Browsing by Subject "EMISSION"

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  • Vardoulaki, E.; Andrade, E. F. Jimenez; Karim, A.; Novak, M.; Leslie, S. K.; Tisanic, K.; Smolcic, V.; Schinnerer, E.; Sargent, M. T.; Bondi, M.; Zamorani, G.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Ruiz, N. Herrera; Mooley, K. P.; Delhaize, J.; Myers, S. T.; Marchesi, S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Gozaliasl, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Middleberg, E.; Ciliegi, P. (2019)
    Context. Given the unprecedented depth achieved in current large radio surveys, we are starting to probe populations of radio sources that have not been studied in the past. However, identifying and categorising these objects, differing in size, shape and physical properties, is becoming a more difficult task. Aims. In this data paper we present and characterise the multi-component radio sources identified in the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (0.75 arcsec resolution, 2.3 mu Jy beam(-1) rms), i.e. the radio sources which are composed of two or more radio blobs. Methods. The classification of objects into multi-components was done by visual inspection of 351 of the brightest and most extended blobs from a sample of 10,899 blobs identified by the automatic code BLOBCAT. For that purpose we used multi-wavelength information of the field, such as the 1.4 GHz VLA-COSMOS data and the Ultra Deep Survey with the VISTA telescope (UltraVISTA) stacked mosaic available for COSMOS. Results. We have identified 67 multi-component radio sources at 3 GHz: 58 sources with active galactic nucleus (AGN) powered radio emission and nine star-forming galaxies. We report eight new detections that were not observed by the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 1.4 GHz, due to the slightly larger area coverage at 3 GHz. The increased spatial resolution of 0.75 arcsec has allowed us to resolve (and isolate) multiple emission peaks of 28 extended radio sources not identified in the 1.4 GHz VLA-COSMOS map. We report the multi-frequency flux densities (324 MHz, 325 MHz, 1.4 GHz & 3 GHz), star formation rates, and stellar masses of these objects. We find that multi-component objects at 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS inhabit mainly massive galaxies (>10(10.5)M(circle dot)). The majority of the multi-component AGN lie below the main sequence of star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the green valley and the quiescent region. Furthermore, we provide detailed descriptions of the objects and find that amongst the AGN there are two head-tail, ten corelobe, nine wide-angle-tail (WAT), eight double-double or Z-/X-shaped, three bent-tail radio sources, and 26 symmetric sources, while amongst the SFGs we find the only star-forming ring seen in radio emission in COSMOS. Additionally, we report a large number (32 out of 58) of disturbed/bent multi-component AGN, 18 of which do not lie within X-ray groups in COSMOS (redshift range 0.08 Conclusion. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS data set give us the opportunity to identify peculiar radio structures and sub-structures of multi-component objects, and relate them to physical phenomena such as AGN or star-forming galaxies. This study illustrates the complexity of the mu Jy radio-source population; at the sensitivity and resolution of 3 GHz VLA-COSMOS, the radio structures of AGN and SFG both emitting radio continuum emission, become comparable in the absence of clear, symmetrical jets. Thus, disentangling the AGN and SFG contributions using solely radio observations can be misleading in a number of cases. This has implications for future surveys, such as those done by square kilometre array (SKA) and precursors, which will identify hundreds of thousands of multi-component objects.
  • Zhang, Yanjun; Peräkylä, Otso; Yan, Chao; Heikkinen, Liine; Äijälä, Mikko; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Zha, Qiaozhi; Riva, Matthieu; Garmash, Olga; Junninen, Heikki; Paatero, Pentti; Worsnop, Douglas; Ehn, Mikael (2019)
    Recent advancements in atmospheric mass spectrometry provide huge amounts of new information but at the same time present considerable challenges for the data analysts. High-resolution (HR) peak identification and separation can be effort- and time-consuming yet still tricky and inaccurate due to the complexity of overlapping peaks, especially at larger mass-to-charge ratios. This study presents a simple and novel method, mass spectral binning combined with positive matrix factorization (binPMF), to address these problems. Different from unit mass resolution (UMR) analysis or HR peak fitting, which represent the routine data analysis approaches for mass spectrometry datasets, binPMF divides the mass spectra into small bins and takes advantage of the positive matrix factorization's (PMF) strength in separating different sources or processes based on different temporal patterns. In this study, we applied the novel approach to both ambient and synthetic datasets to evaluate its performance. It not only succeeded in separating overlapping ions but was found to be sensitive to subtle variations as well. Being fast and reliable, binPMF has no requirement for a priori peak information and can save much time and effort from conventional HR peak fitting, while still utilizing nearly the full potential of HR mass spectra. In addition, we identify several future improvements and applications for binPMF and believe it will become a powerful approach in the data analysis of mass spectra.
  • Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Putkinen, Anuliina; Santalahti, Minna; Fritze, Hannu; Pihlatie, Mari (2017)
    The contribution of boreal forest plants to the methane (CH4) cycle is still uncertain. We studied the above and belowground CH4 fluxes of common boreal plants, and assessed the possible contribution of CH4 producing and oxidizing microbes (methanogens and methanotrophs, respectively) to the fluxes. We measured the CH4 fluxes and the amounts of methanogens and methanotrophs in the above- and belowground parts of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris and Pinus sylvestris seedlings and in non-planted soil in a microcosm experiment. The shoots of C. vulgaris and P. sylvestris showed on average emissions of CH4, while the shoots of the Vaccinium species indicated small CH4 uptake. All the root-soil-compartments consumed CH4, however, the non-rooted soils showed on average small CH4 emission. We found methanotrophs from all the rooted and non-rooted soils. Methanogens were not detected in the plant or soil materials. The presence of plant roots seem to increase the amount of methanotrophs and thus CH4 uptake in the soil. The CH4 emissions from the shoots of C. vulgaris and P. sylvestris demonstrate that the plants have an important contribution to the CH4 exchange dynamics in the plant-soil systems.
  • Liu, Tie; Evans, Neal J.; Kim, Kee-Tae; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Qizhou; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Juvela, Mika; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Garay, Guido; Hirota, Tomoya; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kang, Sung-Ju; Li, Di; Li, Pak-Shing; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Tej, Anandmayee; Toth, L. Viktor; Wu, Jing-Wen; Wu, Yue-Fang; Yi, Hee-weon; Yun, Hyeong-Sik; Liu, Hong-Li; Peng, Ya-Ping; Li, Juan; Li, Shang-Huo; Lee, Chang Won; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Baug, Tapas; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Yong; Issac, Namitha; Zhu, Feng-Yao; Luo, Qiu-Yi; Soam, Archana; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Xu, Feng-Wei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Chao (2020)
    The ATOMS, standing for ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions, survey has observed 146 active star-forming regions with ALMA band 3, aiming to systematically investigate the spatial distribution of various dense gas tracers in a large sample of Galactic massive clumps, to study the roles of stellar feedback in star formation, and to characterize filamentary structures inside massive clumps. In this work, the observations, data analysis, and example science of the ATOMS survey are presented, using a case study for the G9.62+0.19 complex. Toward this source, some transitions, commonly assumed to trace dense gas, including CS J = 2-1, HCO+ J = 1-0, and HCN J = 1-0, are found to show extended gas emission in low-density regions within the clump; less than 25 per cent of their emission is from dense cores. SO, CH3OH, (HCN)-C-13, and HC3N show similar morphologies in their spatial distributions and reveal well the dense cores. Widespread narrow SiO emission is present (over similar to 1 pc), which may be caused by slow shocks from large-scale colliding flows or HII regions. Stellar feedback from an expanding HII region has greatly reshaped the natal clump, significantly changed the spatial distribution of gas, and may also account for the sequential high-mass star formation in the G9.62+0.19 complex. The ATOMS survey data can be jointly analysed with other survey data, e.g. MALT90, Orion B, EMPIRE, ALMA IMF, and ALMAGAL, to deepen our understandings of 'dense gas' star formation scaling relations and massive protocluster formation.
