Browsing by Subject "ELDERLY-PATIENTS"

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  • Ansaloni, L.; Pisano, M.; Coccolini, F.; Peitzmann, A. B.; Fingerhut, A.; Catena, F.; Agresta, F.; Allegri, A.; Bailey, I.; Balogh, Z. J.; Bendinelli, C.; Biffl, W.; Bonavina, L.; Borzellino, G.; Brunetti, F.; Burlew, C. C.; Camapanelli, G.; Campanile, F. C.; Ceresoli, M.; Chiara, O.; Civil, I.; Coimbra, R.; De Moya, M.; Di Saverio, S.; Fraga, G. P.; Gupta, S.; Kashuk, J.; Kelly, M. D.; Koka, V.; Jeekel, H.; Latifi, R.; Leppaniemi, A.; Maier, R. V.; Marzi, I.; Moore, F.; Piazzalunga, D.; Sakakushev, B.; Sartelli, M.; Scalea, T.; Stahel, P. F.; Taviloglu, K.; Tugnoli, G.; Uraneus, S.; Velmahos, G. C.; Wani, I.; Weber, D. G.; Viale, P.; Sugrue, M.; Ivatury, R.; Kluger, Y.; Gurusamy, K. S.; Moore, E. E. (2016)
    Acute calculus cholecystitis is a very common disease with several area of uncertainty. The World Society of Emergency Surgery developed extensive guidelines in order to cover grey areas. The diagnostic criteria, the antimicrobial therapy, the evaluation of associated common bile duct stones, the identification of "high risk" patients, the surgical timing, the type of surgery, and the alternatives to surgery are discussed. Moreover the algorithm is proposed: as soon as diagnosis is made and after the evaluation of choledocholitiasis risk, laparoscopic cholecystectomy should be offered to all patients exception of those with high risk of morbidity or mortality. These Guidelines must be considered as an adjunctive tool for decision but they are not substitute of the clinical judgement for the individual patient.
  • Toivari, Miika; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Lindqvist, Christian; Thoren, Hanna (2016)
    Purpose: It is hypothesized that facial trauma-associated injuries (AIs) are more frequent and severe in elderly than in younger adult patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of, reasons for, and severity of AI in geriatric facial fractures and to compare the differences between geriatric and younger adult patients. Materials and Methods: Two patient cohorts were included in this cross-sectional retrospective study. Geriatric patients were at least 65 years old (n = 117) and younger controls were 20 to 50 years old (n = 136). The main predictor was age, the primary outcome was AI, and secondary outcomes were affected organ system, multiple AIs, polytrauma, and mortality during hospitalization. The other explanatory variables were gender, trauma mechanism, and type of facial fracture. Statistical methods included c 2 tests, risk analyses with 2 x 2 table, and logistic regression analyses. Results: AIs were significantly more common in geriatric patients (44.0%) than in younger controls (25.0%; P <.001). Also, multiple AIs (P = .003), polytrauma (P = .039), mortality (P = .008), limb injuries (P = .005), and spine injuries (P = .041) were significantly more common in the elderly. In the risk analyses, geriatric patients had a 1.8-fold risk for AI, a 2.6-fold risk for multiple AIs, and a 2.2-fold risk for polytrauma. Conclusions: AIs are much more frequent and severe in geriatric patients, and the elderly die more often of their injuries. The results emphasize that elderly patients require specific attention and multiprofessional collaboration in the diagnosis and sequencing of trauma treatment. (C) 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Toivari, Miika; Snäll, Johanna; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Apajalahti, Satu; Lindqvist, Christian; Thoren, Hanna (2019)
    Purpose: Associated injuries (AIs) are hypothesized to be frequent in geriatric zygomatico-orbital (ZMO) fractures. The study aim was to determine the relation between ZMO fractures and AIs in geriatric patients compared with younger adult patients. Patients and Methods: A retrospective case-and-control study was carried out on geriatric patients at least 65 years of age (n = 93) and younger adult patients 20 to 30 years of age (n = 68) diagnosed with pure unilateral ZMO fractures. The main exposure was age, the primary outcome was AI outside the face, and the secondary outcomes were type and severity of AI, ocular injuries, restriction of mandibular movement, and ZMO buttress asymmetry. The confounding variables were gender, trauma mechanism, type of ZMO fracture, and dislocation. Statistical analyses included chi(2) tests, risk evaluation with 2 x 2 tables, and logistic regression analysis. Results: AIs outside the