Browsing by Subject "EGFR"

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  • Romano, Roberta; Rivellini, Cristina; De Luca, Maria; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Beli, Raffaella; Manganelli, Fiore; Nolano, Maria; Santoro, Lucio; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Previtali, Stefano C.; Bucci, Cecilia (2021)
    The small GTPase RAB7A regulates late stages of the endocytic pathway and plays specific roles in neurons, controlling neurotrophins trafficking and signaling, neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Mutations in the RAB7A gene cause the autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) disease, an axonal peripheral neuropathy. As several neurodegenerative diseases are caused by alterations of endocytosis, we investigated whether CMT2B-causing mutations correlate with changes in this process. To this purpose, we studied the endocytic pathway in skin fibroblasts from healthy and CMT2B individuals. We found higher expression of late endocytic proteins in CMT2B cells compared to control cells, as well as higher activity of cathepsins and higher receptor degradation activity. Consistently, we observed an increased number of lysosomes, accompanied by higher lysosomal degradative activity in CMT2B cells. Furthermore, we found increased migration and increased RAC1 and MMP-2 activation in CMT2B compared to control cells. To validate these data, we obtained sensory neurons from patient and control iPS cells, to confirm increased lysosomal protein expression and lysosomal activity in CMT2B-derived neurons. Altogether, these results demonstrate that in CMT2B patient-derived cells, the endocytic degradative pathway is altered, suggesting that higher lysosomal activity contributes to neurodegeneration occurring in CMT2B.
  • Leopold, Anna; Pletnev, Sergei; Verkhusha, Vladislav V. (2020)
    Optically controlled receptor tyrosine kinases (opto-RTKs) allow regulation of RTK signaling using light. Until recently, the majority of opto-RTKs were activated with blue-green light. Fusing a photosensory core module of Deinococcus radiodurans bacterial phytochrome (DrBphP-PCM) to the kinase domains of neurotrophin receptors resulted in opto-RTKs controlled with light above 650 nm. To expand this engineering approach to RTKs of other families, here we combined the DrBpP-PCM with the cytoplasmic domains of EGFR and FGFR1. The resultant Dr-EGFR and Dr-FGFR1 opto-RTKs are rapidly activated with near-infrared and inactivated with far-red light. The opto-RTKs efficiently trigger ERK1/2, PI3K/Akt, and PLC gamma signaling. Absence of spectral crosstalk between the opto-RTKs and green fluorescent protein-based biosensors enables simultaneous Dr-FGFR1 activation and detection of calcium transients. Action mechanism of the DrBphP-PCM-based opto-RTKs is considered using the available RTK structures. DrBphP-PCM represents a versatile scaffold for engineering of opto-RTKs that are reversibly regulated with far-red and near-infrared light. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Karsten, Lennard; Janson, Nils; Le Joncour, Vadim; Alam, Sarfaraz; Müller, Benjamin; Tanjore Ramanathan, Jayendrakishore; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Sewald, Norbert; Mueller, Kristian M. (2022)
    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated tumor marker overexpressed in various cancers such as squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) of the head and neck and gliomas. We constructed protein-drug conjugates based on the anti-EGFR Designed Ankyrin Repeat Protein (DARPin) E01, and compared the bivalent DARPin dimer (DD1) and a DARPin-Fc (DFc) to the monomeric DARPin (DM) and the antibody derived scFv425-Fc (scFvFc) in cell culture and a mouse model. The modular conjugation system, which was successfully applied for the preparation of protein-drug and -dye conjugates, uses bio-orthogonal protein-aldehyde generation by the formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE). The generated carbonyl moiety is addressed by a bifunctional linker with a pyrazolone for a tandem Knoevenagel reaction and an azide for strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC). The latter reaction with a PEGylated linker containing a dibenzocyclooctyne (DBCO) for SPAAC and monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) as the toxin provided the stable conjugates DD1-MMAE (drug-antibody ratio, DAR = 2.0) and DFc-MMAE (DAR = 4.0) with sub-nanomolar cytotoxicity against the human squamous carcinoma derived A431 cells. In vivo imaging of Alexa Fluor 647-dye conjugates in A431-xenografted mice bearing subcutaneous tumors as the SCC model revealed unspecific binding of bivalent DARPins to the ubiquitously expressed EGFR. Tumor-targeting was verified 6 h post-injection solely for DD1 and scFvFc. The total of four administrations of 6.5 mg/kg DD1-MMAE or DFc-MMAE twice weekly did not cause any sequela in mice. MMAE conjugates showed no significant anti-tumor efficacy in vivo, but a trend towards increased necrotic areas (p = 0.2213) was observed for the DD1-MMAE (n = 5).