  • Zaidan, Martha A.; Wraith, Darren; Boor, Brandon E.; Hussein, Tareq (2019)
    Black carbon (BC) is an important component of particulate matter (PM) in urban environments. BC is typically emitted from gas and diesel engines, coal-fired power plants, and other sources that burn fossil fuel. In contrast to PM, BC measurements are not always available on a large scale due to the operational cost and complexity of the instrumentation. Therefore, it is advantageous to develop a mathematical model for estimating the quantity of BC in the air, termed a BC proxy, to enable widening of spatial air pollution mapping. This article presents the development of BC proxies based on a Bayesian framework using measurements of PM concentrations and size distributions from 10 to 10,000 nm from a recent mobile air pollution study across several areas of Jordan. Bayesian methods using informative priors can naturally prevent over-fitting in the modelling process and the methods generate a confidence interval around the prediction, thus the estimated BC concentration can be directly quantified and assessed. In particular, two types of models are developed based on their transparency and interpretability, referred to as white-box and black-box models. The proposed methods are tested on extensive data sets obtained from the measurement campaign in Jordan. In this study, black-box models perform slightly better due to their model complexity. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate that the performance of both models does not differ significantly. In practice, white-box models are relatively more convenient to be deployed, the methods are well understood by scientists, and the models can be used to better understand key relationships.
  • Alekseychik, Pavel; Korrensalo, Aino; Mammarella, Ivan; Launiainen, Samuli; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Korpela, Ilkka; Vesala, Timo (2021)
    Pristine boreal mires are known as substantial sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and net emitters of methane (CH4). Bogs constitute a major fraction of pristine boreal mires. However, the bog CO2 and CH4 balances are poorly known, having been largely estimated based on discrete and short-term measurements by manual chambers and seldom using the eddy-covariance (EC) technique. Eddy-covariance (EC) measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange were conducted in the Siikaneva mire complex in southern Finland in 2011-2016. The site is a patterned bog having a moss-sedge-shrub vegetation typical of southern Eurasian taiga, with several ponds near the EC tower. The study presents a complete series of CO2 and CH4 EC flux (F-CH4) measurements and identifies the environmental factors controlling the ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 exchange. A 6-year average growing season (May-September) cumulative CO2 exchange of -61 +/- 24 g Cm-2 was observed, which partitions into mean total respiration (Re) of 167 +/- 33 (interannual range 146-197) g Cm-2 and mean gross primary production (GPP) of 228 +/- 46 (interannual range 193-257) g Cm-2, while the corresponding F-CH4 amounts to 7.1 +/- 0.7 (interannual range 6.4-8.4) g Cm-2. The contribution of October-December CO2 and CH4 fluxes to the cumulative sums was not negligible based on the measurements during one winter. GPP, Re and F-CH4 increased with temperature. GPP and F-CH4 did not show any significant decline even after a substantial water table drawdown in 2011. Instead, GPP, Re and F-CH4 were limited in the cool, cloudy and wet growing season of 2012. May-September cumulative net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of 2013-2016 averaged at about 73 g Cm-2, in contrast with the hot and dry year 2011 and the wet and cool year 2012. Suboptimal weather likely reduced the net sink by about 25 g Cm-2 in 2011 due to elevated Re, and by about 40 g Cm-2 in 2012 due to limited GPP. The cumulative growing season sums of GPP and CH4 emission showed a strong positive relationship. The EC source area was found to be comprised of eight distinct surface types. However, footprint analyses revealed that contributions of different surface types varied only within 10 %-20% with respect to wind direction and stability conditions. Consequently, no clear link between CO2 and CH4 fluxes and the EC footprint composition was found despite the apparent variation in fluxes with wind direction.