face, and particularly brain injuries, were significantly more frequent in the geriatric group than in the control group (P <.001). The significant predictors of AIs outside the face were fall from a height (66.7%), motor vehicle accidents (66.7%), and absence of ZMO dislocation (59.5%; P <.001). The adjusted risk of brain injury was 2.5-fold in the absence of dislocation. The geriatric group had a more than 5-fold higher risk of brain injuries compared with the younger control group (P = .003). Conclusions: AIs in general, and particularly brain injuries, are frequent in geriatric ZMO fractures. Intra- cranial injuries should be ruled out, particularly in geriatric patients diagnosed with a non-dislocated ZMO fracture. (C) 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Palm, Frederick; Pussinen, Pirkko J.; Aigner, Annette; Becher, Heiko; Buggle, Florian; Bauer, Matthias F.; Grond-Ginsbach, Caspar; Safer, Anton; Urbanek, Christian; Grau, Armin J. (2016)
    Background and aims: Infectious diseases contribute to stroke risk, and are associated with socioeconomic status (SES). We tested the hypotheses that the aggregate burden of infections increases the risk of ischemic stroke (IS) and partly explains the association between low SES and ischemic stroke. Methods: In a case-control study with 470 ischemic stroke patients and 809 age- and sex-matched controls, randomly selected from the population, antibodies against the periodontal microbial agents Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, against Chlamydia pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (IgA and IgG), and CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori (IgG) were assessed. Results: IgA seropositivity to two microbial agents was significantly associated with IS after adjustment for SES (OR 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.08), but not in the fully adjusted model (OR 1.32 95% CI 0.86-2.02). By trend, cumulative IgA seropositivity was associated with stroke due to large vessel disease (LVD) after full adjustment (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.96e3.69). Disadvantageous childhood SES was associated with higher cumulative seropositivity in univariable analyses, however, its strong impact on stroke risk was not influenced by seroepidemiological data in the multivariable model. The strong association between adulthood SES and stroke was rendered nonsignificant when factors of dental care were adjusted for. Conclusions: Infectious burden assessed with five microbial agents did not independently contribute to ischemic stroke consistently, but may contribute to stroke due to LVD. High infectious burden may not explain the association between childhood SES and stroke risk. Lifestyle factors that include dental negligence may contribute to the association between disadvantageous adulthood SES and stroke. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vähämurto, Pauli; Mannisto, Susanna; Pollari, Marjukka; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Leppä, Sirpa (2019)
    Purpose Sinonasal tract diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (SNT-DLBCL), a rare extranodal lymphoma, is not well characterized. We performed a population-based study to determine cell-of-origin, clinical presentation and impact of rituximab (R) and central nervous system (CNS) directed chemotherapy on survival. Patients and methods Patients with SNT-DLBCL were identified from pathology databases. Clinical information was collected and outcomes between different treatment modalities evaluated. Results Thirty-two percent of the patients had germinal centre B-cell phenotype. Forty-six patients were treated with curative intent using CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) or CHOP-like chemotherapy, 21 (46%) before and 25 (54%) in the R-era. Additionally, 24 (52%) received CNS-directed chemotherapy. Addition of R to chemotherapy reduced the risk of progression (RR = 0.368, 95% CI 0.138-0.976, P = 0.045) and death (RR = 0.245, 95% CI 0.068-0.883, P = 0.032), and translated into better survival (5-year PFS, 67% vs 38%, P = 0.037; 5-year OS, 81% vs 48%, P = 0.020). CNS-directed chemotherapy reduced the risk of progression (RR = 0.404, 95% CI 0.159-1.029, P = 0.057) and death (RR = 0.298, 95% CI 0.093-0.950, P = 0.041), and translated into favorable survival (5-year PFS, 67% vs 32%, P = 0.050; 5-year OS 82% vs 43%, P = 0.030). Conclusion Patients with SNT-DLBCL benefit from rituximab and CNS-directed chemotherapy.
