Browsing by Subject "ELECTRICITY"

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  • Kokkonen, Tommi; Mäntylä, Terhi (2018)
    One well-known learning obstacle is that students rarely use the concepts in the way that scientists use them. Rather, students mix up closely related concepts and are inclined towards matter-based conceptualisations. Furthermore, some researchers have argued that certain difficulties are rooted in the student's limited repertoire of causal schemes. These two aspects are conveniently represented in the recent proposal of the systemic view of concept learning. We applied this framework in our analyses of university students' explanations of DC circuits and their use of concepts such as voltage, current and resistance. Our data consist of transcribed group interviews, which we analysed with content analysis. The results of our analysis are represented with directed graphs. Our results show that students had a rather refined ontological knowledge of the concepts. However, students relied on rather simple explanation models, but few students were able to modify their explanations during the interview. Based on the analysis, we identified three processes of change: model switch, model refinement and model elaboration. This emphasises the importance of relevant relational knowledge at a later stage of learning. This demonstrates how concept individuation and learning of relational structures occurs (and in which order) and sets forth interesting research questions for future research.
  • Laakso, Senja; Berg, Annukka; Annala, Mikko (2017)
    Societies around the world are faced with wicked problems such as climate change. In this context, experimental governance approaches have emerged as tools with potential utility in both top-down and bottom-up governance efforts. At the same time, experimental governance has gained momentum as a desirable policy goal in its own right. As the various experimental approaches differ in their origins and serve different purposes, there is a need to organize the field. If more experimental development processes are desired, what can be expected from certain kinds of experiments? How can the field be organised in a way that benefits those designing, conducting, and evaluating experimental governance processes? In attempting to answer these questions, we carried out a meta-study of 25 articles on experimental climate governance. On the basis of the results and the previous work on experiments, we have built a 'triangle model of experimental governance' that proposes both vertical and horizontal dynamics within and between different functions and uses of experiments. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sabino, Piergiacomo (2022)
    We study the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process having a symmetric normal tempered stable stationary law and represent its transition distribution in terms of the sum of independent laws. In addition, we write the background driving Levy process as the sum of two independent Levy components. Accordingly, we can design two alternate algorithms for the simulation of the skeleton of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The solution based on the transition law turns out to be faster since it is based on a lower number of computational steps, as confirmed by extensive numerical experiments. We also calculate the characteristic function of the transition density which is instrumental for the application of the FFT-based method of Carr and Madan (J Comput Finance 2:61-73, 1999) to the pricing of a strip of call options written on markets whose price evolution is modeled by such an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics. This setting is indeed common for spot prices in the energy field. Finally, we show how to extend the range of applications to future markets.
  • Antal, Miklós; Karhunmaa, Kamilla Mari Amanda (2018)
    Germany was the first major country to commit itself to an electricity system transition based on decentralized renewable sources and energy efficiency. This experiment has attracted interest worldwide, but its influence on national energy debates is largely unknown. We study how the German transition appeared in the news media of three countries following alternative nuclear pathways—the United Kingdom, Finland and Hungary—between 2011 and 2015. We show that most discussions are techno-economic, supply-oriented and focused on nuclear, wind and solar energy. Key issues such as energy democracy, regional development, participation, demand-side measures, and bioenergy are neglected. We find that topics are detached from their original contexts and selectively contextualized elsewhere, resulting in very different pictures of the same transition in specific countries and news sources. The ‘Energiewende’ has become part of the international energy policy landscape, but its representation depends on local visions of a good society.
  • Dahal, Karna; Juhola, Sirkku; Niemelä, Jari (2018)
    Abstract Renewable energy policies are necessary for achieving carbon neutrality which is the main goal for climate change mitigation. The cities in the Helsinki Metropolitan area have committed themselves to significantly reducing carbon emissions through various climate measures including some measures for renewable energy utilization. We use multilevel perspective (MLP) and renewable energy frameworks to examine the role of renewable energy policies to carbon neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan area and base our analysis on various policy documents and semi-structured interviews. Our findings show that current renewable energy policies in the Helsinki Metropolitan area are weak and many challenges exist. Nevertheless, many options are available for improving existing policies. The cities have many opportunities to adopt various energy policy measures, including small-scale renewable energy production in building premises, renewable energy integration to district heating, demand-side solutions for energy utilization, and increasing budgets and subsidies to renewable energy production and enhancement of the social acceptance of renewable energy. Such additional policies are needed to reach carbon neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan area.
  • Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Ruggiero, Salvatore; Annala, Salla; Ohrling, Tiina (2021)
    To enter a market and scale up, entrant firms often need to cooperate with their incumbent competitors, so they are in coopetition with them. Our goal is to increase the understanding of the antecedents of coopetition and the ways in which new entrant firms navigate coopetitive tensions with incumbents. Moreover, we are interested in the impacts that coopetition has on the value creation and value appropriation of new entrant firms. So far, most literature on cooperation and coopetition in energy markets has provided the perspective of the incumbents. To study the issues empirically, we interviewed 15 demand response (DR) entrants. These firms operate in Finnish energy markets, providing automated DR services, in which Finland is a forerunner country. According to our results, collaboration between new entrant DR firms and energy incumbents was needed in order to establish the new markets. In addition, cooperation with incumbents was beneficial to DR entrants since they were able to gain new customers and increase the efficiency of their resource use due to, for example, common technological development activities. We found that the structure of energy markets was an important factor in shaping the market entry of DR entrants. According to our results, new entrants can enter electricity markets without much cooperation with the incumbents, but cooperation is necessary in natural monopoly district heating markets. As new EU regulations will enhance automated DR services, the results of this study have relevance in other EU Member States where automated DR markets have not yet been established.