  • Heiskanen, Lauri; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Räsänen, Aleksi; Virtanen, Tarmo; Juutinen, Sari; Lohila, Annalea; Penttilä, Timo; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Mikola, Juha; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika (2021)
    The patterned microtopography of subarctic mires generates a variety of environmental conditions, and carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dynamics vary spatially among different plant community types (PCTs). We studied the CO2 and CH4 exchange between a subarctic fen and the atmosphere at Kaamanen in northern Finland based on flux chamber and eddy covariance measurements in 2017-2018. We observed strong spatial variation in carbon dynamics between the four main PCTs studied, which were largely controlled by water table level and differences in vegetation composition. The ecosystem respiration (ER) and gross primary productivity (GPP) increased gradually from the wettest PCT to the drier ones, and both ER and GPP were larger for all PCTs during the warmer and drier growing season 2018. We estimated that in 2017 the growing season CO2 balances of the PCTs ranged from -20 g C m(-2) (Trichophorum tussock PCT) to 64 g C m(-2) (string margin PCT), while in 2018 all PCTs were small CO2 sources (10-22 g C m(-2)). We observed small growing season CH4 emissions (<1 g C m -2 ) from the driest PCT, while the other three PCTs had significantly larger emissions (mean 7.9, range 5.6-10.1 g C m(-2)) during the two growing seasons. Compared to the annual CO2 balance (-8.5 +/- 4.0 g C m(-2)) of the fen in 2017, in 2018 the annual balance (-5.6 +/- 3.7 g C m(-2)) was affected by an earlier onset of photosynthesis in spring, which increased the CO2 sink, and a drought event during summer, which decreased the sink. The CH4 emissions were also affected by the drought. The annual CH4 balance of the fen was 7.3 +/- 0.2 g C m(-2) in 2017 and 6.2 +/- 0.1 g C m(-2) in 2018. Thus, the carbon balance of the fen was close to zero in both years. The PCTs that were adapted to drier conditions provided ecosystem-level resilience to carbon loss due to water level drawdown.
  • Li, Xuefei; Wahlroos, Outi Marjatta; Haapanala, Sami; Pumpanen, Jukka; Vasander, Harri; Ojala, Anne; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan (2020)
    Many wetlands have been drained due to urbanization, agriculture, forestry or other purposes, which has resulted in a loss of their ecosystem services. To protect receiving waters and to achieve services such as flood control and storm water quality mitigation, new wetlands are created in urbanized areas. However, our knowledge of greenhouse gas exchange in newly created wetlands in urban areas is currently limited. In this paper we present measurements carried out at a created urban wetland in Southern Finland in the boreal climate. We conducted measurements of ecosystem CO2 flux and CH4 flux (FCH4) at the created storm water wetland Gateway in Nummela, Vihti, Southern Finland, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The measurements were commenced the fourth year after construction and lasted for 1 full year and two subsequent growing seasons. Besides ecosystemscale fluxes measured by the EC tower, the diffusive CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the open-water areas (FwCO(2) and FwCH(4), respectively) were modelled based on measurements of CO2 and CH4 concentration in the water. Fluxes from the vegetated areas were estimated by applying a simple mixing model using the above-mentioned fluxes and the footprintweighted fractional area. The half-hourly footprint-weighted contribution of diffusive fluxes from open water ranged from 0% to 25.5% in 2013. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of the studied wetland was 8.0 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 18:9 and 34.9 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1), and FCH4 was 3.9 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1), with the 95% confidence interval between 3.75 and 4.07 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The ecosystem sequestered CO2 during summer months (June-August), while the rest of the year it was a CO2 source. CH4 displayed strong seasonal dynamics, higher in summer and lower in winter, with a sporadic emission episode in the end of May 2013. Both CH4 and CO2 fluxes, especially those obtained from vegetated areas, exhibited strong diurnal cycles during summer with synchronized peaks around noon. The annual FwCO(2) was 297.5 g C-CO2 m(-2) yr(-1) and FwCH(4) was 1.73 g C-CH4 m(-2) yr(-1). The peak diffusive CH4 flux was 137.6 nmol C-CH4 m(-2) s(-1), which was synchronized with the FCH4. Overall, during the monitored time period, the established storm water wetland had a climate-warming effect with 0.263 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1) of which 89% was contributed by CH4. The radiative forcing of the open-water areas exceeded that of the vegetation areas (1.194 and 0.111 kgCO(2)-eqm(-2) yr(-1), respectively), which implies that, when considering solely the climate impact of a created wetland over a 100-year horizon, it would be more beneficial to design and establish wetlands with large patches of emergent vegetation and to limit the areas of open water to the minimum necessitated by other desired ecosystem services.