  • Harris, Stewart B.; Parente, Erika B.; Karalliedde, Janaka (2022)
    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a progressive disease, with many individuals eventually requiring basal insulin therapy to maintain glycaemic control. However, there exists considerable therapeutic inertia to the prompt initiation and optimal titration of basal insulin therapy due to barriers that include fear of injections, hypoglycaemia, weight gain, and burdensome regimens. Hypoglycaemia is thought to be a major barrier to optimal glycaemic control and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Newer second-generation basal insulin analogues provide comparable glycaemic control with lower risk of hypoglycaemia compared with first-generation basal insulin analogues. The present review article discusses clinical evidence for one such second-generation basal insulin analogue, insulin glargine 300 U/mL (Gla-300), in the context of hypothetical case studies that are representative of individuals who may attend routine clinical practice. These case studies discuss individualised treatment needs for people with T2D who are insulin-naive or pre-treated. Clinical characteristics such as older age, frequent nocturnal hypoglycaemia, and renal impairment, which are known risk factors for hypoglycaemia, are also considered.
  • Kallio, Sonja E.; Kiiski, Annika; Airaksinen, Marja S. A.; Mäntylä, Antti T.; Kumpusalo-Vauhkonen, Anne E. J.; Järvensivu, Timo P.; Pohjanoksa-Mantyla, Marika K. (2018)
    ObjectivesTo identify medication review interventions for older adults that involve community pharmacists and evidence of outcomes of these interventions. DesignSystematic review. MeasurementsCinahl, MEDLINE (Ovid), Scopus, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between January 2000 and February 2016. Articles involving community pharmacists in medication reviews for outpatients aged 65 and older were included. Evidence of economic, clinical, and humanistic outcomes of interventions was summarized. ResultsSixteen articles were found that described 12 medication review interventions, of which 6 were compliance and concordance reviews, 4 were clinical medication reviews, and 2 were prescription reviews according to a previously developed typology. Community pharmacists' contributions to reviewing medications varied from sending the dispensing history to other healthcare providers to comprehensive involvement in medication management. The most commonly assessed outcomes of the interventions were medication changes leading to reduction in actual or potential drug-related problems (n=12) and improved adherence (n=5). ConclusionRegardless of community pharmacists' contributions to interventions, medication review interventions seem to reduce drug-related problems and increase medication adherence. More well-designed, rigorous studies with more sensitive and specific outcomes measures need to be conducted to assess the effect of community pharmacists' contributions to reviewing medications and improving the health of older adults.
  • Taskinen, Minna; Louhimo, Riku; Koivula, Satu; Chen, Ping; Rantanen, Ville; Holte, Harald; Delabie, Jan; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Fluge, Oystein; Pedersen, Lars Moller; Fjorden, Karin; Jerkeman, Mats; Eriksson, Mikael; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Leppä, Sirpa (2014)
  • Strain, William David; Paldánius, Päivi Maria (2020)
    Aim: Clinical inertia is a multifactorial phenomenon, with contributing factors from people with diabetes and their healthcare team. It is widely cited that clinical inertia is minimised by participation in clinical trials. We assessed whether trial participation per se improves metabolic parameters in people with diabetes, or a specific focus on glycaemia is required. Methods: We compared improvement in glycaemic control in a pooled set of people assigned to the "placebo" arm from 25 glycaemia-focused trials with a pooled group of people with diabetes allocated to sham or non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of diabetic retinal disease. Mean change in HbA1c (ANCOVA) was evaluated. Results: The overall placebo effect in studies focused on glucose control (N = 3081) was comparable between strata groups with and without complications. Adjusted least square mean change in HbA1c at 24 weeks was between-0.23% (-2.50 mmol/mol) and -0.32% (-3.50 mmol/mol). In studies focused on retinal disease (N = 288), the change from baseline in HbA1c was +0.10% (1.10 mmol/mol) and fasting plasma glucose was +0.50 mmol/L showing no improvement in metabolic parameters at 12 months. Conclusions: Clinical trial participation alone does not seem to improve metabolic parameters in people living with diabetes. The benefits observed in glycaemia-focused studies were independent of age and comorbidities. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Helve, J; Kramer, A; Diez, JMA; Areste-Fosalba, N; Arici, M; Cases, A; Collart, F; Heaf, J; De Meester, J; Nordio, M; Palsson, R; Pobes, A; Rydell, H; Reisaeter, AV; Massy, ZA; Jager, KJ; Finne, P (2021)
    Background. The number of elderly patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasing. The survival and quality of life of these patients may be lower if they have multiple comorbidities at the onset of RRT. The aim of this study was to explore whether the effect of comorbidities on survival is similar in elderly RRT patients compared with younger ones. Methods. Included were 9333 patients >= 80years of age and 48352 patients 20-79 years of age starting RRT between 2010 and 2015 from 15 national or regional registries submitting data to the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplantation Association Registry. Patients were followed until death or the end of 2016. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier curves and the relative risk of death associated with comorbidities was assessed by Cox regression analysis. Results. Patients >= 80years of age had a greater comorbidity burden than younger patients. However, relative risks of death associated with all studied comorbidities (diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease and malignancy) were significantly lower in elderly patients compared with younger patients. Also, the increase in absolute mortality rates associated with an increasing number of comorbidities was smaller in elderly patients. Conclusions. Comorbidities are common in elderly patients who enter RRT, but the risk of death associated with comorbidities is less than in younger patients. This should be taken into account when assessing the prognosis of elderly RRT patients.
