Browsing by Subject "EMERGENCY-DEPARTMENT"

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  • Kemp, Kirsi; Mertanen, Reija; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Lehtonen, Lasse; Castren, Maaret (2021)
  • Bajc, Marika; Schümichen, Carl; Grüning, Thomas; Lindqvist, Ari; Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Alatri, Adriano; Bauer, Ralf W.; Dilic, Mirza; Neilly, Brian; Verberne, Hein J.; Delgado Bolton, Roberto C.; Jonson, Bjorn (2019)
    These guidelines update the previous EANM 2009 guidelines on the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE). Relevant new aspects are related to (a) quantification of PE and other ventilation/perfusion defects; (b) follow-up of patients with PE; (c) chronic PE; and (d) description of additional pulmonary physiological changes leading to diagnoses of left ventricular heart failure (HF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pneumonia. The diagnosis of PE should be reported when a mismatch of one segment or two subsegments is found. For ventilation, Technegas or krypton gas is preferred over diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in patients with COPD. Tomographic imaging with V/P-SPECT has higher sensitivity and specificity for PE compared with planar imaging. Absence of contraindications makes V/P-SPECT an essential method for the diagnosis of PE. When V/P-SPECT is combined with a low-dose CT, the specificity of the test can be further improved, especially in patients with other lung diseases. Pitfalls in V/P-SPECT interpretation are discussed. In conclusion, V/P-SPECT is strongly recommended as it accurately establishes the diagnosis of PE even in the presence of diseases like COPD, HF and pneumonia and has no contraindications.
  • Int Liaison Comm Resuscitations IL; Neonatal Life Support Task Force E; Educ mentation Teams Task Force; Dainty, Katie N.; Atkins, Dianne L.; Breckwoldt, Jan; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Furuta, Marie (2021)
    Context: Parent/family presence at pediatric resuscitations has been slow to become consistent practice in hospital settings and has not been universally implemented. A systematic review of the literature on family presence during pediatric and neonatal resuscitation has not been previously conducted. Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the published evidence related to family presence during pediatric and neonatal resuscitation. Data sources: Six major bibliographic databases was undertaken with defined search terms and including literature up to June 14, 2020. Study selection: 3200 titles were retrieved in the initial search; 36 ultimately included for review. Data extraction: Data was double extracted independently by two reviewers and confirmed with the review team. All eligible studies were either survey or interview-based and as such we turned to narrative systematic review methodology. Results: The authors identified two key sets of findings: first, parents/family members want to be offered the option to be present for their child's resuscitation. Secondly, health care provider attitudes varied widely (ranging from 15% to >85%), however, support for family presence increased with previous experience and level of seniority. Limitations: English language only; lack of randomized control trials; quality of the publications. Conclusions: Parents wish to be offered the opportunity to be present but opinions and perspectives on the family presence vary greatly among health care providers. This topic urgently needs high quality, comparative research to measure the actual impact of family presence on patient, family and staff outcomes.
  • Stenroos, A.; Handolin, L. (2018)
    Background and Aim: During the last decade urban skiing and snowboarding has gained a lot of popularity. In urban skiing/snowboarding riders try to balance on handrails and jump off buildings. Previous studies in skiing and snowboarding accidents have mostly been conducted at hospitals located close to alpine terrain with big ski resort areas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and severity of traumatic brain injuries occurring in small, suburban hills and in urban environment, and to characterize injury patterns to find out the specific mechanisms of injuries behind. Materials and Methods: This study included all patients admitted to the Helsinki University Hospital Trauma Unit from 2006 to 2015 with a head injury (ICD 10 S06-S07) from skiing or snowboarding accidents in Helsinki capital area. Head injuries that did not require a CT-scan, and injuries older than 24hours were excluded from this study. Results: There were a total of 72 patients that met the inclusion criteria Mean length of stay in hospital was 2.95days. According to the AIS classification, 30% had moderate, 14% had severe, and 10% had critical head injuries. Patients who got injured in terrain parks or on streets where more likely to be admitted to ICU than those injured on slopes. Based on GOS score at discharge, 78% were classified as having a good recovery from the injury, 13% had a moderate disability, 5% had a severe disability and 3% of the injuries were fatal. There were no statistically significant differences in decreased GOS between the accident sites. Conclusion: Head injuries occurring in small suburban hills and in urban environments can be serious and potentially fatal. The profile and severity of skiing injuries in urban environments and small, suburban hills is comparable to those on alpine terrain.