  • Mills, E. A. C.; Gorski, M.; Emig, K. L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Levy, R. C.; Leroy, A. K.; Ginsburg, A.; Henshaw, J. D.; Zschaechner, L. K.; Veilleux, S.; Tanaka, K.; Meier, D. S.; Walter, F.; Krieger, N.; Ott, J. (2021)
    We present new 3 mm observations of the ionized gas toward the nuclear starburst in the nearby (D similar to 3.5 Mpc) galaxy NGC 253. With ALMA, we detect emission from the H40 alpha and He40 alpha lines in the central 200 pc of this galaxy on spatial scales of similar to 4 pc. The recombination line emission primarily originates from a population of approximately a dozen embedded super star clusters in the early stages of formation. We find that emission from these clusters is characterized by electron temperatures ranging from 7000 to 10,000 K and measures an average singly ionized helium abundance Y (+) = 0.25 +/- 0.06, both of which are consistent with values measured for H ii regions in the center of the Milky Way. We also report the discovery of unusually broad line width recombination line emission originating from seven of the embedded clusters. We suggest that these clusters contribute to the launching of the large-scale hot wind observed to emanate from the central starburst. Finally, we use the measured recombination line fluxes to improve the characterization of overall embedded cluster properties, including the distribution of cluster masses and the fractional contribution of the clustered star formation to the total starburst, which we estimate is at least 50%.
  • Delayre, C.; Sammaljärvi, J.; Billon, S.; Muuri, E.; Sardini, P.; Siitari-Kauppi, M. (2020)
    This study aims to further develop the C-14-PMMA porosity calculation method with a novel autoradiography technique, the Micro-pattern gas detector autoradiography (MPGDA). In this study, the MPGDA is compared with phosphor screen autoradiography (SPA). A set of rock samples from Martinique Island exhibiting a large range of connected porosities was used to validate the MPGDA method. Calculated porosities were found to be in agreement with ones from the SPA and the triple-weight method (TW). The filmless nature of MPGDA as well as straightforward determination of C-14 radioactivity from the source rock makes the porosity calculation less uncertain. The real-time visualization of radioactivity from C-14 beta emissions by MPGDA is a noticeable improvement in comparison to SPA.
  • Saajasto, M.; Juvela, M.; Dobashi, K.; Shimoikura, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Montillaud, J.; Marshall, D. J.; Malinen, J.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Feher, O.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Toth, L. V.; Montier, L.; Bernard, J. -Ph.; Onishi, T. (2017)
    Context. The combination of line and continuum observations can provide vital insight into the formation and fragmentation of filaments and the initial conditions for star formation. We have carried out line observations to map the kinematics of an evolved, actively star forming filament G82.65-2.00. The filament was first identified from the Planck data as a region of particularly cold dust emission and was mapped at 100-500 mu m as a part of the Herschel key program Galactic Cold Cores. The Herschel observations cover the central part of the filament, corresponding to a filament length of similar to 12 pc at the assumed distance of 620 pc.& para;& para;Aims. CO observations show that the filament has an intriguing velocity field with several velocity components around the filament. In this paper, we study the velocity structure in detail, to quantify possible mass accretion rate onto the filament, and study the masses of the cold cores located in the filament.& para;& para;Methods. We have carried out line observations of several molecules, including CO isotopologues, HCO+, HCN, and CS with the Osaka 1.85 m telescope and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral line data are used to derive velocity and column density information.& para;& para;Results. The observations reveal several velocity components in the field, with strongest line emission concentrated to velocity range similar to[3,5] km s(-1). The column density of molecular hydrogen along the filament varies from 1.0 to 2.3 x 10(22) cm(2). We have examined six cold clumps from the central part of the filament. The clumps have masses in the range 10-20 M circle dot (similar to 70 M circle dot in total) and are close to or above the virial mass. Furthermore, the main filament is heavily fragmented and most of the substructures have a mass lower than or close to the virial mass, suggesting that the filament is dispersing as a whole. Position-velocity maps of (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 lines indicate that at least one of the striations is kinematically connected to two of the clumps, potentially indicating mass accretion from the striation onto the main filament. We tentatively estimate the accretion rate to be M = 2.23 x 10(-6) M circle dot/yr.& para;& para;Conclusions. Our line observations have revealed two or possibly three velocity components connected to the filament G82.65-2.00 and putative signs of mass accretion onto the filament. The line observations combined with Herschel and WISE maps suggest a possible collision between two cloud components.