  • Saarinen, Sini; Salo, Ari; Boyd, James; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Silfvast, Catharina; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Silfvast, Tom (2018)
    Patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with pulseless electrical activity (PEA) as initial cardiac rhythm are not always treated in intensive care units (ICUs): some are admitted to high dependency units with various level of care, others to ordinary wards. Aim of this study was to describe the factors determining level of hospital care after OHCA with PEA, post-resuscitation care and survival. Adult OHCA patients with PEA (n = 221), who were resuscitated in southern Finland between 2010 and 2013 were included, provided patient survived to hospital admission. The patients were divided into four groups according to the level of hospital care provided: ordinary ward and Level 1-3 ICUs. Differences in patient characteristics, post-resuscitation care and survival were compared between the groups. Most patients (62.4%) were treated at Level 2 ICUs. Longer time to ROSC and advanced age decreased admission rate to Level 2 or 3 post-resuscitation care, whereas good pre-arrest CPC (1-2) increased the admission rate to Level 2/3 ICUs independently. Treatment with targeted temperature management (TTM) (4.1%) or early coronary angiography (3.2%) were very rare. Prognostic decisions were made earlier in the lower treatment intensity groups (p <0.01). One-year survival rate was 24.0, 17.1% survived with good neurological outcome. Neurological outcome was better with more intensive care. After adjustment, level of care was not independent predictor for outcome: only return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) time, cardiac arrest cause and pre-arrest performance affected independently to 1-year survival, age and ROSC for neurologic outcome. PEA are usually admitted to Level 2 ICUs for post-resuscitation care in the capital area of Finland. Age, ROSC and pre-arrest CPC were independent predictors for level of post-resuscitation care. TTM and early CAG were rare and provided only for Level 3 ICU patients. Prognostication was earlier in lower level of care units. Good neurologic survival was more common with more intensive level of post-resuscitation care. After adjustment, level of care was not independent predictor for survival or neurologic outcome: only ROSC, cardiac arrest cause and pre-arrest performance predicted 1-year survival; age and ROSC neurologic outcome.
  • Korja, Miikka; Raj, Rahul; Seppä, Karri; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Seppälä, Matti; Mäenpää, Hanna; Pitkäniemi, Janne (2019)
    We assessed population-level changes in glioblastoma survival between 2000 and 2013 in Finland, with focus on elderly patients (> 70 y) in order to assess if changes in treatment of glioblastoma are reflected also in population-based survival rates. We identified all patients (age 18 y) from the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) with a histopathological diagnosis of primary glioblastoma in 20002013. Patients were followed up until December 2015. The accuracy of register-based search of glioblastoma patients was internally validated. We report age-standardized relative survival ratios and relative excess risks (RERs) of death in 20002006 (pre-period) and 20072013 (post-period). We identified 2045 glioblastoma patients from the FCR. The accuracy of the FCR-based search was 97%. Median age was 63.3 years, and 42% were women. Incidence increased on average by 1.6% (P = 0.004) and median age by 0.4 years per calendar year. Between the pre- and post-periods, the proportion of patients > 70 years increased from 24% to 27%. In > 70-year-old patients, the median survival time increased from 3.6 months in 20002006 to 4.5 months in 20072013 (RER 0.82, 95% CI: 0.680.98). In 70-year-old patients, the median survival time increased from 9.3 months in 20002006 to 11.7 months in 20072013 (RER 0.74, 95% CI: 0.670.82). Despite the increased proportion of elderly glioblastoma patients, population-level survival of glioblastoma patients has improved since the year 2000. However, increasing incidence, increasing age of patients, and poor survival in elderly are alarming, and future studies should perhaps focus more on elderly.
