Browsing by Subject "ELEMENTAL CARBON"

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  • Cavalli, F.; Alastuey, A.; Areskoug, H.; Ceburnis, D.; Cech, J.; Genberg, J.; Harrison, R. M.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Kiss, G.; Laj, P.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Perez, N.; Quincey, P.; Schwarz, J.; Sellegri, K.; Spindler, G.; Swietlicki, E.; Theodosi, C.; Yttri, K. E.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J. P. (2016)
    Although particulate organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) are important constituents of the suspended atmospheric particulate matter (PM), measurements of OC and EC are much less common and More uncertain than measurements of e.g. the ionic components of PM. In the framework of atmospheric research infrastructures supported by the European Union, actions have been undertaken to determine and mitigate sampling artefacts, and assess the comparability of OC and EC data obtained in a network of 10 atmospheric observatories across Europe. Positive sampling artefacts (from 0:4 to 2.8 mu g C/m(3)) and analytical discrepancies (between -50% and +40% for the EC/TC ratio) have been taken into account to generate a robust data set, from which we established the phenomenology of carbonaceous aerosols at regional background sites in Europe. Across the network, TC and EC annual average concentrations range from 0.4 to 9 mu g C/m(3), and from 0.1 to 2 mu g C/m(3), respectively. TC/PM10 annual mean ratios range from 0.11 at a Mediterranean site to 0.34 at the most polluted continental site, and TC/PM2.5 ratios are slightly greater at all sites (0.15-0.42). EC/TC annual mean ratios range from 0.10 to 0.22, and do not depend much on PM concentration levels, especially in winter. Seasonal variations in PM and TC concentrations, and in TC/PM and EC/TC ratios, differ across the network, which can be explained by seasonal changes in PM source contributions at some sites. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Zanatta, M.; Gysel, M.; Bukowiecki, N.; Mueller, T.; Weingartner, E.; Areskoug, H.; Fiebig, M.; Yttri, K. E.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Kouvarakis, G.; Beddows, D.; Harrison, R. M.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J. P.; Spindler, G.; Wiedensohler, A.; Alastuey, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Sellegri, K.; Swietlicki, E.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Baltensperger, U.; Laj, P. (2016)
    A reliable assessment of the optical properties of atmospheric black carbon is of crucial importance for an accurate estimation of radiative forcing. In this study we investigated the spatio-temporal variability of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of atmospheric black carbon, defined as light absorption coefficient (sigma(ap)) divided by elemental carbon mass concentration (m(EC)). sigma(ap) and m(EC) have been monitored at supersites of the ACTRIS network for a minimum period of one year. The 9 rural background sites considered in this study cover southern Scandinavia, central Europe and the Mediterranean. sigma(ap) was determined using filter based absorption photometers and m(EC) using a thermal-optical technique. Homogeneity of the data-set was ensured by harmonization of all involved methods and instruments during extensive intercomparison exercises at the European Center for Aerosol Calibration (ECAC). Annual mean values of sigma(ap) at a wavelength of 637 nm vary between 0.66 and 1.3 Mm(-1) in southern Scandinavia, 3.7-11 Mm(-1) in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 2.3-2.8 Mm(-1) in the Mediterranean. Annual mean values of mEC vary between 0.084 and 0.23 mu g m(-3) in southern Scandinavia, 0.28 -1.1 in Central Europe and the British Isles, and 0.22-0.26 in the Mediterranean. Both sigma(ap) and mEC in southern Scandinavia and Central Europe have a distinct seasonality with maxima during the cold season and minima during summer, whereas at the Mediterranean sites an opposite trend was observed. Annual mean MAC values were quite similar across all sites and the seasonal variability was small at most sites. Consequently, a MAC value of 10.0 m(2) g(-1) (geometric standard deviation = 133) at a wavelength of 637 nm can be considered to be representative of the mixed boundary layer at European background sites, where BC is expected to be internally mixed to a large extent. The observed spatial variability is rather small compared to the variability of values in previous literature, indicating that the harmonization efforts resulted in substantially increased precision of the reported MAC. However, absolute uncertainties of the reported MAC values remain as high as +/- 30-70% due to the lack of appropriate reference methods and calibration materials. The mass ratio between elemental carbon and non-light-absorbing matter was used as a proxy for the thickness of coatings around the BC cores, in order to assess the influence of the mixing state on the MAC of BC. Indeed, the MAC was found to increase with increasing values of the coating thickness proxy. This provides evidence that coatings do increase the MAC of atmospheric BC to some extent, which is commonly referred to as lensing effect. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Dällenbach, Kaspar; Kourtchev, Ivan; Vogel, Alexander L.; Bruns, Emily A.; Jiang, Jianhui; Petäjä, Tuukka; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Kalberer, Markus; Baltensperger, Urs; El Haddad, Imad; Prevot, Andre S. H. (2019)