  • Magney, Troy S.; Frankenberg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; North, Gretchen; Davis, Thomas S.; Dold, Christian; Dutta, Debsunder; Fisher, Joshua B.; Grossmann, Katja; Harrington, Alexis; Hatfield, Jerry; Stutz, Jochen; Sun, Ying; Porcar-Castell, Albert (2019)
    Novel satellite measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can improve our understanding of global photosynthesis; however, little is known about how to interpret the controls on its spectral variability. To address this, we disentangle simultaneous drivers of fluorescence spectra by coupling active and passive fluorescence measurements with photosynthesis. We show empirical and mechanistic evidence for where, why, and to what extent leaf fluorescence spectra change. Three distinct components explain more than 95% of the variance in leaf fluorescence spectra under both steady-state and changing illumination conditions. A single spectral shape of fluorescence explains 84% of the variance across a wide range of species. The magnitude of this shape responds to absorbed light and photosynthetic up/down regulation; meanwhile, chlorophyll concentration and nonphotochemical quenching control 9% and 3% of the remaining spectral variance, respectively. The spectral shape of fluorescence is remarkably stable where most current satellite retrievals occur (far-red, >740nm), and dynamic downregulation of photosynthesis reduces fluorescence magnitude similarly across the 670- to 850-nm range. We conduct an exploratory analysis of hourly red and far-red canopy SIF in soybean, which shows a subtle change in red:far-red fluorescence coincident with photosynthetic downregulation but is overshadowed by longer-term changes in canopy chlorophyll and structure. Based on our leaf and canopy analysis, caution should be taken when attributing large changes in the spectral shape of remotely sensed SIF to plant stress, particularly if data acquisition is temporally sparse. Ultimately, changes in SIF magnitude at wavelengths greater than 740 nm alone may prove sufficient for tracking photosynthetic dynamics. Plain Language Summary Satellite remote sensing provides a global picture of photosynthetic activity-allowing us to see when, where, and how much CO2 plants are assimilating. To do this, satellites measure a small emission of energy from the plants called chlorophyll fluorescence. However, this measurement is typically made across a narrow wavelength range, while the emission spectrum (650-850 nm) is quite dynamic. We show where, why, and to what extent leaf fluorescence spectra change across a diverse range of species and conditions, ultimately informing canopy remote sensing measurements. Results suggest that wavelengths currently used by satellites are stable enough to track the downregulation of photosynthesis resulting from stress, while spectral shape changes respond more strongly to dynamics in canopy structure and chlorophyll concentration.
  • Schirmer, T.; Abergel, A.; Verstraete, L.; Ysard, N.; Juvela, M.; Jones, A. P.; Habart, E. (2020)
    Context. Micro-physical processes on interstellar dust surfaces are tightly connected to dust properties (i.e. dust composition, size, and shape) and play a key role in numerous phenomena in the interstellar medium (ISM). The large disparity in physical conditions (i.e. density and gas temperature) in the ISM triggers an evolution of dust properties. The analysis of how dust evolves with the physical conditions is a stepping stone towards a more thorough understanding of interstellar dust.Aims. We highlight dust evolution in the Horsehead nebula photon-dominated region.Methods. We used Spitzer/IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8 mu m) and Spitzer/MIPS (24 mu m) together with Herschel/PACS (70 and 160 mu m) and Herschel/SPIRE (250, 350 and 500 mu m) to map the spatial distribution of dust in the Horsehead nebula over the entire emission spectral range. We modelled dust emission and scattering using the THEMIS interstellar dust model together with the 3D radiative transfer code SOC.Results. We find that the nano-grain dust-to-gas ratio in the irradiated outer part of the Horsehead is 6-10 times lower than in the diffuse ISM. The minimum size of these grains is 2-2.25 times larger than in the diffuse ISM, and the power-law exponent of their size distribution is 1.1-1.4 times lower than in the diffuse ISM. In the denser part of the Horsehead nebula, it is necessary to use evolved grains (i.e. aggregates, with or without an ice mantle).Conclusions. It is not possible to explain the observations using grains from the diffuse medium. We therefore propose the following scenario to explain our results. In the outer part of the Horsehead nebula, all the nano-grain have not yet had time to re-form completely through photo-fragmentation of aggregates and the smallest of the nano-grain that are sensitive to the radiation field are photo-destroyed. In the inner part of the Horsehead nebula, grains most likely consist of multi-compositional mantled aggregates.