  • Jokelainen, Jarno; Udd, Marianne; Kylänpää, Leena; Mustonen, Harri; Halttunen, Jorma; Lindstrom, Outi; Pöyhiä, Reino (2017)
    Objective: Patient-controlled sedation (PCS) has been shown to be a valid choice for sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in randomized studies. However, large-scale studies are lacking. Material and methods: A single center, prospective observational study to determine how sedation for ERCP is administered in clinical setting. All 956 patients undergoing 1196 ERCPs in the endoscopy unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital 2012-2013, methods of sedation and adverse events associated with different sedations were recorded. Results: PCS was attempted a total of 685 times (57%), successful use of PCS was achieved with 526 patients (77% of attempts). PCS device was operated by the anesthesiologist or anesthesia nurse 268 times (22%). PCS was more likely chosen for younger (80.6% for <=60 years vs. 63.8% for >60 years, p <.001) patients and by trainee anesthetists. Anesthesiologist administered propofol sedation was used 240 times (20%). The risk of failure of PCS was increased, if systolic arterial pressure was <90mmHg, dosage of PCS > 17 ml, duration of procedure exceeded 23 min. The risk of failure was lower in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and if sedation was deeper RASS<= -2. Uneventful PCS was associated with less respiratory and cardiovascular depression than other methods. There were no statistically significant differences in safety profiles with all the methods of sedation. Conclusions: PCS is readily implemented in clinical practice, is suitable for younger and low-risk patients and is associated with less cardiorespiratory adverse effects.
  • Kuitunen, Hanne; Kaprio, Elina; Karihtala, Peeter; Makkonen, Ville; Kauppila, Saila; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Kuusisto, Milla; Jantunen, Esa; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi (2020)
    Although overall survival in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) has improved, central nervous system (CNS) relapse is still a fatal complication of DLBCL. For this reason, CNS prophylaxis is recommended for patients at high risk of CNS disease. However, no consensus exists on definition of high-risk patient and optimal CNS prophylaxis. Systemic high-dose methotrexate in combination with R-CHOP has been suggested as a potential prophylactic method, since methotrexate penetrates the blood-brain barrier and achieves high concentration in the CNS. In this retrospective analysis, we report treatment outcome of 95 high-risk DLBCL/FL grade 3B patients treated with R-CHOP or its derivatives with (N = 57) or without (N = 38) CNS prophylaxis. At a median follow-up time (51 months), CNS relapses were detected in twelve patients (12.6%). Ten out of twelve (83%) of CNS events were confined to CNS system only. Median overall survival after CNS relapse was 9 months. Five-year isolated CNS relapse rates were 5% in the prophylaxis group and 26% in the group without prophylaxis. These findings suggest that high-dose methotrexate-containing prophylaxis decreases the risk of CNS failure.
