Browsing by Subject "ELLIPTIC GALAXIES"

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  • Smolcic, V.; Miettinen, O.; Tomicic, N.; Zamorani, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Lemaux, B. C.; Aravena, M.; Capak, P.; Chiang, Y. -K.; Civano, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Ilbert, O.; Jurlin, N.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fevre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S. (2017)
    We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 mu m and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts z(spec) > 4 : 5, and one at z(spec) = 2 : 49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of sigma(Delta z/(1+z)) = (1 + z) = 0 : 0067 (0 : 0155) at z <3 : 5 (> 3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator delta(g) as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can e ffi ciently retrieve overdensities out to z approximate to 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/AzTEC 1.1 mm S = N >= 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35-61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5-2 keV band using a 32 '' aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z <2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2.8 x 10(13) M-circle dot. The z > 2 subsample yields an average flux of (1.3 +/- 0.5) x 10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) and a corresponding total mass of M-200 = 2 x 10(13) M-circle dot. Our results suggest a higher occurrence of SMGs occupying overdense environments at z >= 3 than at z <3. This may be understood if highly star-forming galaxies can only be formed in the highest peaks of the density field tracing the most massive dark matter haloes at early cosmic epochs, while at later times cosmic structure may have matured su ffi ciently that more modest overdensities correspond to su ffi ciently massive haloes to form SMGs.
  • Pihajoki, Pauli (2017)
    We propose a new mathematical model for n - k-dimensional non-linear correlations with intrinsic scatter in n-dimensional data. The model is based on Riemannian geometry and is naturally symmetric with respect to the measured variables and invariant under coordinate transformations. We combine the model with a Bayesian approach for estimating the parameters of the correlation relation and the intrinsic scatter. A side benefit of the approach is that censored and truncated data sets and independent, arbitrary measurement errors can be incorporated. We also derive analytic likelihoods for the typical astrophysical use case of linear relations in n-dimensional Euclidean space. We pay particular attention to the case of linear regression in two dimensions and compare our results to existing methods. Finally, we apply our methodology to the well-known MBH-s correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole in the centre of a galactic bulge and the corresponding bulge velocity dispersion. The main result of our analysis is that the most likely slope of this correlation is similar to 6 for the data sets used, rather than the values in the range of similar to 4-5 typically quoted in the literature for these data.
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Valiviita, J. (2018)
    Using the Planck full-mission data, we present a detection of the temperature (and therefore velocity) dispersion due to the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect from clusters of galaxies. To suppress the primary CMB and instrumental noise we derive a matched filter and then convolve it with the Planck foreground-cleaned "2D- ILC" maps. By using the Meta Catalogue of X-ray detected Clusters of galaxies (MCXC), we determine the normalized rms dispersion of the temperature fluctuations at the positions of clusters, finding that this shows excess variance compared with the noise expectation. We then build an unbiased statistical estimator of the signal, determining that the normalized mean temperature dispersion of 1526 clusters is = (1.64 +/- 0.48) x 10(-11). However, comparison with analytic calculations and simulations suggest that around 0.7 sigma of this result is due to cluster lensing rather than the kSZ effect. By correcting this, the temperature dispersion is measured to be = (1.35 +/- 0.48) x 10(-11), which gives a detection at the 2.8 sigma level. We further convert uniform-weight temperature dispersion into a measurement of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion, by using estimates of the optical depth of each cluster (which introduces additional uncertainty into the estimate). We find that the velocity dispersion is (v(2)) = (123 000 +/- 71 000) (km s(-1))(2), which is consistent with findings from other large-scale structure studies, and provides direct evidence of statistical homogeneity on scales of 600 h(-1) Mpc. Our study shows the promise of using cross-correlations of the kSZ effect with large-scale structure in order to constrain the growth of structure.
  • Rantala, Antti; Pihajoki, Pauli; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Lahen, Natalia; Sawala, Till (2017)
    We present KETJU, a new extension of the widely used smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code GADGET-3. The key feature of the code is the inclusion of algorithmically regularized regions around every supermassive black hole (SMBH). This allows for simultaneously following global galactic-scale dynamical and astrophysical processes, while solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries, and surrounding stellar systems at subparsec scales. The KETJU code includes post-Newtonian terms in the equations of motions of the SMBHs, which enables a new SMBH merger criterion based on the gravitational wave coalescence timescale, pushing the merger separation of SMBHs down to similar to 0.005 pc. We test the performance of our code by comparison to NBODY7 and rVINE. We set up dynamically stable multicomponent merger progenitor galaxies to study the SMBH binary evolution during galaxy mergers. In our simulation sample the SMBH binaries do not suffer from the final-parsec problem, which we attribute to the nonspherical shape of the merger remnants. For bulge-only models, the hardening rate decreases with increasing resolution, whereas for models that in addition include massive dark matter halos, the SMBH binary hardening rate becomes practically independent of the mass resolution of the stellar bulge. The SMBHs coalesce on average 200 Myr after the formation of the SMBH binary. However, small differences in the initial SMBH binary eccentricities can result in large differences in the SMBH coalescence times. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of KETJU, which allows for a straightforward inclusion of gas physics in the simulations.
  • Habouzit, Melanie; Li, Yuan; Somerville, Rachel S.; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Volonteri, Marta; Dave, Romeel; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; McAlpine, Stuart; Peirani, Sebastien; Hernquist, Lars; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Reines, Amy; Bower, Richard; Dubois, Yohan; Nelson, Dylan; Pichon, Christophe; Vogelsberger, Mark (2021)
    The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding galaxy formation and evolution using large-scale cosmological simulations. While these simulations produce galaxies in overall good agreement with observations, they employ different sub-grid models for galaxies and supermassive black holes (BHs). We investigate the impact of the sub-grid models on the BH mass properties of the Illustris, TNG100, TNG300, Horizon-AGN, EAGLE, and SIMBA simulations, focusing on the M-BH - M-star relation and the BH mass function. All simulations predict tight M-BH - M-star relations, and struggle to produce BHs of M-BH = 109M (circle dot) in most of the simulations. The BH mass function is dominated by efficiently accreting BHs ((log(10) f(Edd) >= -2) at high redshifts, and transitions progressively from the high-mass to the low-mass end to be governed by inactive BHs. The transition time and the contribution of active BHs are different among the simulations, and can be used to evaluate models against observations.
  • Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Naab, Thorsten; Burkert, Andreas; Hirschmann, Michaela; Hoffmann, Tadziu L.; Johansson, Peter H. (2017)
    We present evidence from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations for a co-evolution of the slope of the total (dark and stellar) mass density profile, gamma (tot), and the dark matter fraction within the half-mass radius, f(DM), in early-type galaxies. The relation can be described as gamma(tot) = A f(DM) + B for all systems at all redshifts. The trend is set by the decreasing importance of gas dissipation towards lower redshifts and for more massive systems. Early-type galaxies are smaller, more concentrated, have lower f(DM) and steeper gamma(tot) at high redshifts and at lower masses for a given redshift; f(DM) and gamma(tot) are good indicators for growth by 'dry' merging. The values for A and B change distinctively for different feedback models, and this relation can be used as a test for such models. A similar correlation exists between gamma(tot) and the stellar mass surface density Sigma(*). A model with weak stellar feedback and feedback from black holes is in best agreement with observations. All simulations, independent of the assumed feedback model, predict steeper gamma(tot) and lower f(DM) at higher redshifts. While the latter is in agreement with the observed trends, the former is in conflict with lensing observations, which indicate constant or decreasing gamma(tot). This discrepancy is shown to be artificial: the observed trends can be reproduced from the simulations using observational methodology to calculate the total density slopes.