  • Tawfeek, Hendawy N.; Hassan, Alaa A.; Brase, S.; Nieger, M.; Mostafa, Yaser A.; Gomaa, Hesham A. M.; Youssif, Bahaa G. M.; El-Shreef, Essmat M. (2022)
    A series of novel thiazolidine-4-one derivatives was synthesized by reacting 1,4disubstituted hydrazine carbothioamides with diethyl azodicarboxylate. The structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data as well as single-crystal X-ray analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the synthesized compounds was investigated against four human cancer cell lines using an MTT assay. Compounds 5d, 5e, and 5f revealed the most potent antiproliferative activity with GI50 values ranging from 0.70 mM to 1.20 mM, compared to doxorubicin GI50 value = 1.10 mM. Compounds 5d, 5e, and 5f were further investigated for their inhibitory activities against CDK2 and EGFR as potential targets for their molecular mechanism. Compounds 5e and 5f have showed potent inhibitory activity to CDK2 enzyme with IC50 values of 18 and 14 nM, which is more potent than the reference dinaciclib (IC50 = 20 nM). Moreover, compounds 5e and 5f were the most potent EGFR inhibitors, with IC50 values of 93 and 87 nM, respectively, compared to the reference erlotinib (IC50 = 70 nM). In addition, the most potent derivatives were tested for their apoptotic activity against caspases 3, 8, and 9, and the results showed that compounds 5d, 5e, and 5f revealed a greater increase in active caspases 3,8 and 9 than doxorubicin. Also, compounds 5d, 5e, and 5f elevated cytochrome C levels in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line by about 15.5, 15.8, and 16.5 times, respectively. Finally, a molecular docking study was performed to investigate the binding sites of these compounds within the active sites of CDK2 and EGFR targets, and the results confirmed that the most potent CDK2 and EGFR inhibitor 5h also have showed the highest docking (c) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Maki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Knuuttila, Aija; Scheinin, Ilari; Ellonen, Pekka; Lagstrom, Sonja; Ronty, Mikko; Kettunen, Eeva; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Knuutila, Sakari (2016)
    Background Asbestos is a carcinogen linked to malignant mesothelioma (MM) and lung cancer. Some gene aberrations related to asbestos exposure are recognized, but many associated mutations remain obscure. We performed exome sequencing to determine the association of previously known mutations (driver gene mutations) with asbestos and to identify novel mutations related to asbestos exposure in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and MM. MethodsExome sequencing was performed on DNA from 47 tumor tissues of MM (21) and LAC (26) patients, 27 of whom had been asbestos-exposed (18 MM, 9 LAC). In addition, 9 normal lung/blood samples of LAC were sequenced. Novel mutations identified from exome data were validated by amplicon-based deep sequencing. Driver gene mutations in BRAF, EGFR, ERBB2, HRAS, KRAS, MET, NRAS, PIK3CA, STK11, and ephrin receptor genes (EPHA1-8, 10 and EPHB1-4, 6) were studied for both LAC and MM, and in BAP1, CUL1, CDKN2A, and NF2 for MM. ResultsIn asbestos-exposed MM patients, previously non-described NF2 frameshift mutation (one) and BAP1 mutations (four) were detected. Exome data mining revealed some genes potentially associated with asbestos exposure, such as MRPL1 and SDK1. BAP1 and COPG1 mutations were seen exclusively in MM. Pathogenic KRAS mutations were common in LAC patients (42 %), both in non-exposed (n = 5) and exposed patients (n = 6). Pathogenic BRAF mutations were found in two LACs. ConclusionBAP1 mutations occurred in asbestos-exposed MM. MRPL1, SDK1, SEMA5B, and INPP4A could possibly serve as candidate genes for alterations associated with asbestos exposure. KRAS mutations in LAC were not associated with asbestos exposure.