  • Kerst, Thomas; Toivonen, Juha (2019)
    Remote detection of alpha radiation is commonly realised by collecting the light, the radioluminescence, that is produced when alpha particles are stopped in air. Radioluminescence of nitric oxide (NO) is primarily emitted between 200 nm and 300 nm, which makes it possible to use it for remote detection under daylight conditions. Quenching by ambient oxygen and water vapour, however, makes it generally difficult to effectively create NO radioluminescence. We present the detection of intense NO radioluminescence in ambient air under standard indoor lighting conditions using a nitrogen purge. The nitrogen contained NO impurities that were intrinsic to the gas and had not explicitly been added. We study the mechanisms that govern the NO radioluminescence production and introduce a model to describe the dynamics of the process. The level of NO contained in the gas was found to determine how successful a purge can be. We conclude by discussing possible applications of the technique in nitrogen-flushed gloveboxes at nuclear facilities where NO concentration of 100 ppb-1ppm would be sufficient for efficient optical alpha radiation detection in standard lighting conditions.
  • Rinne, J.; Tuovinen, J. -P.; Klemedtsson, L.; Aurela, M.; Holst, J.; Lohila, A.; Weslien, P.; Vestin, P.; Łakomiec, P.; Peichl, M.; Peichl, M.; Tuittila, E. -S.; Heiskanen, L.; Laurila, T.; Li, Xuefei; Alekseychik, P.; Mammarella, I.; Ström, L.; Crill, P.; Nilsson, M. B. (2020)
    We analysed the effect of the 2018 European drought on greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of five North European mire ecosystems. The low precipitation and high summer temperatures in Fennoscandia led to a lowered water table in the majority of these mires. This lowered both carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and methane (CH4) emission during 2018, turning three out of the five mires from CO(2)sinks to sources. The calculated radiative forcing showed that the drought-induced changes in GHG fluxes first resulted in a cooling effect lasting 15-50 years, due to the lowered CH(4)emission, which was followed by warming due to the lower CO(2)uptake. This article is part of the theme issue 'Impacts of the 2018 severe drought and heatwave in Europe: from site to continental scale'.
  • Zadin, V.; Pohjonen, A.; Aabloo, A.; Nordlund, K.; Djurabekova, F. (2014)
  • Euclid Collaboration; Desprez, G.; Gozaliasl, G.; Keihänen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Väliviita, J.; Kirkpatrick, C. C. (2020)
    Forthcoming large photometric surveys for cosmology require precise and accurate photometric redshift (photo-z) measurements for the success of their main science objectives. However, to date, no method has been able to produce photo-zs at the required accuracy using only the broad-band photometry that those surveys will provide. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current methods is a crucial step in the eventual development of an approach to meet this challenge. We report on the performance of 13 photometric redshift code single value redshift estimates and redshift probability distributions (PDZs) on a common set of data, focusing particularly on the 0.2-2.6 redshift range that the Euclid mission will probe. We designed a challenge using emulated Euclid data drawn from three photometric surveys of the COSMOS field. The data was divided into two samples: one calibration sample for which photometry and redshifts were provided to the participants; and the validation sample, containing only the photometry to ensure a blinded test of the methods. Participants were invited to provide a redshift single value estimate and a PDZ for each source in the validation sample, along with a rejection flag that indicates the sources they consider unfit for use in cosmological analyses. The performance of each method was assessed through a set of informative metrics, using cross-matched spectroscopic and highly-accurate photometric redshifts as the ground truth. We show that the rejection criteria set by participants are efficient in removing strong outliers, that is to say sources for which the photo-z deviates by more than 0.15(1+z) from the spectroscopic-redshift (spec-z). We also show that, while all methods are able to provide reliable single value estimates, several machine-learning methods do not manage to produce useful PDZs. We find that no machine-learning method provides good results in the regions of galaxy color-space that are sparsely populated by spectroscopic-redshifts, for example z> 1. However they generally perform better than template-fitting methods at low redshift (z<0.7), indicating that template-fitting methods do not use all of the information contained in the photometry. We introduce metrics that quantify both photo-z precision and completeness of the samples (post-rejection), since both contribute to the final figure of merit of the science goals of the survey (e.g., cosmic shear from Euclid). Template-fitting methods provide the best results in these metrics, but we show that a combination of template-fitting results and machine-learning results with rejection criteria can outperform any individual method. On this basis, we argue that further work in identifying how to best select between machine-learning and template-fitting approaches for each individual galaxy should be pursued as a priority.