  • Lahén, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Rantala, Antti; Naab, Thorsten; Frigo, Matteo (2018)
    We present a high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) and follow the evolution $3$ Gyrs beyond the final coalescence. The simulation includes metallicity dependent cooling, star formation, and both stellar feedback and chemical enrichment. The simulated best-match Antennae reproduces well both the observed morphology and the off-nuclear starburst. We also produce for the first time a simulated two-dimensional metallicity map of the Antennae and find good agreement with the observed metallicity of off-nuclear stellar clusters, however the nuclear metallicities are overproduced by $\sim 0.5$ dex. Using the radiative transfer code SKIRT we produce multi-wavelength observations of both the Antennae and the merger remnant. The $1$ Gyr old remnant is well fitted with a S\'ersic profile of $n=4.05$, and with an $r$-band effective radius of $r_{\mathrm{e}}= 1.8$ kpc and velocity dispersion of $\sigma_{\mathrm{e}}=180$ km$/$s the remnant is located on the fundamental plane of early-type galaxies (ETGs). The initially blue Antennae remnant evolves onto the red sequence after $\sim 2.5$ Gyr of secular evolution. The remnant would be classified as a fast rotator, as the specific angular momentum evolves from $\lambda_R\approx0.11$ to $\lambda_R\approx0.14$ during its evolution. The remnant shows ordered rotation and a double peaked maximum in the mean 2D line-of-sight velocity. These kinematical features are relatively common among local ETGs and we specifically identify three local ETGs (NGC 3226, NGC 3379 and NGC 4494) in the ATLAS$^\mathrm{3D}$ sample, whose photometric and kinematic properties most resemble the Antennae remnant.
  • Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Thomas, Jens; Frigo, Matteo (2018)
    Given its velocity dispersion, the early-type galaxy NGC 1600 has an unusually massive (M-center dot = 1.7 x 10(10) M-circle dot) central supermassive black hole (SMBH) surrounded by a large core (r(b) = 0.7 kpc) with a tangentially biased stellar distribution. We present high-resolution equal-mass merger simulations including SMBHs to study the formation of such systems. The structural parameters of the progenitor ellipticals were chosen to produce merger remnants resembling NGC 1600. We test initial stellar density slopes of rho proportional to r(-1) and rho proportional to r(-3/2) and vary the initial SMBH masses from 8.5 x 10(8) to 8.5 x(.) 10(9) M-circle dot. With increasing SMBH mass, the merger remnants show a systematic decrease in central surface brightness, an increasing core size, and an increasingly tangentially biased central velocity anisotropy. Two-dimensional kinematic maps reveal decoupled, rotating core regions for the most massive SMBHs. The stellar cores form rapidly as the SMBHs become bound, while the velocity anisotropy develops more slowly after the SMBH binaries become hard. The simulated merger remnants follow distinct relations between the core radius and the sphere of influence, and the SMBH mass, similar to observed systems. We find a systematic change in the relations as a function of the progenitor density slope and present a simple scouring model reproducing this behavior. Finally, we find the best agreement with NGC 1600 using SMBH masses totaling the observed value of M-center dot = 1.7 x 10(10) M-circle dot. In general, density slopes of rho proportional to r(-3/2) for the progenitor galaxies are strongly favored for the equal-mass merger scenario.
  • Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M.; Martig, M.; Jin, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Bethermin, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Renzini, A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Yun, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Valentino, F. (2018)
    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) contain most of the stars present in the local Universe and, above a stellar mass content of similar to 5 x 10(10) solar masses, vastly outnumber spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. These massive spheroidal galaxies have, in the present day, very little gas or dust in proportion to their mass(1), and their stellar populations have been evolving passively for over 10 billion years. The physical mechanisms that led to the termination of star formation in these galaxies and depletion of their interstellar medium remain largely conjectural. In particular, there are currently no direct measurements of the amount of residual gas that might still be present in newly quiescent spheroidals at high redshift(2). Here we show that quiescent ETGs at redshift z similar to 1.8, close to their epoch of quenching, contained at least two orders of magnitude more dust at a fixed stellar mass compared with local ETGs. This implies the presence of substantial amounts of gas (5-10%), which has been consumed less efficiently than in more active galaxies, probably due to their spheroidal morphology, consistent with our simulations. This lower star formation efficiency, combined with an extended hot gas halo possibly maintained by persistent feedback from an active galactic nucleus, keep ETGs mostly passive throughout cosmic time.