    This study presents the molecular composition of organic aerosol (OA) using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) at an urban site in Central Europe (Zurich, Switzerland). Specific source spectra were also analysed, including samples representative of woodburning emissions from Alpine valleys during wood-burning pollution episodes and smog chamber investigations of woodsmoke, as well as samples from Hyytiala, which were strongly influenced by biogenic secondary organic aerosol. While samples collected during winter in Alpine valleys have a molecular composition remarkably similar to fresh laboratory wood-burning emissions, winter samples from Zurich are influenced by more aged wood-burning emissions. In addition, other organic aerosol emissions or formation pathways seem to be important at the latter location in winter. Samples from Zurich during summer are similar to those collected in Hyytiala and are predominantly impacted by oxygenated compounds with an H/C ratio of 1.5, indicating the importance of biogenic precursors for secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation at this location (summertime Zurich - carbon number 7.6, O : C 0.7; Hyytiala - carbon number 10.5, O : C 0.57). We could explain the strong seasonality of the molecular composition at a typical European site by primary and aged wood-burning emissions and biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation during winter and summer, respectively. Results presented here likely explain the rather constant seasonal predominance of non-fossil organic carbon at European locations.
  • Boy, Michael; Thomson, Eric S.; Acosta Navarro, Juan-C.; Arnalds, Olafur; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Bäck, Jaan; Berninger, Frank; Bilde, Merete; Brasseur, Zoé; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Castarède, Dimitri; Dalirian, Maryam; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Dragosics, Monika; Duplissy, Ella-Maria; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Fang, Keyan; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Glasius, Marianne; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Grythe, Henrik; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Hansson, Margareta; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Iversen, Trond; Jonsdottir, Ingibjorg; Kasurinen, Ville; Kirkevåg, Alf; Korhola, Atte; Krejci, Radovan; Kristjansson, Jon Egill; Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Lauri, Antti; Leppäranta, Matti; Lihavainen, Heikki; Makkonen, Risto; Massling, Andreas; Meinander, Outi; Nilsson, E. Douglas; Olafsson, Haraldur; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Prisle, Nønne L.; Riipinen, Ilona; Roldin, Pontus; Ruppel, Meri; Salter, Matthew; Sand, Maria; Seland, Øyvind; Seppä, Heikki; Skov, Henrik; Soares, Joana; Stohl, Andreas; Ström, Johan; Svensson, Jonas; Swietlicki, Erik; Tabakova, Ksenia; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Virkkula, Aki; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Wu, Yusheng; Zieger, Paul; Kulmala, Markku (2019)
    The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (CRyosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, was the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic Region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual Centre with the objectives to identify and quantify the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, to outline strategies to mitigate Arctic warming and to develop Nordic Earth System modelling with a focus on the short-lived climate forcers (SLCF), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special-issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This manuscript presents an overview on the main scientific topics investigated in the Centre and provides the reader a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Facing the vast amount of outcomes we are not claiming to cover all results from CRAICC in this manuscript but concentrate here on the main results which are related to the feedback loops in the climate change-cryosphere interaction scheme affecting the Arctic amplification.
  • Timonen, Hilkka; Aurela, Minna; Carbone, Samara; Saarnio, Karri; Frey, Anna; Saarikoski, Sanna; Teinilä, Kimmo; Kulmala, Markku; Hillamo, Risto (2014)
    Concentration and composition of the fine particulate matter (PM) was measured using various online methods for 13 months in an urban, background area in Helsinki, Finland. Seasonal differences were found for ions and carbonaceous compounds. Biomass burning was found to increase inorganic ion and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations in winter, whereas organic carbon (OC) contribution was highest during summer due to secondary aerosol formation. Diurnal cycles, with maxima between 06:00 and 09:00, were recorded for EC and nitrate due to traffic emissions. In addition, the concentrations measured with the online and offline PM sampling devices were compared using regression analysis. In general, a good agreement (r(2) = 0.60-0.95) was found. During the year-long measurements, on average 65% of PM2.5 was identified by submicron chemical analyses (ions, OC, EC). As compared with filter measurements, the high resolution measurements provided important data on short pollution plumes and diurnal changes.
