxiety (PRA) is reportedly related to neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants. However, the relationship between maternal PRA and the processing of emotions in the infant brain has not been extensively studied with neuroimaging. The objective of the present pilot study is to investigate the relationship between maternal PRA and infant hemodynamic responses to emotional speech at two months of age. Methods: The study sample included 19 mother-infant dyads from a general sample of a population of Caucasian mothers. Self-reported Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R2) data was collected from mothers during pregnancy at gestational weeks (gwks) 24 (N = 19) and 34 (N = 18). When their infants were two months old, the infants' brains functional responses to emotional speech in the left fronto-temporoparietal cortex were recorded using diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results: Maternal PRAQ-R2 scores at gwk 24 correlated negatively with the total hemoglobin (HbT) responses to sad speech on both sides of the temporoparietal junction (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho = -0.87). The correlation was significantly greater at gwk 24 than gwk 34 (rho = -0.42). Limitations: The field of view of the measurement did not include the right hemisphere or parts of the frontal cortex. The sample size is moderate and the mothers were relatively highly educated, thus there may be some differences between the study sample and the general population. Conclusions: Maternal pregnancy-related anxiety may affect child brain emotion processing development. Further research is needed to understand the functional and developmental significance of the findings.
  • Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer (2016)
    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively.