Browsing by Subject "EMISSIONS"

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  • Fernandez-Prieto, D.; Kesselmeier, J.; Ellis, M.; Marconcini, M.; Reissell, A.; Suni, T. (2013)
  • Reckling, Moritz; Hecker, Jens-Martin; Bergkvist, Goeran; Watson, Christine A.; Zander, Peter; Schlaefke, Nicole; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Eory, Vera; Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Maire, Juliette; Bachinger, Johann (2016)
    Methods are needed for the design and evaluation of cropping systems, in order to test the effects of introducing or reintroducing crops into rotations. The interaction of legumes with other crops (rotational effects) requires an assessment at the cropping system scale. The objective of this work is to introduce a cropping system framework to assess the impacts of changes in cropping systems in a participatory approach with experts, i.e., the integration of legumes into crop rotations and to demonstrate its application in two case studies. The framework consists of a rule-based rotation generator and a set of algorithms to calculate impact indicators. It follows a three-step approach: (i) generate rotations, (ii) evaluate crop production activities using environmental, economic and phytosanitary indicators, and (iii) design cropping systems and assess their impacts. Experienced agronomists and environmental scientists were involved at several stages of the framework development and testing in order to ensure the practicability of designed cropping systems. The framework was tested in Vastra Gotaland (Sweden) and Brandenburg (Germany) by comparing cropping systems with and without legumes. In both case studies, cropping systems with legumes reduced nitrous oxide emissions with comparable or slightly lower nitrate-N leaching, and had positive phytosanitary effects. In arable systems with grain legumes, gross margins were lower than in cropping systems without legumes despite taking pre-crop effects into account. Forage cropping systems with legumes had higher or equivalent gross margins and at the same time higher environmental benefits than cropping systems without legumes. The framework supports agronomists to design sustainable legume-supported cropping systems and to assess their impacts. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Osterwalder, S.; Fritsche, J.; Alewell, C.; Schmutz, M.; Nilsson, M. B.; Jocher, G.; Sommar, J.; Rinne, J.; Bishop, K. (2016)
    The fate of anthropogenic emissions of mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere is influenced by the exchange of elemental Hg with the earth surface. This exchange holds the key to a better understanding of Hg cycling from local to global scales, which has been difficult to quantify. To advance research about land-atmosphere Hg interactions, we developed a dual-inlet, single detector relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system. REA is an established technique for measuring turbulent fluxes of trace gases and aerosol particles in the atmospheric surface layer. Accurate determination of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) fluxes has proven difficult due to technical challenges presented by extremely small concentration differences (typically <0.5 ngm(-3)) between updrafts and downdrafts. We present an advanced REA design that uses two inlets and two pairs of gold cartridges for continuous monitoring of GEM fluxes. This setup reduces the major uncertainty created by the sequential sampling in many previous designs. Additionally, the instrument is equipped with a GEM reference gas generator that monitors drift and recovery rates. These innovations facilitate continuous, autonomous measurement of GEM flux. To demonstrate the system performance, we present results from field campaigns in two contrasting environments: an urban setting with a heterogeneous fetch and a boreal peatland during snowmelt. The observed average emission rates were 15 and 3 n gm(-2) h(-1), respectively. We believe that this dual-inlet, single detector approach is a significant improvement of the REA system for ultra-trace gases and can help to advance our understanding of long-term land-atmosphere GEM exchange.
  • Grythe, Henrik; Kristiansen, Nina I.; Zwaaftink, Christine D. Groot; Eckhardt, Sabine; Strom, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Krejci, Radovan; Stohl, Andreas (2017)
    A new, more physically based wet removal scheme for aerosols has been implemented in the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. It uses three-dimensional cloud water fields from the European Centre for MediumRange Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to determine cloud extent and distinguishes between in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging. The new in-cloud nucleation scavenging depends on cloud water phase (liquid, ice or mixed-phase), based on the aerosol's prescribed efficiency to serve as ice crystal nuclei and liquid water nuclei, respectively. The impaction scavenging scheme now parameterizes below-cloud removal as a function of aerosol particle size and precipitation type (snow or rain) and intensity. Sensitivity tests with the new scavenging scheme and comparisons with observational data were conducted for three distinct types of primary aerosols, which pose different challenges for modeling wet scavenging due to their differences in solubility, volatility and size distribution: (1) Cs-137 released during the Fukushima nuclear accident attached mainly to highly soluble sulphate aerosol particles, (2) black carbon (BC) aerosol particles, and (3) mineral dust. Calculated e-folding lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosols for these three aerosol types were 11.7, 16.0, and 31.6 days respectively, when well mixed in the atmosphere. These are longer lifetimes than those obtained by the previous removal schem, and, for mineral dust in particular, primarily result from very slow in-cloud removal, which globally is the primary removal mechanism for these accumulation mode particles. Calculated e-folding lifetimes in FLEXPART also have a strong size dependence, with the longest lifetimes found for the accumulation-mode aerosols. For example, for dust particles emitted at the surface the lifetimes were 13.8 days for particles with 1 aem diameter and a few hours for 10 aem particles. A strong size dependence in below-cloud scavenging, combined with increased dry removal, is the primary reason for the shorter lifetimes of the larger particles. The most frequent removal is in-cloud scavenging (85% of all scavenging events) but it occurs primarily in the free troposphere, while below-cloud removal is more frequent below 1000m (52% of all events) and can be important for the initial fate of species emitted at the surface, such as those examined here. For assumed realistic in-cloud removal efficiencies, both BC and sulphate have a slight overestimation of observed atmospheric concentrations (a factor of 1.6 and 1.2 respectively). However, this overestimation is largest close to the sources and thus appears more related to overestimated emissions rather than underestimated removal. The new aerosol wet removal scheme of FLEXPART incorporates more realistic information about clouds and aerosol properties and it compares better with both observed lifetimes and concentration than the old scheme.
  • Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jaeger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Ballesta, P. Perez; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A. (2015)
    The performance of 18 European institutions involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements in ambient air within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to data quality objectives (DQOs) of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW. Compared to previous intercomparison studies the DQOs define a novel approach to assess and ensure a high quality of the measurements. Having already been adopted by GAW, the ACTRIS DQOs are demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5% and a repeatability of better than 2% for NMHC mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol(-1). The participants of the intercomparison analysed two dry gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders, a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N-2 /at approximately 1 nmol mol(-1) and a whole air sample (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero-and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, participants had to report details on their instruments and assess their measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the NMHC_N-2 measurements, 62% of the reported values were within the 5% deviation class corresponding to the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air, generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed, with 50% of the reported values within the 5% deviation class. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N-2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol(-1)). The performance of the participating laboratories were affected by the different measurement procedures such as the usage of a two-step vs. a one-step calibration, breakthroughs of C-2-C-3 hydrocarbons in the focussing trap, blank values in zero-gas measurements (especially for those systems using a Nafion (R) Dryer), adsorptive losses of aromatic compounds, and insufficient chromatographic separation.
  • Petäjä, Tuukka; Ovaska, Aino; Fung, Pak Lun; Poutanen, Pyry; Yli-Ojanperä, Jaakko; Suikkola, Jari; Laakso, Mikko; Mäkelä, Taneli; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Keskinen, Jorma; Järvinen, Anssi; Kuula, Joel; Kurppa, Mona; Hussein, Tareq; Tarkoma, Sasu; Kulmala, Markku; Karppinen, Ari; Manninen, Hanna E.; Timonen, Hilkka (2021)
    Poor air quality influences the quality of life in the urban environment. The regulatory observation stations provide the backbone for the city administration to monitor urban air quality. Recently a suite of cost-effective air quality sensors has emerged to provide novel insights into the spatio-temporal variability of aerosol particles and trace gases. Particularly in low concentrations these sensors might suffer from issues related e.g., to high detection limits, concentration drifts and interdependency between the observed trace gases and environmental parameters. In this study we characterize the optical particle detector used in AQT530 (Vaisala Ltd.) air quality sensor in the laboratory. We perform a measurement campaign with a network of AQT530 sensors in Helsinki, Finland in 2020-2021 and present a long-term performance evaluation of five sensors for particulate (PM10, PM2.5) and gaseous (NO2, NO, CO, O-3) components during a half-year co-location study with reference instruments at an urban traffic site. Furthermore, short-term (3-5 weeks) co-location tests were performed for 25 sensors to provide sensor-specific correction equations for the fine-tuning of selected pollutants in the sensor network. We showcase the added value of the verified network of 25 sensor units to address the spatial variability of trace gases and aerosol mass concentrations in an urban environment. The analysis assesses road and harbor traffic monitoring, local construction dust monitoring, aerosol concentrations from fireworks, impact of sub-urban small scale wood combustion and detection of long-range transport episodes on a city scale. Our analysis illustrates that the calibrated network of Vaisala AQT530 air quality sensors provide new insights into the spatio-temporal variability of air pollution within the city. This information is beneficial to, for example, optimization of road dust and construction dust emission control as well as provides data to tackle air quality problems arising from traffic exhaust and localized wood combustion emissions in the residential areas.
  • Kohl, Lukas; Koskinen, Markku; Polvinen, Tatu; Tenhovirta, Salla; Rissanen, Kaisa; Patama, Marjo Riitta; Zanetti, Alessandro; Pihlatie, Mari (2021)
    Plant shoots can act as sources or sinks of trace gases including methane and nitrous oxide. Accurate measurements of these trace gas fluxes require enclosing of shoots in closed non-steady state chambers. Due to plant physiological activity, this type of enclosures, however, lead to CO2 depletion in the enclosed air volume, condensation of transpired water, and warming of the enclosures exposed to sunlight, all of which may bias the flux measurements. Here, we present ShoTGa-FluMS, a novel measurement system designed for continuous and automated measurements of trace gas and volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes from plant shoots. The system uses transparent shoot enclosures equipped with Peltier cooling elements and automatically replaces fixated CO2 , and removes transpired water from the enclosure. The system is designed for measuring trace gas fluxes over extended periods, capturing diurnal and seasonal variations and linking trace gas exchange to plant physiological functioning and environmental drivers. Initial  measurements show daytime CH4 emissions two pine shoots of 0.056 and 0.089 nmol g−1 foliage d.w. h−1 or 7.80 and 13.1 nmol m−2 h−1 . Simultaneously measured CO2 uptake rates were 9.2 and 7.6 mmol m −2 h −1 and transpiration rates of 1.24 and 0.90 mol m−2 h−1 . Concurrent measurement of VOC emissions demonstrated that potential effects of spectral interferences on CH4 flux measurements were at least ten-fold smaller than the measured CH4 fluxes. Overall, this new system solves multiple technical problems that so far prevented automated plant shoot trace gas flux measurements, and holds the potential for providing important new insights into the role of plant foliage in the global CH4 and N2O cycles.
  • Wilson, Samuel T.; Bange, Hermann W.; Arevalo-Martinez, Damian L.; Barnes, Jonathan; Borges, Alberto; Brown, Ian; Bullister, John L.; Burgos, Macarena; Capelle, David W.; Casso, Michael; de la Paz, Mercedes; Farias, Laura; Fenwick, Lindsay; Ferron, Sara; Garcia, Gerardo; Glockzin, Michael; Karl, David M.; Kock, Annette; Laperriere, Sarah; Law, Cliff S.; Manning, Cara C.; Marriner, Andrew; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Pohlman, John W.; Rees, Andrew P.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Wisegarver, David P.; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Rehder, Gregor (2018)
    Large-scale climatic forcing is impacting oceanic biogeochemical cycles and is expected to influence the water-column distribution of trace gases, including methane and nitrous oxide. Our ability as a scientific community to evaluate changes in the water-column inventories of methane and nitrous oxide depends largely on our capacity to obtain robust and accurate concentration measurements that can be validated across different laboratory groups. This study represents the first formal international intercomparison of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements whereby participating laboratories received batches of seawater samples from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Additionally, compressed gas standards from the same calibration scale were distributed to the majority of participating laboratories to improve the analytical accuracy of the gas measurements. The computations used by each laboratory to derive the dissolved gas concentrations were also evaluated for inconsistencies (e.g., pressure and temperature corrections, solubility constants). The results from the intercomparison and intercalibration provided invaluable insights into methane and nitrous oxide measurements. It was observed that analyses of seawater samples with the lowest concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide had the lowest precisions. In comparison, while the analytical precision for samples with the highest concentrations of trace gases was better, the variability between the different laboratories was higher: 36 % for methane and 27 % for nitrous oxide. In addition, the comparison of different batches of seawater samples with methane and nitrous oxide concentrations that ranged over an order of magnitude revealed the ramifications of different calibration procedures for each trace gas. Finally, this study builds upon the intercomparison results to develop recommendations for improving oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements, with the aim of precluding future analytical discrepancies between laboratories.
  • Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Brockhaus, Maria; Efrian, Muharrom; Juhola, Sirkku; Moira, Moeliono; Cynthia, Maharani; Bimo, Dwisatrio (2017)
    This paper contributes to an emerging body of literature on policy experimentation and governance transformation processes. We use the example of REDD+ as consisting of policy experiments in an emerging domestic policy domain to understand obstacles to transformations in forest and climate governance. We ask two interlinked questions: to what extent did the establishment of the REDD + Agency challenge 'business as usual' in Indonesia's forest and climate policy arena?; and what does this mean for a transformation away from policies and governance that enable deforestation and forest degradation? We draw on the transformation literature to better understand the role of REDD+ to achieve a transformative shift in climate governance. As an experiment of transformative climate governance, the study of REDD + provides important insights for other forest or climate programs. Our analysis shows that the REDD + Agency was successful in some extend in introducing an alternative governance mechanism and in shaking the governance structures but we also note that some of the key actors thought that greater ownership was achieved when the REDD+ Agency was dissolved and the mandate was returned to the ministries. We conclude that policy experimenting is a process, and while the creation of novel policies and their experimentation is important, also their assimilation may lead to new opportunities.
  • Raivonen, Maarit; Joensuu, Johanna; Keronen, Petri; Altimir, Nuria; Kolari, Pasi (2014)
  • Fan, Xiaolong; Cai, Jing; Yan, Chao; Zhao, Jian; Guo, Yishuo; Li, Chang; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Zheng, Feixue; Lin, Zhuohui; Chu, Biwu; Wang, Yonghong; Dada, Lubna; Zha, Qiaozhi; Du, Wei; Kontkanen, Jenni; Kurten, Theo; Iyer, Siddhart; Kujansuu, Joni T.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Liu, Yongchun; Bianchi, Federico; Tham, Yee Jun; Yao, Lei; Kulmala, Markku (2021)
    Gaseous hydrochloric (HCl) and hydrobromic acid (HBr) are vital halogen species that play essential roles in tropospheric physicochemical processes. Yet, the majority of the current studies on these halogen species were conducted in marine or coastal areas. Detection and source identification of HCl and HBr in inland urban areas remain scarce, thus limiting the full understanding of halogen chemistry and potential atmospheric impacts in the environments with limited influence from the marine sources. Here, both gaseous HCl and HBr were concurrently measured in urban Beijing, China, during winter and early spring of 2019. We observed significant HCl and HBr concentrations ranging from a minimum value at 1 x 10(8) molecules cm(-3) (4 ppt) and 4 x 10(7) molecules cm 3 (1 ppt) up to 6 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3) (222 ppt) and 1 x 10(9) molecules cm(-3) (37 ppt), respectively. The HCl and HBr concentrations are enhanced along with the increase of atmospheric temperature, UVB and levels of gaseous HNO3. Based on the air mass analysis and high correlations of HCl and HBr with the burning indicators (HCN and HCNO), gaseous HCl and HBr are found to be related to anthropogenic burning aerosols. The gas-particle partitioning may also play a dominant role in the elevated daytime HCl and HBr. During the daytime, the reactions of HCl and HBr with OH radicals lead to significant production of atomic Cl and Br, up to 2 x 10(4) molecules cm(-3) s(-1) and 8 x 10(4) molecules cm(-3) s(-1), respectively. The production rate of atomic Br (via HBr + OH) is 2-3 times higher than that of atomic Cl (via HCl + OH), highlighting the potential importance of bromine chemistry in the urban area. On polluted days, the production rates of atomic Cl and Br are faster than those on clean days. Furthermore, our observations of elevated HCl and HBr may suggest an important recycling pathway of halogen species in inland megacities and may provide a plausible explanation for the widespread halogen chemistry, which could affect the atmospheric oxidation in China.
  • Yao, Lei; Garmash, Olga; Bianchi, Federico; Zheng, Jun; Yan, Chao; Kontkanen, Jenni; Junninen, Heikki; Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro; Ehn, Mikael; Paasonen, Pauli; Sipilä, Mikko; Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Xinke; Xiao, Shan; Chen, Hangfei; Lu, Yiqun; Zhang, Bowen; Wang, Dongfang; Fu, Qingyan; Geng, Fuhai; Li, Li; Wang, Hongli; Qiao, Liping; Yang, Xin; Chen, Jianmin; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku; Wang, Lin (2018)
    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is an important global phenomenon that is nevertheless sensitive to ambient conditions. According to both observation and theoretical arguments, NPF usually requires a relatively high sulfuric acid (H2SO4) concentration to promote the formation of new particles and a low preexisting aerosol loading to minimize the sink of new particles. We investigated NPF in Shanghai and were able to observe both precursor vapors (H2SO4) and initial clusters at a molecular level in a megacity. High NPF rates were observed to coincide with several familiar markers suggestive of H2SO4-dimethylamine (DMA)water (H2O) nucleation, including sulfuric acid dimers and H2SO4-DMA clusters. In a cluster kinetics simulation, the observed concentration of sulfuric acid was high enough to explain the particle growth to similar to 3 nanometers under the very high condensation sink, whereas the subsequent higher growth rate beyond this size is believed to result fromthe added contribution of condensing organic species. These findings will help in understanding urban NPF and its air quality and climate effects, as well as in formulating policies to mitigate secondary particle formation in China.
  • Sporre, Moa K.; Blichner, Sara M.; Karset, Inger H. H.; Makkonen, Risto; Berntsen, Terje K. (2019)
    Both higher temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations are (separately) expected to increase the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). This has been proposed to initiate negative climate feedback mechanisms through increased formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). More SOA can make the clouds more reflective, which can provide a cooling. Furthermore, the increase in SOA formation has also been proposed to lead to increased aerosol scattering, resulting in an increase in diffuse radiation. This could boost gross primary production (GPP) and further increase BVOC emissions. In this study, we have used the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) to investigate both these feedback mechanisms. Three sets of experiments were set up to quantify the feedback with respect to (1) doubling the CO2, (2) increasing temperatures corresponding to a doubling of CO2 and (3) the combined effect of both doubling CO2 and a warmer climate. For each of these experiments, we ran two simulations, with identical setups, except for the BVOC emissions. One simulation was run with interactive BVOC emissions, allowing the BVOC emissions to respond to changes in CO2 and/or climate. In the other simulation, the BVOC emissions were fixed at present-day conditions, essentially turning the feedback off. The comparison of these two simulations enables us to investigate each step along the feedback as well as estimate their overall relevance for the future climate. We find that the BVOC feedback can have a significant impact on the climate. The annual global BVOC emissions are up to 63 % higher when the feedback is turned on compared to when the feedback is turned off, with the largest response when both CO2 and climate are changed. The higher BVOC levels lead to the formation of more SOA mass (max 53 %) and result in more particles through increased new particle formation as well as larger particles through increased condensation. The corresponding changes in the cloud properties lead to a -0.43 W m(-2) stronger net cloud forcing. This effect becomes about 50 % stronger when the model is run with reduced anthropogenic aerosol emissions, indicating that the feedback will become even more important as we decrease aerosol and precursor emissions. We do not find a boost in GPP due to increased aerosol scattering on a global scale. Instead, the fate of the GPP seems to be controlled by the BVOC effects on the clouds. However, the higher aerosol scattering associated with the higher BVOC emissions is found to also contribute with a potentially important enhanced negative direct forcing (-0.06 W m(-2)). The global total aerosol forcing associated with the feedback is -0.49 W m(-2), indicating that it has the potential to offset about 13 % of the forcing associated with a doubling of CO2.
  • Urzainki, Iñaki; Laurén, Ari; Palviainen, Marjo; Haahti, Kersti; Budiman, Arif; Basuki, Imam; Netzer, Michael; Hökkä, Hannu (2020)
    Drained peatlands are one of the main sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions globally. Emission reduction and, more generally, ecosystem restoration can be enhanced by raising the water table using canal or drain blocks. When restoring large areas, the number of blocks becomes limited by the available resources, which raises the following question: in which exact positions should a given number of blocks be placed in order to maximize the water table rise throughout the area? There is neither a simple nor an analytic answer. The water table response is a complex phenomenon that depends on several factors, such as the topology of the canal network, site topography, peat hydraulic properties, vegetation characteristics and meteorological conditions. We developed a new method to position the canal blocks based on the combination of a hydrological model and heuristic optimization algorithms. We simulated 3 d dry downs from a water saturated initial state for different block positions using the Boussinesq equation, and the block configurations maximizing water table rise were searched for by means of genetic algorithm and simulated annealing. We applied this approach to a large drained peatland area (931 km(2)) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Our solution consistently outperformed traditional block locating methods, indicating that drained peatland restoration can be made more effective at the same cost by selecting the positions of the blocks using the presented scheme.
  • Koster, Egle; Koster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2017)
    Forest fires are one of the most important natural disturbances in boreal forests, and their occurrence and severity are expected to increase as a result of climate warming. A combination of factors induced by fire leads to a thawing of the near-surface permafrost layer in subarctic boreal forest. Earlier studies reported that an increase in the active layer thickness results in higher carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions. We studied changes in CO2, CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes in this study, and the significance of several environmental factors that influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at three forest sites that last had fires in 2012, 1990 and 1969, and we compared these to a control area that had no fire for at least 100 years. The soils in our study acted as sources of CO2 and N2O and sinks for CH4. The elapsed time since the last forest fire was the only factor that significantly influenced all studied GHG fluxes. Soil temperature affected the uptake of CH4, and the N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by nitrogen and carbon content of the soil, and by the active layer depth. Results of our study confirm that the impacts of a forest fire on GHGs last for a rather long period of time in boreal forests, and are influenced by the fire induced changes in the ecosystem. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Ezhova, Ekaterina; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Noe, Steffen; Vesala, Timo; Lohila, Annalea; Liski, Jari; Makkonen, Risto; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2020)
    Forests cool the climate system by acting as a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2) and by enhancing the atmospheric aerosol load. whereas the simultaneous decrease of the surface albedo tends to have a warming effect. Here, we present the concept of CarbonSink+. which considers these combined effects. Using the boreal forest environment as an illustrative example, we estimated that accounting for the CarbonSink+ enhances the forest CO2 uptake by 10-50% due to the combined effects of CO2 fertilization and aerosol-induced diffuse radiation enhancement on photosynthesis. We further estimated that with afforestation or reforestation, i.e., replacing grasslands with forests in a boreal environment, the radiative cooling due to forest aerosols cancels most of the radiative warming due to decreased surface albedos. These two forcing components have. however, relatively large uncertainty ranges. resulting in large uncertainties in the overall effect of CarbonSink+. We discuss shortly the potential future changes in the strength of CarbonSink+ in the boreal region, resulting from changes in atmospheric composition and climate.
  • Köster, Egle; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Aaltonen, Heidi; Zhou, Xuan; Pumpanen, Jukka (2018)
    Rising air temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns in boreal ecosystems are changing the fire occurrence regimes (intervals, severity, intensity, etc.). The main impacts of fires are reported to be changes in soil physical and chemical characteristics, vegetation stress, degradation of permafrost, and increased depth of the active layer. Changes in these characteristics influence the dynamics of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. We have studied the changes in CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the soil in boreal forest areas in central Siberia underlain by continuous permafrost and the possible impacts of the aforementioned environmental factors on the emissions of these greenhouse gases. We have used a fire chronosequence of areas, with the last fire occurring 1, 23, 56, and more than 100 years ago. The soils in our study acted as a source of CO2. Emissions of CO2 were lowest at the most recently burned area and increased with forest age throughout the fire chronosequence. The CO2 flux was influenced by the pH of the top 5cm of the soil, the biomass of the birch (Betula) and alder (Duschekia) trees, and by the biomass of vascular plants in the ground vegetation. Soils were found to be a CH4 sink in all our study areas. The uptake of CH4 was highest in the most recently burned area (forest fire one year ago) and the lowest in the area burned 56 years ago, but the difference between fire chronosequence areas was not significant. According to the linear mixed effect model, none of the tested factors explained the CH4 flux. The results confirm that the impact of a forest fire on CO2 flux is long-lasting in Siberian boreal forests, continuing for more than 50 years, but the impact of forest fire on CH4 flux is minimal.
  • Saarikoski, S.; Reyes, F.; Vázquez, Y.; Tagle, M.; Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Carbone, S.; Worsnop, D.R.; Hillamo, R.; Oyola, P. (2019)
    Chemical characteristics and the sources of submicron particles (<1 mu m in diameter) were investigated in Valle Alegre, the coastal area of Central Chile. The chemical composition of particles was studied by using a Soot particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer. Submicron particles were dominated by organics (42% of mass) and sulfate (39% of mass) while the mass fractions of ammonium, nitrate and black carbon were much smaller (13, 2 and 4% of mass, respectively). Additionally, several metals (V, Zn, Fe, Cd, Cu, K, Na and Mg) were detected in submicron particles and also some of their inorganic salts (e.g. NaCl+, MgCl2+, CaCl2+, KCl+ and KNO3+). The sources of particles were examined by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Organic aerosol (OA) was divided into five factors by using PMF; hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), semi-volatile OA (SV-OOA) and marine oxygenated OOA (MOOA), Oxygenated factors (LV-OOA; SV-OOA and MOOA) comprised 75% of total OA with LV-OOA being the dominant factor (38% of OA). Sulfate had two major sources in Valle Alegre; similar to 70% of sulfate was related to anthropogenic sources through the oxidation of gas phase SO2 whereas similar to 24% of sulfate was associated with biogenic origin related to the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide in the marine environment. Regarding total submicron particle mass (campaign-average 9.5 mu g m(-3)), the contribution of anthropogenic sources was at least as large as that of biogenic origin.
  • Riva, M.; Ehn, M.; Li, D.; Tomaz, S.; Bourgain, F.; Perrier, S.; George, C. (2019)
    While acknowledged as key components in the formation of new particles in the atmosphere, the accurate characterization of gaseous (highly) oxygenated organic compounds remains challenging and requires analytical developments. Earlier studies have successfully used the nitrate ion (NO3) based chemical ionization (CI) coupled to atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CI-APi-TOF) for monitoring these compounds. Despite many breakthroughs in recent years, the CI-APi-TOF has many limitations, preventing for instance the unambiguous ion identification of overlapping peaks. To tackle this analytical challenge, we developed a CI interface coupled to an ultrahigh-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer (CI-Orbitrap). We show that the CI-Orbitrap has similar sensitivity and selectivity as the CI-APi-TOF, but with over an order of magnitude higher mass resolving power (up to 140 000). Equally importantly, the CI-Orbitrap allows tandem mass spectrometry, providing the possibility for structural elucidation of the highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM). As a proof of concept, we characterized HOM formed during the ozonolysis of two biogenic compounds (alpha-pinene and limonene), under different environmental conditions in a flow reactor. The CI-Orbitrap exhibited high sensitivity to both HOM and radical species, while easily separating ions of different elemental composition in cases where the more common TOF applications would not have been able to distinguish all ions. Our tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed distinct fingerprint spectra for all the studied HOM. Overall, the CI-Orbitrap is an extremely promising instrument, and it provides a much-needed extension to ongoing research on HOM, with potential to impact also many other fields within atmospheric chemistry.
  • Al Bawab, Abeer; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Abu Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund; Hussein, Tareq (2020)
    Some cultural heritage sites in Jordan are in urban areas being exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the contamination at these sites to protect them. Here, we considered a Roman archeological site (Nymphaeum) situated in Amman. The contamination in soil, plants, and building stones did not show spatial distribution within the site. The contamination was the highest in soil (heavy metals 10(4) -10(7) ppb and sulfur similar to 3.5x10(6) ppb) whereas in plants was the least for Cr (similar to 400 ppb) and in building stones it was the least for Cu (similar to 860 ppb). The highest contamination in plants and building stones was found for Al (similar to 5x10(4) and similar to 6.2x10(5) ppb respectively). The sulfur content in plants (similar to 7.6x10(5) ppb) was higher than that in the building stones (similar to 2.3x10(5) ppb). The heavy metals and sulfur contamination in the building stones were lower than what was reported elsewhere outside Jordan.