  • Svensson, Jonas; Virkkula, Aki; Meinander, Outi; Kivekäs, Niku; Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Järvinen, Onni; Peltoniemi, Jouni I.; Gritsevich, Maria; Heikkila, Anu; Kontu, Anna; Neitola, Kimmo; Brus, David; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Anttila, Kati; Vehkamäki, Marko; Hienola, Anca; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Lihavainen, Heikki (2016)
    Soot has a pronounced effect on the cryosphere and experiments are still needed to reduce the associated uncertainties. This work presents a series of experiments to address this issue, with soot being deposited onto a natural snow surface after which the albedo changes were monitored. The albedo reduction was the most pronounced for the snow with higher soot content, and it was observed immediately following soot deposition. Compared with a previous laboratory study the effects of soot on the snow were not as prominent in outdoor conditions. During snowmelt, about 50% of the originally deposited soot particles were observed to remain at the snow surface. More detailed experiments are however needed to better explain soot's effect on snow and to better quantify this effect. Our albedo versus soot parameterization agreed relatively well with previously published relationships.
  • Lim, Saehee; Lee, Meehye; Kim, Sang-Woo; Laj, Paolo (2018)
    Black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) aerosols that are released from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass are of great concern because of their light-absorbing ability and great abundance associated with various anthropogenic sources, particularly in East Asia. However, the optical properties of ambient aerosols are dependent on the mixing state and the chemical composition of absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols. Here we examined how, in East Asian outflows, the parameters of the aerosol optical properties can be altered seasonally in conjunction with the mixing state and the chemical composition of aerosols, using 3-year aerosol measurements. Our findings highlight the important role played by sulfate in East Asia during the warm season in both enhancing single scattering albedo (SSA) and altering the absorption properties of aerosols-enhancing mass absorption cross section of BC (MAC(BC)) and reducing MAC of BrC (MAC(BrC),(370)). Therefore we suggest that in global radiative forcing models, particular attention should be paid to the consideration of the accurate treatment of the SO2 emission changes in the coming years in this region that will result from China's air quality policy.
  • Helin, A.; Virkkula, A.; Backman, J.; Pirjola, L.; Sippula, O.; Aakko-Saksa, P.; Väätäinen, S.; Mylläri, F.; Järvinen, A.; Bloss, M.; Aurela, M.; Jakobi, G.; Karjalainen, P.; Zimmermann, R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Saarikoski, S.; Tissari, J.; Rönkkö, T.; Niemi, J.; Timonen, H. (2021)
    The absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE) describes the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols. AAE is typically used to differentiate between different aerosol types for example., black carbon, brown carbon, and dust particles. In this study, the variation of AAE was investigated mainly in fresh aerosol emissions from different fuel and combustion types, including emissions from ships, buses, coal-fired power plants, and residential wood burning. The results were assembled to provide a compendium of AAE values from different emission sources. A dual-spot aethalometer (AE33) was used in all measurements to obtain the light absorption coefficients at seven wavelengths (370-950 nm). AAE(470/950) varied greatly between the different emission sources, ranging from -0.2 +/- 0.7 to 3.0 +/- 0.8. The correlation between the AAE(470/950) and AAE(370-950) results was good (R-2 = 0.95) and the mean bias error between these was 0.02. In the ship engine exhaust emissions, the highest AAE(470/950) values (up to 2.0 +/- 0.1) were observed when high sulfur content heavy fuel oil was used, whereas low sulfur content fuels had the lowest AAE(470/950) (0.9-1.1). In the diesel bus exhaust emissions, AAE(470/950) increased in the order of acceleration (0.8 +/- 0.1), deceleration (1.1 +/- 0.1), and steady driving (1.2 +/- 0.1). In the coal-fired power plant emissions, the variation of AAE(470/950) was substantial (from -0.1 +/- 2.1 to 0.9 +/- 1.6) due to the differences in the fuels and flue gas cleaning conditions. Fresh wood-burning derived aerosols had AAE(470/950) from 1.1 +/- 0.1 (modern masonry heater) to 1.4 +/- 0.1 (pellet boiler), lower than typically associated with wood burning, while the burn cycle phase affected AAE variation.