  • Morosan, Diana E.; Räsänen, Juska E.; Kumari, Anshu; Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Bisi, Mario M.; Dabrowski, Bartosz; Krankowski, Andrzej; Magdalenic, Jasmina; Mann, Gottfried; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Vocks, Christian; Zucca, Pietro (2022)
    The Sun is an active star that often produces numerous bursts of electromagnetic radiation at radio wavelengths. Low frequency radio bursts have recently been brought back to light with the advancement of novel radio interferometers. However, their polarisation properties have not yet been explored in detail, especially with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), due to difficulties in calibrating the data and accounting for instrumental leakage. Here, using a unique method to correct the polarisation observations, we explore the circular polarisation of different sub-types of solar type III radio bursts and a type I noise storm observed with LOFAR, which occurred during March-April 2019. We analysed six individual radio bursts from two different dates. We present the first Stokes V low frequency images of the Sun with LOFAR in tied-array mode observations. We find that the degree of circular polarisation for each of the selected bursts increases with frequency for fundamental emission, while this trend is either not clear or absent for harmonic emission. The type III bursts studied, that are part of a long-lasting type III storm, can have different senses of circular polarisation, occur at different locations and have different propagation directions. This indicates that the type III bursts forming a classical type III storm do not necessarily have a common origin, but instead they indicate the existence of multiple, possibly unrelated acceleration processes originating from solar minimum active regions.
  • Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Walter, Fabian; Gorski, Mark; Ginsburg, Adam; Krieger, Nico; Levy, Rebecca C.; Meier, David S.; Mills, Elisabeth; Ott, Juergen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Thompson, Todd A.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Zschaechner, Laura K. (2018)
    NGC 253 hosts the nearest nuclear starburst. Previous observations show a region rich in molecular gas, with dense clouds associated with recent star formation. We used the Atacama Large Submillimeter/Millimeter Array (ALMA) to image the 350 GHz dust continuum and molecular line emission from this region at 2 pc resolution. Our observations reveal similar to 14 bright, compact (similar to 2-3 pc FWHM) knots of dust emission. Most of these sources are likely to be forming super star clusters (SSCs) based on their inferred dynamical and gas masses, association with 36 GHz radio continuum emission, and coincidence with line emission tracing dense, excited gas. One source coincides with a known SSC, but the rest remain invisible in Hubble near-infrared (IR) imaging. Our observations imply that gas still constitutes a large fraction of the overall mass in these sources. Their high brightness temperature at 350 GHz also implies a large optical depth near the peak of the IR spectral energy distribution. As a result, these sources may have large IR photospheres, and the IR radiation force likely exceeds L/c. Still, their moderate observed velocity dispersions suggest that feedback from radiation, winds, and supernovae are not yet disrupting most sources. This mode of star formation appears to produce a large fraction of stars in the burst. We argue for a scenario in which this phase lasts similar to 1 Myr, after which the clusters shed their natal cocoons but continue to produce ionizing photons. The strong feedback that drives the observed cold gas and X-ray outflows likely occurs after the clusters emerge from this early phase.