Browsing by Subject "EMBEDDEDNESS"

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  • Kallio, Galina (2020)
    Questions of value are central to understanding alternative practices of food exchange. This study introduces a practice-based approach to value that challenges the dominant views, which capture value as either an input for or an outcome of practices of exchange (value as values, standards, or prices). Building on a longitudinal ethnographic study on food collectives, I show how value, rather than residing in something that people share, or in something that objects have, is an ideal target that continuously unfolds and evolves in action. I found that people organized their food collectives around pursuing three kinds of value-ideals, namely good food, good price and good community. These value-ideals became reproduced in food collectives through what I identified as valuing modes, by which people evaluated the goodness of food, prices and community. My analysis revealed that, while participating in food collectives in order to pursue their value-ideals, people were likely to have differing reasons for pursuing them and tended to attach different meanings to the same value-ideal. I argue that understanding how value as an ideal target is reproduced through assessing and assigning value (valuing modes) is essential in further explorations of the formation of value and in better understanding the dynamics of organizing alternative practices of food exchange.
  • Sacchi, Giovanna; Cei, Leonardo; Stefani, Gianluca; Lombardi, Ginevra Virginia; Rocchi, Benedetto; Belletti, Giovanni; Padel, Susanne; Sellars, Anna; Gagliardi, Edneia; Nocella, Giuseppe; Cardey, Sarah; Mikkola, Minna Maria; Ala-Karvia, Urszula Anna; Macken-Walsh, Àine; McIntyre, Bridin; Hyland, John; Henchion, Maeve; Bocci, Riccardo; Bussi, Bettina; De Santis, Giuseppe; Rodriguez y Hurtado, Ismael; de Kochko, Patrick; Riviere, Pierre; Carrascosa-García, María; Martínez, Ignacio; Pearce, Bruce; Lampkin, Nic; Vindras, Camille; Rey, Frederic; Chable, Véronique; Cormery, Antoine; Vasvari, Gyula (2018)
    Organic and low-input food systems are emerging worldwide in answer to the sustainability crisis of the conventional agri-food sector. “Alternative” systems are based on local, decentralized approaches to production and processing, regarding quality and health, and short supply-chains for products with strong local identities. Diversity is deeply embedded in these food systems, from the agrobiodiversity grown in farmers’ fields, which improves resilience and adaptation, to diverse approaches, contexts and actors in food manufacturing and marketing. Diversity thus becomes a cross-sectoral issue which acknowledges consumers’ demand for healthy products. In the framework of the European project “CERERE, CEreal REnaissance in Rural Europe: embedding diversity in organic and low-input food systems”, the paper aims at reviewing recent research on alternative and sustainable food systems by adopting an innovative and participatory multi-actor approach; this has involved ten practitioners and twenty-two researchers from across Europe and a variety of technical backgrounds in the paper and analysis stages. The participatory approach is the main innovation and distinctive feature of this literature review. Partners selected indeed what they perceived as most relevant in order to facilitate a transition towards more sustainable and diversity based cereal systems and food chains. This includes issues related to alternative food networks, formal and informal institutional settings, grass root initiatives, consumer involvement and, finally, knowledge exchange and sustainability. The review provides an overview of recent research that is relevant to CERERE partners as well as to anyone interested in alternative and sustainable food systems. The main objective of this paper was indeed to present a narrative of studies, which can form the foundation for future applied research to promote alternative methods of cereal production in Europe.
  • Lähdesmäki, Merja; Suutari, Timo (2020)
    The workforce potential offered by immigrants is perceived as one solution for the sustainable operation of many rural companies. Still, diversifying the workforce and recruiting immigrant employees represents not only a significant organizational change for rural small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) but can also reflect on their legitimacy in the eyes of the local community. In this study, we examine the legitimation strategies rural SMEs use in order to justify the decision to employ immigrant workers as socially accepted. The theoretical framework builds on the discussion concerning legitimacy and legitimation. By analysing the interviews with the representatives of 35 rural SMEs, we identified three legitimation strategies used to justify the decision to recruit immigrants, based on owner-managerial values, immigrants as good workers and the economic, demographic and social context consequent upon rural location. The aim of the legitimacy strategies is to convince rural community members in perceiving the recruitment of immigrant employees as favourable and preferable. Our study demonstrates that for rural SMEs, recruiting immigrant workers is not just an economic or bureaucratic procedure but entails social aspects as well. These social aspects need to be taken into consideration in order to maintain the business legitimacy.
  • Lähdesmäki, Merja; Siltaoja, Marjo; Spence, Laura (2019)
    This paper advances stakeholder salience theory from the viewpoint of small businesses. It is argued that the stakeholder salience process for small businesses is influenced by their local embeddedness, captured by the idea of social proximity, and characterised by multiple relationships that the owner-manager and stakeholders share beyond the business context. It is further stated that the ethics of care is a valuable ethical lens through which to understand social proximity in small businesses. The contribution of the study conceptualises how the perceived social proximity between local stakeholders and small business owner-managers influences managerial considerations of the legitimacy, power and urgency of stakeholders and their claims. Specifically, the paradoxical nature of close relationships in the salience process is acknowledged and discussed.
  • Godenhjelm, Sebastian; Johanson, Jan-Erik (2018)
    The delivery of public services in collaborative agency networks has given rise to an increasing use of projects in administering policy and service delivery. Projects are assumed to provide mechanisms by which flexibility can be achieved and innovative solutions produced. The aim of the article is to advance the understanding of collaboration between stakeholders and its effect on innovation. It analyses stakeholders' influence on the creation of project innovations in 275 European Union-funded projects by using content analyses and logistic regression analyses. The results show that projects can act as hubs where valuable information is produced but that few projects produce innovations. Project stakeholder network, knowledge dissemination and project influence, as well as sources of advice, play a role in predicting project innovations. The article concludes that the overly optimistic view of collaboration as a remedy for a lack of innovation in the public sector can be questioned. Points for practitioners The results of the article help practitioners to compose public sector development projects that foster innovation. The results suggest that it pays to include representatives of research and education facilities among project staff as their inclusion predicts the possibilities of achieving innovations. The empirical findings provide insight into project innovation and indicate which practices to avoid. It is suggested that when managed correctly, stakeholder inclusion has an effect on public sector project innovation.
  • Ghinoi, Stefano; Silvestri, Francesco; Steiner, PhD, Prof. Bodo (2020)
    In light of the global significance of food waste, a greater focus on improving food waste management strategies is called for. Implementing such management strategies requires a better understanding of stakeholder relations. This paper analyses the structure of multiplex relations among stakeholders involved in the creation of a novel food waste management system, investigating the drivers of network formation when multiple collaborations are observed between pairs of stakeholders. We apply Social Network Analysis to study food waste reduction strategies in the City of Ferrara (Italy). Our results provide support for the practical relevance of multiple interactions across dyadic relationships in stakeholder networks. They also suggest that 'third parties' are not necessary for an effective networking strategy, and that relationships between stakeholders of similar levels of expertise are not required for establishing multiple relationships, suggesting that functionally diverse coalitions are of greater practical relevance for food waste management strategies. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.