Browsing by Subject "EARLY-PREGNANCY"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Montserrat Rivera del Alamo, Maria; Reilas, Tiina; Galvao, Antonio; Yeste, Marc; Katila, Terttu (2018)
    Treatment with intrauterine devices (IUD) prolongs luteal phases in mares, but the mechanism for this has not been fully elucidated. The aims of the present study were to examine how IUDs affect the uterus to induce longer luteal phases, particularly the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the maintenance of the corpus luteum (CL). Twenty-seven reproductively normal mares were included: 12 were inseminated (AI), and 15 were fitted with IUDs. Blood samples for progesterone were obtained on Days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 15 (relative to day of ovulation). The groups were further divided into non-pregnant (AI-N, n = 4), pregnant (AI-P, n = 8), normal (IUD-N, n = 8) and prolonged luteal phase (IUD-P, n = 7) based on ultrasonic examinations and serum progesterone concentrations on Days 14 and 15. Blood sampling to quantify the PGF(2 alpha) metabolite (PGFM) was performed through a catheter hourly from 15:00 to 20:00 h on Day 14, and from 6:00 until 13:00 h on Day 15. On Day 15, a low-volume uterine lavage followed by an endometrial biopsy was performed. Estradiol concentration in the Day 15 serum and lavage fluid was determined, while the abundance of COX-2 was evaluated in the biopsy specimens using western blotting (WB) and irnmunohistochemistry (IHC). All pregnant mares were negative for COX-2 in IHC samples and 5 of 8 were negative in WB samples while all mares of the IUD-N group were positive for COX-2. Of the seven mares in the IUD-P group, five and four were negative for COX-2 with the IHC and WB samples, respectively. The results from this study indicate that IUDs, when effective, suppress COX-2, leading to the inhibition of PGF2 alpha release and maintenance of CL.
  • Tuovinen, Soile; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Heinonen, Kati; Lahti, Jari; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Hamalainen, Esa; Villa, Pia M.; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Raikkonen, Katri (2021)
    Background: Maternal antenatal stress, including symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress, is associated with mental and behavioral problems in children. Whether it is associated with child mental and behavioral disorders remains uncertain. We examined if maternal antenatal symptoms of depression, anxiety and perceived stress were associated with mental and behavioral disorders in their children, if the associations varied according to gestational week, stress type, fluctuating or consistently high symptoms, and if they were driven by maternal or paternal lifetime mood or anxiety disorders. Methods: 3365 mothers participating in the Prediction and Prevention of Preeclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the State Anxiety Inventory and the Perceived Stress Scale up to 14 times throughout pregnancy. The Care Register for Health Care provided data on mental and behavioral (including neurodevelopmental) disorders for their children from birth (11/07/2006-07/24/2010) until 12/31/2016 and for parental lifetime mood and anxiety disorders until 12/31/ 2016. Results: The hazard of any childhood mental and behavioral disorder (HR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.39-2.51) was significantly higher for children whose mothers reported consistently high in comparison to consistently low levels of all types of stress throughout pregnancy. The associations remained significant when adjusted for maternal and paternal lifetime mood and anxiety disorders (and their comorbidity and timing and mood disorder type). Conclusion: Maternal antenatal stress is associated with higher risk of childhood mental and behavioral disorders. Efforts to reduce maternal antenatal stress should be given a high priority to improve child mental health.
  • Keikkala, Elina; Forsten, Janina; Ritvos, Olli; Stenman, Ulf-Håkan; Kajantie, Eero; Hämäläinen, Esa; Räikkönen, Katri; Villa, Pia M.; Laivuori, Hannele (2021)
    Objectives: Maternal serum inhibin-A , pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and PAPP-A2 together with placental growth factor (PlGF), maternal risk factors and uterine arter y pulsatility inde x (UtA PI) were analysed to study thei r ability to predict pre-eclampsia (PE). Study design: Serial serum samples for the nested case-control study were collected prospectively at 12-14, 18-20 and 26-28 weeks of gestation from 11 women who later developed early-onset PE (EO PE , diagnosis < 34 + 0 weeks of gestation), 34 women who developed late-onset PE (LO PE , diagnosis 2 34 + 0 weeks) and 89 controls. Main outcome measures: Gestational age-adjusted multiples of the median (MoM) values were calculated for biomarker concentrations. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to combine first trimester bio-markers, previously reported results on PlGF, maternal risk factors and UtA PI. Area under cu r v e (AUC) values and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the prediction of PE and its subtypes were calculated . Results: A high first trimester inhibin-A predicted PE (AUC 0.618, 95%CI, 0.513-0.724), whereas PAPP-A and PlGF predicted only EO PE (0.701, 0.562-0.840 and 0.798, 0.686-0.909, respectively). At 26-28 weeks PAPP-A2 and inhibin-A predicted a l l PE subtypes. In the multivariate setting inhibin-A combined with maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, prior PE and mean UtA PI predicted PE (0.811,0.726-0.896) and LO PE (0.824, 0.733-0.914). Conclusions: At first trimester inhibin-A show potential ability to predict not only EO PE but also LO PE whereas PlGF and PAPP-A predict only EO PE. At late second trimester inhibin-A and PAPP-A2 might be usef u l for short-term prediction of PE.
  • Yun, Jinhyeon; Björkman, Stefan; Pöytäkangas, Merja; Peltoniemi, Olli (2017)
    In reproductive physiology research, experimental animals are often subjected to stressful procedures, including blood sampling and biopsy. In this present study, presence of pain or distress induced by four different procedures was examined using a measurement of salivary cortisol levels and activity observations in sows. The treatments were: 1) PAL: The ovary was palpated through the rectum without snaring, 2) TUB: transvaginal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the ovary was conducted without snaring, 3) SNA: a soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, 4) CAT: A soft rope snare was placed around the maxilla, and an intravenous catheter was inserted through the ear vein of the sows. Activities, social cohesion and other pain-related behaviour, and salivary cortisol concentrations were recorded. Salivary cortisol concentrations in CAT sows increased in response to the procedure (P < 0.05), whereas the other treatments did not trigger a significant response. The CAT sows had higher cortisol concentrations than the other groups for 10 min after initiation of the procedures (P < 0.01), and they maintained higher cortisol levels than the PAL and TUB groups 15 min post-treatment (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the CAT sows showed the highest frequency of head shaking (P < 0.001) and trembling behaviour (P < 0.05) during the 1 h post-treatment. Summarizing, the catheterization procedure might induce a short-term pain or stress response during and after the procedure in terms of pain-related behaviour and salivary cortisol status. We suggest that TUB might not cause appreciable pain or distress.