  • Bruun, Jarle; Eide, Peter W.; Bergsland, Christian Holst; Bruck, Oscar; Svindland, Aud; Arjama, Mariliina; Välimäki, Katja; Bjornslett, Merete; Guren, Marianne G.; Kallioniemi, Olli; Nesbakken, Arild; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Pellinen, Teijo (2022)
    Cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins that have been implicated in colorectal epithelial integrity and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition could be robust prognostic and potential predictive biomarkers for standard and novel therapies. We analyzed in situ protein expression of E-cadherin (ECAD), integrin beta 4 (ITGB4), zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), and cytokeratins in a single-hospital series of Norwegian patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) stages I-IV (n = 922) using multiplex fluorescence-based immunohistochemistry (mfIHC) on tissue microarrays. Pharmacoproteomic associations were explored in 35 CRC cell lines annotated with drug sensitivity data on > 400 approved and investigational drugs. ECAD, ITGB4, and ZO-1 were positively associated with survival, while cytokeratins were negatively associated with survival. Only ECAD showed independent prognostic value in multivariable Cox models. Clinical and molecular associations for ECAD were technically validated on a different mfIHC platform, and the prognostic value was validated in another Norwegian series (n = 798). In preclinical models, low and high ECAD expression differentially associated with sensitivity to topoisomerase, aurora, and HSP90 inhibitors, and EGFR inhibitors. E-cadherin protein expression is a robust prognostic biomarker with potential clinical utility in CRC.
  • Donner, Iikki; Katainen, Riku; Sipilä, Lauri J.; Aavikko, Mervi; Pukkala, Eero; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2018)
    Objectives: Although the primary cause of lung cancer is smoking, a considerable proportion of all lung cancers occur in never smokers. Gender influences the risk and characteristics of lung cancer and women are over-represented among never smokers with the disease. Young age at onset and lack of established environmental risk factors suggest genetic predisposition. In this study, we used population-based sampling of young patients to discover candidate predisposition variants for lung adenocarcinoma in never-smoking women. Materials and methods: We employed archival normal tissue material from 21 never-smoker women who had been diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma before the age of 45, and exome sequenced their germline DNA. Results and conclusion: Potentially pathogenic variants were found in eight Cancer Gene Census germline genes: BRCAI, BRCA2, ERCC4, EXT1, HNF1 A, PTCH1, SMARCB1 and TP53. The variants in TP53, BRCAI, and BRCA2 are likely to have contributed to the early onset lung cancer in the respective patients (3/21 or 14%). This supports the notion that lung adenocarcinoma can be a component of certain cancer predisposition syndromes. Fifteen genes displayed potentially pathogenic mutations in at least two patients: ABCC10, ATP7B, CACNA1S, CFTR, CLIP4, COL6A1, COL6A6, GCN1, GJB6, RYR1, SCN7A, SEC24A, SP100, TEN and USH2A. Four patients showed a mutation in COL6A1, three in CLIP4 and two in the rest of the genes. Some of these candidate genes may explain a subset of female lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Kurppa, Kari J.; Caton, Javier; Morgan, Peter R.; Ristimaki, Ari; Ruhin, Blandine; Kellokoski, Jari; Elenius, Klaus; Heikinheimo, Kristiina (2014)
  • Maki-Nevala, Satu; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Ronty, Mikko; Kettunen, Eeva; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Wolff, Henrik; Knuuttila, Aija; Knuutila, Sakari (2016)
    Objectives: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to screen Finnish NSCLC tumor samples for common cancer-related mutations by targeted next generation sequencing and to determine their concurrences and associations with clinical features. Materials and methods: Sequencing libraries were prepared from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor material of 425 patients using the AmpliSeq Colon and Lung panel covering mutational hot spot regions of 22 cancer genes. Sequencing was performed with the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM). Results: Data analysis of the hot spot mutations revealed mutations in 77% of the patients, with 7% having 3 or more mutations reported in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. Two of the most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (46%) and KRAS (25%). KRAS codon 12 mutations were the most recurrently occurring mutations. EGFR mutations were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma, female gender and never/light-smoking history; CTNNB1 mutations with light ex-smokers, PlIC3CA and TP53 mutations with squamous cell carcinoma, and KRAS with adenocarcinoma. TP53 mutations were most prevalent in current smokers and ERBB2, ERBB4, PIK3CA, NRAS, NOTCH1, FBWX7, PTEN and STK11 mutations occurred exclusively in a group of ever-smokers, however the association was not statistically significant. No mutation was found that associated with asbestos exposure. Conclusion: Finnish NSCLC patients have a similar mutation profile as other Western patients, however with a higher frequency of BRAF mutations but a lower frequency of STK11 and ERBB2 mutations. Moreover, TP53 mutations occurred frequently with other gene mutations, most commonly with KRAS, MET, EGFR and PIK3CA mutations. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tuomainen, Katja; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Potdar, Swapnil; Turunen, Laura; Turunen, Minna; Karhemo, Piia-Riitta; Bergman, Paula; Risteli, Maija; Åström, Pirjo; Tiikkaja, Riia; Grenman, Reidar; Wennerberg, Krister; Monni, Outi; Salo, Tuula (2020)
    In vitro cancer drug testing carries a low predictive value. We developed the human leiomyoma-derived matrix "Myogel" to better mimic the human tumor microenvironment (TME). We hypothesized that Myogel could provide an appropriate microenvironment for cancer cells, thereby allowing more in vivo-relevant drug testing. We screened 19 anticancer compounds, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MEK, and PI3K/mTOR on 12 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines cultured on plastic, mouse sarcoma-derived Matrigel (MSDM), and Myogel. We applied a high-throughput drug screening assay under five different culturing conditions: cells in two-dimensional (2D) plastic wells and on top or embedded in Matrigel or Myogel. We then compared the efficacy of the anticancer compounds to the response rates of 19 HNSCC monotherapy clinical trials. Cancer cells on top of Myogel responded less to EGFR and MEK inhibitors compared to cells cultured on plastic or Matrigel. However, we found a similar response to the PI3K/mTOR inhibitors under all culturing conditions. Cells grown on Myogel more closely resembled the response rates reported in EGFR-inhibitor monotherapy clinical trials. Our findings suggest that a human tumor matrix improves the predictability of in vitro anticancer drug testing compared to current 2D and MSDM methods.
  • Erdogan, Fettah; Radu, Tudor Bogdan; Orlova, Anna; Qadree, Abdul Khawazak; de Araujo, Elvin Dominic; Israelian, Johan; Valent, Peter; Mustjoki, Satu M.; Herling, Marco; Moriggl, Richard; Gunning, Patrick Thomas (2022)
    Through a comprehensive review and in silico analysis of reported data on STAT-linked diseases, we analysed the communication pathways and interactome of the seven STATs in major cancer categories and proposed rational targeting approaches for therapeutic intervention to disrupt critical pathways and addictions to hyperactive JAK/STAT in neoplastic states. Although all STATs follow a similar molecular activation pathway, STAT1, STAT2, STAT4 and STAT6 exert specific biological profiles associated with a more restricted pattern of activation by cytokines. STAT3 and STAT5A as well as STAT5B have pleiotropic roles in the body and can act as critical oncogenes that promote many processes involved in cancer development. STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 also possess tumour suppressive action in certain mutational and cancer type context. Here, we demonstrated member-specific STAT activity in major cancer types. Through systems biology approaches, we found surprising roles for EGFR family members, sex steroid hormone receptor ESR1 interplay with oncogenic STAT function and proposed new drug targeting approaches of oncogenic STAT pathway addiction.
