Browsing by Subject "EMOTION"

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  • Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Spape, Michiel; Ravaja, Niklas (2022)
    Subjective estimates of elapsed time are sensitive to the fluctuations in an emotional state. While it is well known that dangerous and threatening situations, such as electric shocks or loud noises, are perceived as lasting longer than safe events, it remains unclear whether anticipating a threatening event speeds up or slows down subjective time and what defines the direction of the distortion. We examined whether the anticipation of uncertain visual aversive events resulted in either underestimation or overestimation of perceived duration. The participants did a temporal bisection task, where they estimated durations of visual cues relative to previously learnt long and short standard durations. The colour of the to-be-timed visual cue signalled either a 50% or 0% probability of encountering an aversive image at the end of the interval. The cue durations were found to be overestimated due to anticipation of aversive images, even when no image was shown afterwards. Moreover, the overestimation was more pronounced in people who reported feeling more anxious while anticipating the image. These results demonstrate that anxiogenic anticipation of uncertain visual threats induce temporal overestimation, which questions a recently proposed view that temporal underestimation evoked by uncertain threats is due to anxiety.
  • Szibor, Annett; Lehtimäki, Jarmo; Ylikoski, Jukka; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Mäkitie, Antti; Hyvärinen, Petteri (2018)
    Affective processing appears to be altered in tinnitus, and the condition is to a large extent characterized by the emotional reaction to the phantom sound. Psychophysiological models of tinnitus and supporting brain imaging studies have suggested a role for the limbic system in the emergence and maintenance of tinnitus. It is not clear whether the tinnitus-related changes in these systems are specific for tinnitus only, or whether they affect emotional processing more generally. In this study, we aimed to quantify possible deviations in affective processing in tinnitus patients by behavioral and physiological measures. Tinnitus patients rated the valence and arousal of sounds from the International Affective Digitized Sounds database. Sounds were chosen based on the normative valence ratings, that is, negative, neutral, or positive. The individual autonomic response was measured simultaneously with pupillometry. We found that the subjective ratings of the sounds by tinnitus patients differed significantly from the normative ratings. The difference was most pronounced for positive sounds, where sounds were rated lower on both valence and arousal scales. Negative and neutral sounds were rated differently only for arousal. Pupil measurements paralleled the behavioral results, showing a dampened response to positive sounds. Taken together, our findings suggest that affective processing is altered in tinnitus patients. The results are in line with earlier studies in depressed patients, which have provided evidence in favor of the so-called positive attenuation hypothesis of depression. Thus, the current results highlight the close link between tinnitus and depression.
  • Salmela, Mikko Erkki Matias; Mäki, Ismo Uskali (Routledge, 2018)
    Routledge Studies in Science, Technology and Society
    Emotions are an important yet largely neglected aspect of scientific work. Little is known about their role in the constitution and maintenance of disciplines and disciplinary identities in spite of the earlier work of Fleck (1935) and Collins (1998). We present a theoretical account of disciplinary emotions and highlight their role in interdisciplinary interaction, focusing on scientific imperialism. We argue that disciplines are institutions with epistemic and organizational aspects that come together in internalized and enacted disciplinary cultures and identities that provide the intentional and psychological background for the emergence of disciplinary emotions. These are felt in the social identity of a scholar for reasons that relate to the epistemic or organizational aspects of the discipline. In interdisciplinary interaction, disciplinary emotions – such as feelings of superiority and inferiority, confidence and pride, envy and jealousy, or anger and fear – motivate proponents and opponents of scientific imperialism alike. We propose that imperialistic disciplines such as economics and evolutionary biology motivate their actions by second-order judgments about the interdisciplinary applicability of their first-order theoretical and methodological principles. Finally, we suggest that the justification of disciplinary emotions in the context of scientific imperialism should be evaluated in terms of their adaptiveness in promoting some epistemically desirable pursuits in scientific research.
  • Kurth, Charlie; Pihkala, Panu (2022)
    Researchers are increasingly trying to understand both the emotions that we experience in response to ecological crises like climate change and the ways in which these emotions might be valuable for our (psychical, psychological, and moral) wellbeing. However, much of the existing work on these issues has been hampered by conceptual and methodological difficulties. As a first step toward addressing these challenges, this review focuses on eco-anxiety. Analyzing a broad range of studies through the use of methods from philosophy, emotion theory, and interdisciplinary environmental studies, the authors show how looking to work on anxiety in general can help researchers build better models of eco-anxiety in particular. The results of this work suggest that the label "eco-anxiety" may be best understood as referring to a family of distinct, but related, ecological emotions. The authors also find that a specific form of eco-anxiety, "practical eco-anxiety," can be a deeply valuable emotional response to threats like climate change: when experienced at the right time and to the right extent, practical eco-anxiety not only reflects well on one's moral character but can also help advance individual and planetary wellbeing.
  • Kazlauskaitė, Rūta (2022)
    This article examines how the Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk, Poland, employs an immersive virtual reality (VR) experience ‘Postcard from the Uprising’ (Kartka z Powstania) in order to build an affective memory regime that prescribes an emotional repertoire for museum audiences. By engaging in a narrative inquiry of the VR experience, I demonstrate how it evokes the emotional dynamic of ressentiment, which has been identified as the affective driver of right-wing populism and which informs the historical policy of Poland’s ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party. The ressentimentful emotional regime is predicated on (1) the repeated re-experiencing of perceived injustice and victimhood, which requires (2) an outlet of negative emotions directed at the enemy and (3) a reclaiming of self-worth and dignity along with an ennobled and morally superior victimhood position. The VR experience functions as an emotion training device through which ‘appropriate’ emotions towards the past are instilled in the audience. The VR narrative transforms collective historical victimhood from a powerless to a morally superior position and may help the PiS in harnessing feelings of injustice and victimhood present among the museum visitors, who yearn to overcome these feelings and reclaim their self-worth and dignity.
  • Salminen, Mikko; Järvelä, Simo; Ruonala, Antti; Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Jacucci, Giulio; Hamari, Juho; Ravaja, Niklas (2022)
    With the advent of consumer grade virtual reality (VR) headsets and physiological measurement devices, new possibilities for mediated social interaction emerge enabling the immersion to environments where the visual features react to the users' physiological activation. In this study, we investigated whether and how individual and interpersonally shared biofeedback (visualised respiration rate and frontal asymmetry of electroencephalography, EEG) enhance synchrony between the users' physiological activity and perceived empathy towards the other during a compassion meditation exercise carried out in a social VR setting. The study was conducted as a laboratory experiment (N = 72) employing a Unity3D-based Dynecom immersive social meditation environment and two amplifiers to collect the psychophysiological signals for the biofeedback. The biofeedback on empathy-related EEG frontal asymmetry evoked higher self-reported empathy towards the other user than the biofeedback on respiratory activation, but the perceived empathy was highest when both feedbacks were simultaneously presented. In addition, the participants reported more empathy when there was stronger EEG frontal asymmetry synchronization between the users. The presented results inform the field of affective computing on the possibilities that VR offers for different applications of empathic technologies.
  • Paananen, Jenny; Stevanovic, Melisa; Valkeapää, Taina (2021)
    This paper focuses on the stancetaking formats used to express personal thoughts, namely Finnish ma aattelen/aattelin 'I think/thought', ma mietin 'I think/wonder', and mun mielesta/musta 'I think/in my opinion'. We study how these first-person formats are used in mental health rehabilitation group meetings, which aim to promote joint decision-making. In particular, we analyze whether the institutional asymmetry between support workers and clients is reflected in the use of these thought expressions. Our data comprise 23 video-recorded rehabilitation meetings, and the adopted methods are conversation analysis and interactional linguistics. Most of the stancetaking formats in our data are produced by support workers (106/129). The results of a sequential analysis conducted in this study demonstrate that support workers' thought expressions are embedded in their institutional actions, which are beyond the clients' authority. Moreover, our data suggest that support workers' and rehabilitants' thought expressions generate different participation dynamics. Although previous research has considered I think-formats typically as calls for other views, in institutional settings such as ours, these formats can also be interpreted as highlighting an institutional agent's controlling position. Acknowledging the existence of such differences in stancetaking practices can advance the design of new protocols to facilitate client participation.
  • Simola, Jaana; Torniainen, Jari; Moisala, Mona; Kivikangas, Markus; Krause, Christina M. (2013)
    Emotional stimuli are preferentially processed over neutral stimuli. Previous studies, however, disagree on whether emotional stimuli capture attention preattentively or whether the processing advantage is dependent on allocation of attention. The present study investigated attention and emotion processes by measuring brain responses related to eye movement events while 11 participants viewed images selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Brain responses to emotional stimuli were compared between serial and parallel presentation. An “emotional” set included one image with high positive or negative valence among neutral images. A “neutral” set comprised four neutral images. The participants were asked to indicate which picture—if any—was emotional and to rate that picture on valence and arousal. In the serial condition, the event-related potentials (ERPs) were time-locked to the stimulus onset. In the parallel condition, the ERPs were time-locked to the first eye entry on an image. The eye movement results showed facilitated processing of emotional, especially unpleasant information. The EEG results in both presentation conditions showed that the LPP (“late positive potential”) amplitudes at 400–500 ms were enlarged for the unpleasant and pleasant pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Moreover, the unpleasant scenes elicited stronger responses than pleasant scenes. The ERP results did not support parafoveal emotional processing, although the eye movement results suggested faster attention capture by emotional stimuli. Our findings, thus, suggested that emotional processing depends on overt attentional resources engaged in the processing of emotional content. The results also indicate that brain responses to emotional images can be analyzed time-locked to eye movement events, although the response amplitudes were larger during serial presentation.