  • Kauppi, Paula; Kupiainen, Henna; Lindqvist, Ari; Haahtela, Tari; Laitinen, Tarja (2014)
  • Morlion, Bart; Schaefer, Michael; Betteridge, Neil; Kalso, Eija (2018)
    Objective: Acute postoperative pain is experienced by the majority of hospitalized patients undergoing surgical procedures, with many reporting inadequate pain relief and/or high levels of dissatisfaction with their pain management. Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) ensures patient involvement in acute pain control, a key component for implementing a quality management system. This narrative article overviews the clinical evidence for conventional PCA and briefly discusses new, non-invasive PCA systems, namely the sufentanil sublingual tablet system (SSTS) and the fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (FITS). Methods: A Medline literature search (patient-controlled analgesia and acute postoperative pain) was conducted to 1 April 2017; results from the main clinical trials are discussed. Additional literature was identified from the reference lists of cited publications. Results: Moderate to low quality evidence supports opioid-based intravenous PCA as an efficacious alternative to non-patient-controlled systemic analgesia for postoperative pain. However, despite the benefits of PCA, conventional intravenous PCA is limited by system-, drug- and human-related issues. The non-invasive SSTS and FITS have demonstrated good efficacy and safety in placebo- and intravenous morphine PCA-controlled trials, and are associated with high patient/healthcare practitioner satisfaction/ease of care ratings and offer early patient mobilization. Conclusions: Evidence-based guidelines for acute postoperative pain management support the use of multimodal regimens in many situations. As effective and safe alternatives to conventional PCA, and with the added benefits of being non-invasive, easy to use and allowing early patient mobilization, the newer PCA systems may complement multimodal approaches, or potentially replace certain regimens, in hospitalized patients with acute postoperative pain.
  • Jousi, Milla; Mäkinen, Marja; Kaartinen, Johanna; Meriläinen, Leena; Castrén, Maaret (2021)
    Background: In the pre-hospital setting, non-urgent patients with non-specific chief complaints pose assessment challenges for the emergency medical systems (EMS). Severely ill patients should be identified among these patients, and unnecessary transport to the emergency department (ED) should be avoided. Unnecessary admissions burden EDs, deplete EMS resources and can even be harmful to patients, especially elderly patients. Therefore, tools for facilitating pre-hospital decision-making are needed. They could be based on vital signs or point-of-care laboratory biomarkers. In this study, we examined whether the biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), either alone or combined with C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or lactate, could predict discharge from the ED and act as a pre-hospital support tool for non-conveyance decision-making. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of adult patients with normal or near-normal vital signs transported by an EMS to an ED with a code referring to deteriorated general condition. The levels of suPAR, CRP and lactate in the patients’ pre-hospital blood samples were analysed. The values of hospitalized patients were compared to those of discharged patients to determine whether these biomarkers could predict direct discharge from the ED. Results: A total of 109 patients (median age: 81 years) were included in the study. Of those, 52% were hospitalized and 48% were discharged from the ED. No statistically significant association was found between suPAR and the ED discharge vs hospitalization outcome (OR: 1.04, 95% CI 0.97–1.13, AUROC: 0.58, 95% CI 0.47–0.69). Adding CRP (AUROC: 0.64, 95% CI 0.54–0.75) or lactate (AUROC: 0.60, 95% CI 0.49–0.71) to the regression models did not improve their diagnostic accuracy. None of the patients with a suPAR value of less than 2 ng/ml were admitted to hospital, while 64% of the patients with a suPAR value of more than 6 ng/ml were hospitalized. Conclusion: Pre-hospital suPAR measurements alone or combined with CRP and/or lactate measurements could not predict the ED discharge or hospital admission of 109 non-urgent EMS patients with non-specific chief complaints and normal or near-normal vital signs.
  • Vaaramo, Kalle; Puljula, Jussi; Tetri, Sami; Juvela, Seppo; Hillbom, Matti (2014)
  • Räty, Silja; Silvennoinen, K.; Tatlisumak, T. (2018)
    ObjectivesOccipital ischemic strokes typically cause homonymous visual field defects, for which means of rehabilitation are limited. Intravenous thrombolysis is increasingly and successfully used for their acute treatment. However, recognition of strokes presenting with mainly visual field defects is challenging for both patients and healthcare professionals. We studied prehospital pathways of occipital stroke patients with mainly visual symptoms to define obstacles in their early recognition. Materials & methodsThis observational, retrospective, registry-based study comprises occipital stroke patients with isolated visual symptoms treated at the neurological emergency department of Helsinki University Central Hospital in 2010-2015. We analyzed their prehospital pathways, including time from symptom onset to admission at the neurological emergency department (ODT), the number of points of care, the percentage of patients with ODT4.5hours, and factors associated with delay. ResultsAmong 245 patients, only 20.8% arrived within 4.5hours and 6.5% received IV thrombolysis. Delayed arrival was most often due to patients' late contact to health care. Of the patients, 27.3% arrived through at least two points of care, and differential diagnostics to ophthalmologic disorders proved particularly challenging. ODT4.5hours was associated with EMS utilization, direct arrival, and atrial fibrillation; a visit at an ophthalmologist and initial misdiagnosis were associated with ODT>4.5hours. After multivariable analysis, only direct arrival predicted ODT4.5hours. ConclusionsOccipital stroke patients with visual symptoms contact health care late, are inadequately recognized, and present with complex prehospital pathways. Consequently, they are often ineligible for IV thrombolysis. This presents a missed opportunity for preventing permanent visual field defects.