  • Holmström, Ester; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    BackgroundCardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outcome, mortality and healthcare-associated costs for patients aged over 75 years treated for CA in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital.MethodsThis single-centre retrospective study included adult CA patients treated in a Finnish tertiary hospital's ICU between 2005 and 2013. We stratified the study population into two age groups: 75 years. We compared interventions defined by the median daily therapeutic scoring system (TISS-76) between the age groups to find differences in treatment intensity. We calculated cost-effectiveness by dividing the total one-year healthcare-associated costs of all patients by the number of survivors with a favourable neurological outcome. Favourable outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1-2 at 12 months after cardiac arrest. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent associations between age group, mortality and neurological outcome.ResultsThis study included a total of 1,285 patients, of which 212 (16%) were >= 75 years of age. Treatment intensity was lower for the elderly compared to the younger group, with median TISS scores of 116 and 147, respectively (p
  • Kemp, Kirsi; Mertanen, Reija; Lääperi, Mitja; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Lehtonen, Lasse; Castren, Maaret (2020)
    Background Nonspecific complaint (NSC) is a common presenting complaint in the emergency setting, especially in the elderly population. Individual studies have shown that it is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This prognostic systematic review draws a synthesis of reported outcomes for patients presenting with NSC and compares them with outcomes for patients presenting with a specific complaint. Methods We conducted a literature search for publications, abstracts and conference presentations from Ovid, Scopus and Web of Science for the past 20 years. Studies were included which treated adult patients presenting to the Emergency Medical Services or Emergency Department with NSC. 2599 studies were screened for eligibility and quality was assessed using the SIGN assessment for bias tool. We excluded any low-quality studies, resulting in nine studies for quantitative analysis. We analysed the included studies for in-hospital mortality, triage category, emergency department length of stay, admission rate, hospital length of stay, intensive care admissions and re-visitation rate and compared outcomes to patients presenting with specific complaints (SC), where data were available. We grouped discharge diagnoses by ICD-10 category. Results We found that patients presenting with NSC were mostly older adults. Mortality for patients with NSC was significantly increased compared to patients presenting with SC [OR 2.50 (95% CI 1.40-4.47)]. They were triaged as urgent less often than SC patients [OR 2.12 (95% CI 1.08-4.16)]. Emergency department length of stay was increased in two out of three studies. Hospital length of stay was increased by 1-3 days. Admission rates were high in most studies, 55 to 84%, and increased in comparison to patients with SC [OR 3.86 (95% CI 1.76-8.47)]. These patients seemed to require more resources than patients with SC. The number for intensive care admissions did not seem to be increased. Data were insufficient to make conclusions regarding re-visitation rates. Discharge diagnoses were spread throughout the ICD-10 main chapters, infections being the most prevalent. Conclusions Patients with NSC have a high risk of mortality and their care in the Emergency Department requires more time and resources than for patients with SC. We suggest that NSC should be considered a major emergency presentation.
  • Launonen, Antti P.; Sumrein, Bakir O.; Reito, Aleksi; Lepola, Vesa; Paloneva, Juha; Jonsson, Kenneth; Wolf, Olof; Ström, Peter; Berg, Hans E.; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Jansson, Karl-Åke; Fell, Daniel; Mechlenburg, Inger; Dossing, Kaj; Ostergaard, Helle T.; Märtson, Aare; Laitinen, Minna K.; Mattila, Ville M. (2019)
    Background Although increasingly used, the benefit of surgical treatment of displaced 2-part proximal humerus fractures has not been proven. This trial evaluates the clinical effectiveness of surgery with locking plate compared with non-operative treatment for these fractures. Methods and findings The NITEP group conducted a superiority, assessor-blinded, multicenter randomized trial in 6 hospitals in Finland, Estonia, Sweden, and Denmark. Eighty-eight patients aged 60 years or older with displaced (more than 1 cm or 45 degrees) 2-part surgical or anatomical neck proximal humerus fracture were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to undergo either operative treatment with a locking plate or non-operative treatment. The mean age of patients was 72 years in the non-operative group and 73 years in the operative group, with a female sex distribution of 95% and 87%, respectively. Patients were recruited between February 2011 and April 2016. The primary outcome measure was Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score at 2-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes included Constant–Murley score, the visual analogue scale for pain, the quality of life questionnaire 15D, EuroQol Group’s 5- dimension self-reported questionnaire EQ-5D, the Oxford Shoulder Score, and complications. The mean DASH score (0 best, 100 worst) at 2 years was 18.5 points for the operative treatment group and 17.4 points for the non-operative group (mean difference 1.1 [95% CI −7.8 to 9.4], p = 0.81). At 2 years, there were no statistically or clinically significant between-group differences in any of the outcome measures. All 3 complications resulting in secondary surgery occurred in the operative group. The lack of blinding in patient-reported outcome assessment is a limitation of the study. Our assessor physiotherapists were, however, blinded. Conclusions This trial found no significant difference in clinical outcomes at 2 years between surgery and non-operative treatment in patients 60 years of age or older with displaced 2-part fractures of the proximal humerus. These results suggest that the current practice of performing surgery on the majority of displaced proximal 2-part fractures of the humerus in older adults may not be beneficial. Trial registration NCT01246167.
