Browsing by Subject "EDIBLE INSECTS"

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  • Hong, Jinsu; Han, Taehee; Kim, Yoo Yong (2020)
    Simple Summary Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) larvae, known as mealworm, have been considered a good protein source for monogastric animals. They have a high quantity and quality of protein content and amino acid profile. The inclusion of T. molitor larvae in broiler diets improved the growth performance without having negative effects on carcass traits and blood profiles in broiler chickens, or had no influence on the growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. The supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance and protein utilization of weaning pigs. Furthermore, the replacement of fishmeal with T. molitor larvae resulted in no difference in the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of weaning pigs. However, there are some challenges regarding biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and price for the use of T. moiltor larvae in animal feed. Consequently, T. molitor larvae could be used as an alternative or sustainable protein source in monogastric animal feed. Edible insects have been used as an alternative protein source for food and animal feed, and the market size for edible insects has increased. Tenebrio molitor larvae, also known as mealworm and yellow mealworm, are considered a good protein source with nutritional value, digestibility, flavor, and a functional ability. Additionally, they are easy to breed and feed for having a stable protein content, regardless of their diets. Therefore, T. molitor larvae have been produced industrially as feed for pets, zoo animals, and even for production animals. To maintain the nutrient composition and safety of T. molitor larvae, slaughtering (heating or freezing) and post-slaughtering (drying and grinding) procedures should be improved for animal feed. T. molitor larvae are also processed with defatting or hydrolysis before grinding. They have a high quality and quantity of protein and amino acid profile, so are considered a highly sustainable protein source for replacing soybean meal or fishmeal. T. molitor has a chitin in its cuticle, which is an indigestible fiber with positive effects on the immune system. In studies of poultry, the supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance of broiler chickens, without having negative effects on carcass traits, whereas some studies have reported that there were no significant differences in the growth performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens. In studies of swine, the supplementation of T. molitor larvae improved the growth performance and protein utilization of weaning pigs. Furthermore, 10% of T. molitor larvae showed greater amino acid digestibility than conventional animal proteins in growing pigs. However, there are some challenges regarding the biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and price for the use of T. moiltor larvae in animal feed. Consequently, T. molitor larvae could be used as an alternative or sustainable protein source in monogastric animal feed with a consideration of the nutritional values, biosafety, consumer's acceptance, and market price of T. molitor larvae products.
  • EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA); Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2021)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Food and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the safety of frozen and dried formulations from house crickets (Acheta domesticus) as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is proposed in three formulations: (i) frozen, (ii) dried, (iii) ground. The main components of the NF are protein, fat and fibre (chitin) in the dried form of the NF, and water, protein, fat and fibre (chitin) in the frozen form of the NF. The Panel notes that the concentrations of contaminants in the NF depend on the occurrence levels of these substances in the insect feed. The Panel further notes that there are no safety concerns regarding the stability of the NF if the NF complies with the proposed specification limits during its entire shelf-life. The NF has a high-protein content, although the true protein levels in the NF are overestimated when using the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor of 6.25, due to the presence of non-protein nitrogen from chitin. The applicant proposed to use the NF in the form of a snack, and as a food ingredient in a number of food products. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. The Panel notes that, considering the composition of the NF and the proposed conditions of use, the consumption of the NF is not nutritionally disadvantageous. The Panel notes that no genotoxicity and no subchronic toxicity studies with the NF were provided by the applicant. Considering that no safety concerns arise from the history of use of A. domesticus or from the compositional data of the NF, the Panel identified no other safety concerns than allergenicity. The Panel considers that the consumption of the NF might trigger primary sensitisation to A. domesticus proteins and may cause allergic reactions in subjects allergic to crustaceans, mites and molluscs. Additionally, allergens from the feed may end up in the NF. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe under the proposed uses and use levels. (C) 2021 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Lundén, Saara; Hopia, Anu; Forsman, Laura; Sandell, Mari (2020)
    Sustainable strategies that enable development of alternative sustainable novel ingredients for food are needed to ensure adequate resources for food in the future. Determining consumer attitudes and acceptance of novel ingredients is essential for wider usage of products including these ingredients. The purpose of the study was to reveal consumers' perspectives on novel, and partly traditional but marginally utilized, ingredients to be used in regular cooking and their sensory characteristics and nutritional and environmental aspects. Consumer attitudes were obtained with two online consumer surveys. Consumer surveys revealed the most interesting ingredients. Plant-based ingredients are preferred over raw materials of animal or insect origin and these are also perceived as more pleasant. Plants were also regarded as credible, ecological, natural, healthy and nutrient-rich. Finnish consumers are not ready to adopt insects into their diet. Neither synthetic meat nor three-dimensional printed food have potential without further knowledge or experience of consumers. Findings of this research give baseline information on consumer attitudes towards novel ingredients. Further research is needed to investigate the perceived pleasantness when the potential ingredients are tasted.
  • Niva, Mari; Vainio, Annukka (2021)
    This study investigated consumers' self-reported past changes and future intentions to change the consumption of beef and alternative, plant- or insect-based protein products. A survey of 18-79-year-old consumers in Finland (N = 1000) was analysed with latent class analysis, and five consumer clusters were identified. The largest cluster (37%) consumed beef, but no alternative protein products; three clusters incorporated alternative protein products in their diets in different ways (in total 55%); and one cluster did not consume beef or alternative proteins (8%). In total 27% of the respondents intended to reduce the consumption of beef in the future, whereas 26% planned to increase the consumption of plant-based and 24% planned to increase the use of insect-based protein products. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that the use of alternative proteins was associated with higher health and sustainability motives, and lower food neophobia. The results suggest that demand for new, more sustainable proteins and protein innovations will grow in the future.