  • Osterlund, Emerik; Ristimäki, Ari; Kytölä, Soili; Kuopio, Teijo; Heervä, Eetu; Muhonen, Timo; Halonen, Päivi; Kallio, Raija; Soveri, Leena-Maija; Sundström, Jari; Keinänen, Mauri; Algars, Annika; Ristamäki, Raija; Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Nunes, Luis; Salminen, Tapio; Lamminmäki, Annamarja; MÄkinen, Markus J.; Sjöblom, Tobias; Isoniemi, Helena; Glimelius, Bengt; Österlund, Pia (2022)
    BackgroundKRAS mutations, present in over 40% of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), are negative predictive factors for anti-EGFR therapy. Mutations in KRAS-G12C have a cysteine residue for which drugs have been developed. Published data on this specific mutation are conflicting; thus, we studied the frequency and clinical characteristics in a real-world and population-based setting. MethodsPatients from three Nordic population-based cohorts and the real-life RAXO-study were combined. RAS and BRAF tests were performed in routine healthcare, except for one cohort. The dataset consisted of 2,559 patients, of which 1,871 could be accurately classified as KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF-V600E. Demographics, treatments, and outcomes were compared using logistic regression. Overall survival (OS) was estimated with Kaplan-Meier, and differences were compared using Cox regression, adjusted for baseline factors. ResultsThe KRAS-G12C frequency was 2%-4% of all tested in the seven cohorts (mean 3%) and 4%-8% of KRAS mutated tumors in the cohorts (mean 7%). Metastasectomies and ablations were performed more often (38% vs. 28%, p = 0.040), and bevacizumab was added more often (any line 74% vs. 59%, p = 0.007) for patients with KRAS-G12C- vs. other KRAS-mutated tumors, whereas chemotherapy was given to similar proportions. OS did not differ according to KRAS mutation, neither overall (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.03; 95% CI 0.74-1.42, reference KRAS-G12C) nor within treatment groups defined as "systemic chemotherapy, alone or with biologics", "metastasectomy and/or ablations", or "best supportive care", RAS and BRAF wild-type tumors (n = 548) differed similarly to KRAS-G12C, as to other KRAS- or NRAS-mutated (n = 66) tumors. ConclusionsIn these real-life and population-based cohorts, there were no significant differences in patient characteristics and outcomes between patients with KRAS-G12C tumors and those with other KRAS mutations. This contrasts with the results of most previous studies claiming differences in many aspects, often with worse outcomes for those with a KRAS-G12C mutation, although not consistent. When specific drugs are developed, as for this mutation, differences in outcome will hopefully emerge.
  • Thunnissen, Erik; Weynand, Birgit; Udovicic-Gagula, Dalma; Brcic, Luka; Szolkowska, Malgorzata; Hofman, Paul; Smojver-Jezek, Silvana; Anttila, Sisko; Calabrese, Fiorella; Kern, Izidor; Skov, Birgit; Perner, Sven; Dale, Vibeke G.; Eri, Zivka; Haragan, Alex; Leonte, Diana; Carvallo, Lina; Prince, Spasenja Savic; Nicholson, Siobhan; Sansano, Irene; Ryska, Ales (2020)
    A questionnaire on biomarker testing previously used in central European countries was extended and distributed in Western and Central European countries to the pathologists participating at the Pulmonary Pathology Society meeting 26-28 June 2019 in Dubrovnik, Croatia. Each country was represented by one responder. For recent biomarkers the availability and reimbursement of diagnoses of molecular alterations in non-small cell lung carcinoma varies widely between different, also western European, countries. Reimbursement of such assessments varies widely between unavailability and payments by the health care system or even pharmaceutical companies. The support for testing from alternative sources, such as the pharmaceutical industry, is no doubt partly compensating for the lack of public health system support, but it is not a viable or long-term solution. Ideally, a structured access to testing and reimbursement should be the aim in order to provide patients with appropriate therapeutic options. As biomarker enabled therapies deliver a 50% better probability of outcome success, improved and unbiased reimbursement remains a major challenge for the future.