  • Leppä, Sirpa; Jorgensen, Judit; Tierens, Anne; Meriranta, Leo; Østlie, Ingunn; Brown, Peter de Nully; Fagerli, Unn-Merete; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Mannisto, Susanna; Munksgaard, Lars; Maisenholder, Martin; Vasala, Kaija; Meyer, Peter; Jerkeman, Mats; Bjorkholm, Magnus; Fluge, Oystein; Jyrkklo, Sirkku; Liestol, Knut; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Spetalen, Signe; Beiske, Klaus; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Holte, Harald (2020)
    Survival of patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is suboptimal, and the risk of central nervous system (CNS) progression is relatively high. We conducted a phase 2 trial in 139 patients aged 18 to 64 years who had primary DLBCL with an age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score of 2 to 3 or site-specific risk factors for CNS recurrence. The goal was to assess whether a dose-dense immunochemotherapy with early systemic CNS prophylaxis improves the outcome and reduces the incidence of CNS events. Treatment consisted of 2 courses of high-dose methotrexate in combination with biweekly rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP-14), followed by 4 courses of R-CHOP-14 with etoposide (R-CHOEP) and 1 course of high-dose cytarabine with R. In addition, liposomal cytarabine was administered intrathecally at courses 1, 3, and 5. Coprimary endpoints were failure-free survival and CNS progression rates. Thirty-six (26%) patients experienced treatment failure. Progression occurred in 23 (16%) patients, including three (2.2%) CNS events. At 5 years of median follow-up, failure-free survival, overall survival, and CNS progression rates were 74%, 83%, and 2.3%, respectively. Treatment reduced the risk of progression compared with our previous trial, in which systemic CNS prophylaxis was given after 6 courses of biweekly R-CHOEP (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.77; P=.002) and overcame the adverse impact of an aaIPI score of 3 on survival. In addition, outcome of the patients with BCL2/MYC double-hit lymphomas was comparable to the patients without the rearrangements. The results are encouraging, with a low toxic death rate, low number of CNS events, and favorable survival rates.
  • Teramura-Gronblad, Mariko; Raivio, Minna; Savikko, Niina; Muurinen, Seija; Soini, Helena; Suominen, Merja; Pitkala, Kaisu (2016)
    Objective: This study aims to assess potentially severe class D drug-drug interactions (DDDIs) in residents 65 years or older in assisted living facilities with the use of a Swedish and Finnish drug-drug interaction database (SFINX). Design: A cross-sectional study of residents in assisted living facilities in Helsinki, Finland. Setting: A total of 1327 residents were assessed in this study. Drugs were classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system and DDDIs were coded according to the SFINX. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of DDDIs, associated factors and 3-year mortality among residents. Results: Of the participants (mean age was 82.7 years, 78.3% were females), 5.9% (N=78) are at risk for DDDIs, with a total of 86 interactions. Participants with DDDIs had been prescribed a higher number of drugs (10.8 (SD 3.8) vs. 7.9 (SD 3.7), p Conclusions: Of the residents in assisted living, 5.9% were exposed to DDDIs associated with the use of a higher number of drugs. Physicians should be trained to find safer alternatives to drugs associated with DDDIs.
  • Pietiläinen, Laura; Hästbacka, Johanna; Bäcklund, Minna; Parviainen, Ilkka; Pettilä, Ville; Reinikainen, Matti (2018)
    We assessed the association between the premorbid functional status (PFS) and 1-year mortality and functional status of very old intensive care patients. Using a nationwide quality registry, we retrieved data on patients treated in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during the period May 2012aEuro'April 2013. Of 16,389 patients, 1827 (11.1%) were very old (aged 80 years or older). We defined a person with good functional status as someone independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs without assistance; a person with poor functional status was defined as needing assistance for ADL or being unable to climb stairs. We adjusted for severity of illness and calculated the impact of PFS. Overall, hospital mortality was 21.3% and 1-year mortality was 38.2%. For emergency patients (73.5% of all), hospital mortality was 28% and 1-year mortality was 48%. The functional status at 1 year was comparable to the PFS in 78% of the survivors. PFS was poor for 43.3% of the patients. A poor PFS predicted an increased risk of in-hospital death, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.10), and of 1-year mortality, OR 2.18 (1.67-2.85). PFS data significantly improved the prediction of 1-year mortality. Of very old ICU patients, 62% were alive 1 year after ICU admission and 78% of the survivors had a functional status comparable to the premorbid situation. A poor PFS doubled the odds of death within a year. Knowledge of PFS improved the prediction of 1-year mortality.