  • Ivic, Robert; Kurland, Lisa; Vicente, Veronica; Castren, Maaret; Bohm, Katarina (2020)
    Background Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with a non-specific chief complaints (NSC); i.e. decreased general condition, general malaise, sense of illness, or just being unable to cope with usual daily activities. Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been established that however, NSCs may have a serious underlying condition that has yet to be identified. The primary outcome of this study was to determine the prevalence of serious conditions in patients presenting with NSCs to the EMS. Method A retrospective cohort study of patients >= 18 years of age who were reported as presenting with chief complaints compatible with NSCs to the EMS in Stockholm Region and transported to an emergency department between January 1st, 2013 and December 31st, 2013. Patients were identified via the EMS electronic health care record and followed via records from the National Patient Registry and Causes of Death Registry at Sweden's National Board for Health and Welfare. The definition of serious condition was defined by expert consensus. Descriptive statistics as well as regression analyses were used. Results A total of 3780 patients were included, with a median age of 77 years. A serious condition was present in 35.3% of the patients. The in-hospital mortality rate for the group with serious conditions was 10.1% (OR 6.8, CI 95%, 4.1-11.3), and the 30-day mortality rate was 20.2% (OR 3.1, CI 95%, 2.3-4.0). In the group with no serious conditions the rates were 1.0 and 4.2%, respectively. The total hospitalization rate was 67.6%. The presence of serious conditions as well as increased mortality rates were associated with Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment system (RETTS) as well as National Early Warning Score (NEWS) irrespective of triage score. Conclusion More than one-third of the patients presenting with NSCs to EMS had a serious underlying condition which was associated with increased mortality and hospitalization rates.
  • Ivic, Robert; Nurmi, Jouni; Kurland, Lisa; Vicente, Veronica; Lindstrom, Veronica; Djarv, Therese; Kaartinen, Johanna; Castren, Maaret; Bohm, Katarina (2021)
    Background: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are faced daily with patients presenting with non-specific chief complaints (NSC). Patients presenting with NSCs often have normal vital signs. It has previously been established that NSCs may have a serious underlying condition that has yet to be identified. The aim of the current study was to determine if soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and lactate could be used to identify serious conditions among patients presenting with NSCs to the EMS. The secondary aim was to describe the prognostic value for mortality in the group. Method: A blinded prospective observational cohort study was conducted of patients brought to the ED by ambulance after calling the national emergency number 112 and who were assessed as having NSC by the EMS. Biomarkers were measured during index EMS assessment before transportation to the ED. Patients were followed via EMS and hospital electronic health records. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used. Results: A total of 414 patients were included, with a median age of 82 years. A serious condition was present in 15.2% of the patients. Elevated suPAR above 3 ng/ml had a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 1.17 and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 17.3% as being predictive of a prevalent serious condition. Elevated suPAR above 9 ng/ml had LR+ 4.67 and a PPV of 16.7% as being predictive of 30-day mortality. Lactate was not significantly predictive. Conclusion: Pre-hospital suPAR and lactate cannot differentiate serious conditions in need of urgent treatment and assessment in the ED among patients presenting with non-specific chief complaints. suPAR has shown to be predictive of 30-day mortality, which could add some value to the clinical assessment.
  • Malmstrom, Tomi; Huuskonen, Olli; Torkki, Paulus; Malmström, Raija (2012)
  • Aro, Aapo L.; Rusinaru, Carmen; Uy-Evanado, Audrey; Reinier, Kyndaron; Phan, Derek; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S. (2017)
    Background: Syncope has been associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in specific patient populations, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and long QT syndrome, but data are lacking on the risk of SCA associated with syncope among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), the most common cause of SCA. We investigated this association among CAD patients in the community. Methods: All cases of SCA due to CAD were prospectively identified in Portland, Oregon (population approximately 1 million) as part of the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study 2002-2015, and compared to geographical controls. Detailed clinical information including history of syncope and cardiac investigations was obtained from medical records. Results: 2119 SCA cases (68.4 +/- 13.8 years, 66.9% male) and 746 controls (66.7 +/- 11.7 years, 67.0% male) were included in the analysis. 143 (6.8%) of cases had documented syncope prior to the SCA. SCA cases with syncope were > 5 years older and had more comorbidities than other SCA cases. After adjusting for clinical factors and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), syncope was associated with increased risk of SCA (OR 2.8; 95%CI 1.68-4.85). When analysis was restricted to subjects with LVEF >= 50%, the risk of SCA associated with syncope remained significantly elevated (adjusted OR 3.1; 95%CI 1.68-5.79). Conclusions: Syncope was associated with increased risk of SCA in CAD patients even with preserved LV function. These findings suggest a role for this clinical marker among patients with CAD and normal LVEF, a large subgroup without any current means of SCA risk stratification. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.