  • Merisaari, Joni; Denisova, Oxana; Doroszko, Milena; Le Joncour, Vadim; Johansson, Patrik; Leenders, William P. J.; Kastrinsky, David B.; Zaware, Nilesh; Narla, Goutham; Laakkonen, Pirjo; Nelander, Sven; Ohlmeyer, Michael; Westermarck, Jukka (2020)
    Glioblastoma is a fatal disease in which most targeted therapies have clinically failed. However, pharmacological reactivation of tumour suppressors has not been thoroughly studied as yet as a glioblastoma therapeutic strategy. Tumour suppressor protein phosphatase 2A is inhibited by non-genetic mechanisms in glioblastoma, and thus, it would be potentially amendable for therapeutic reactivation. Here, we demonstrate that small molecule activators of protein phosphatase 2A, NZ-8-061 and DBK-1154, effectively cross the in vitro model of blood-brain barrier, and in vivo partition to mouse brain tissue after oral dosing. In vitro, small molecule activators of protein phosphatase 2A exhibit robust cell-killing activity against five established glioblastoma cell lines, and nine patient-derived primary glioma cell lines. Collectively, these cell lines have heterogeneous genetic background, kinase inhibitor resistance profile and stemness properties; and they represent different clinical glioblastoma subtypes. Moreover, small molecule activators of protein phosphatase 2A were found to be superior to a range of kinase inhibitors in their capacity to kill patient-derived primary glioma cells. Oral dosing of either of the small molecule activators of protein phosphatase 2A significantly reduced growth of infiltrative intracranial glioblastoma tumours. DBK-1154, with both higher degree of brain/blood distribution, and more potent in vitro activity against all tested glioblastoma cell lines, also significantly increased survival of mice bearing orthotopic glioblastoma xenografts. In summary, this report presents a proof-of-principle data for blood-brain barrier-permeable tumour suppressor reactivation therapy for glioblastoma cells of heterogenous molecular background. These results also provide the first indications that protein phosphatase 2A reactivation might be able to challenge the current paradigm in glioblastoma therapies which has been strongly focused on targeting specific genetically altered cancer drivers with highly specific inhibitors. Based on demonstrated role for protein phosphatase 2A inhibition in glioblastoma cell drug resistance, small molecule activators of protein phosphatase 2A may prove to be beneficial in future glioblastoma combination therapies.
  • Bobik, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Despite recent advances in immunotherapies for lung cancer, their success is still hindered by limited predictability of treatment outcomes in patients, as well as by resistance-conveying tumor mutations such as EGFR. Moreover, due to the vast number of treatment options and their cost, a quick, reliable, and cost-efficient drug screening platform is needed to select the optimal treatments for each individual patient. This thesis focuses on finding the best culture conditions to be used in such a future platform, employing 3D cell cultures and microfluidics to mimic in vivo tumors while saving costs and allowing for high-throughput screening. Image-based analysis showed that culture medium can have significant impacts on both cancer organoid growth and morphology, as well as drug sensitivity to the EGFR-inhibiting drug Osimertinib. Specific medium factors, such as the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, might be particularly important for the integrity of 3D structures in the platform and help prevent conversion to an adherent morphology. Moreover, flow cytometry analysis of immune cells from pleural effusion samples indicated that medium composition might facilitate creating an inflammatory environment in the platform, and that immune cells should not be cultured longer than one week to maximize their activity. Finally, this thesis compares two microfluidic devices for their suitability to be used in future high-throughput drug-screening applications, by contrasting their ease of handling, applicability in fluorescent imaging-based readouts, and possibility to mimic and study the tumor microenvironment in vitro. The results suggest that the choice of microfluidic device will be dependent on whether microscopy analysis or cell viability assays will be used as the main readout of the drug screening in the future.
  • Tuononen, Katja; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Wirtanen, Aino; Rönty, Mikko Juhani; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Knuuttila, Aija; Remes, Satu; Telaranta-Keerie, Aino I.; Bloor, Stuart; Ellonen, Pekka; Knuutila, Sakari (2013)
  • Back, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihallib, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A. (2017)
    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4 h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. (C) 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Brunelli, Matteo; Bria, Emilio; Nottegar, Alessia; Cingarlini, Sara; Simionato, Francesca; Calio, Anna; Eccher, Albino; Parolini, Claudia; Iannucci, Antonio; Gilioli, Eliana; Pedron, Serena; Massari, Francesco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Borze, Florentina Ioana; Knuutila, Sakari; Gobbo, Stefano; Santo, Antonio; Tondulli, Luca; Calabro, Francesco; Martignoni, Guido; Chilosi, Marco (2012)