  • Kaakinen, Johanna; Simola, Jaana (2020)
    Thirty-nine participants listened to 28 neutral and horror excerpts of Stephen King short stories while constantly tracking their emotional arousal. Pupil size was measured with an Eyelink 1000+, and participants rated valence and transportation after each story. In addition to computing mean pupil size across 1-sec intervals, we extracted blink count and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to obtain the scaling exponents of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in pupil size time-series. Pupil size was expected to be sensitive also to emotional arousal, whereas blink count and LRTC’s were expected to reflect cognitive engagement. The results showed that self-reported arousal increased, pupil size was overall greater, and the decreasing slope of pupil size was flatter for horror than for neutral stories. Horror stories induced higher transportation than neutral stories. High transportation was associated with a steeper increase in self-reported arousal across time, stronger LRTCs in pupil size fluctuations, and lower blink count. These results indicate that pupil size reflects emotional arousal induced by the text content, while LRTCs and blink count are sensitive to cognitive engagement associated with transportation, irrespective of the text type. The study demonstrates the utility of pupillometric measures and blink count to study literature reception.
  • Tissari, Heli; Vanhatalo, Ulla; Siiroinen, Mari (2019)
    NSM researchers have not used corpus data very systematically thus far. One could talk about corpus-assisted rather than corpus-based or corpus-driven research. This article suggests a way to not only base research on corpus data, but also to let it guide us in defining words in terms of NSM. It presents a new method, which we have developed. Our data come from the Suomi24 Sentences Corpus and concerns the Finnish emotion words viha ('anger, hate'), vihata ('to hate') and vihainen ('angry').
  • Wikström, Valtteri; Falcon, Mari; Martikainen, Silja; Pejoska, Jana; Dural, Eva; Bauters, Merja; Saarikivi, Katri Annukka (2021)
    Augmenting online interpersonal communication with biosignals, often in the form of heart rate sharing, has shown promise in increasing affiliation, feelings of closeness, and intimacy. Increasing empathetic awareness in the professional domain and in the customer interface could benefit both customer and employee satisfaction, but heart rate sharing in this context needs to consider issues around physiological monitoring of employees, appropriate level of intimacy, as well as the productivity outlook. In this study, we explore heart rate sharing at the workplace and study its effects on task performance. Altogether, 124 participants completed a collaborative visual guidance task using a chat box with heart rate visualization. Participants’ feedback about heart rate sharing reveal themes such as a stronger sense of human contact and increased self-reflection, but also raise concerns around unnecessity, intimacy, privacy and negative interpretations. Live heart rate was always measured, but to investigate the effect of heart rate sharing on task performance, half of the customers were told that they were seeing a recording, and half were told that they were seeing the advisor’s live heart beat. We found a negative link between awareness and task performance. We also found that higher ratings of usefulness of the heart rate visualization were associated with increased feelings of closeness. These results reveal that intimacy and privacy issues are particularly important for heart rate sharing in professional contexts, that preference modulates the effects of heart rate sharing on social closeness, and that heart rate sharing may have a negative effect on performance.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Tuhkanen, Samuel; Jarvensivu, Milla; Koskinen, Emmi; Lindholm, Camilla; Paananen, Jenny; Savander, Eniko; Valkeapaa, Taina; Valkiaranta, Kaisa (2022)
    We used a novel interdisciplinary experimental paradigm where two types of dyads-15 dyads with one depressed and one non-depressed participant and 15 dyads with two non-depressed participants-engaged in a series of food-decision-making tasks. We examined how different communicative events during the decision-making process were reflected in the affective responses of the interacting participants, as indicated in their skin conductance (SC) response rates. The participants' SC response rates were found to be higher during the emergence of the final decision, compared to the other segments during the process. Furthermore, relinquishing one's initially expressed preferences was associated with SC response rates higher than the baseline. However, during the relinquishment segments, there was a negative interaction between depression diagnosis and SC response rates, which suggests that, compared to their non-depressed comparisons, it is affectively less arousing for the participants with depression to give up their previously expressed preferences.
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Lehecka, Martin; Huhtakangas, Justiina; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Niemelä, Mika; Hafez, Ahmad (2019)
    BackgroundNeurosurgeons are vulnerable to additional noise in their natural operating environment. Noise exposure is associated with reduced cognitive function, inability to concentrate, and nervousness. Mediation music provides an opportunity to create a calmer environment which may reduce stress during surgery.MethodsA pilot study was performed to find a suitable task, meditation music of surgeon's choice, and operation noise and to reach a certain level of training. For the main experiment, two neurosurgeons with different microsurgical experience used real operation noise and meditation music with delta waves as mediating music. Each surgeon performed 10 training bypasses (five with noise and five with music) with 16 stitches in each bypass. The total time to complete 16 stitches, a number of unachieved movements (N.U.Ms), length of thread consumed, and distribution of the stitches were quantified from the recorded videos and compared in both groups.ResultsA N.U.Ms were significantly reduced from 10938 with operation room (OR) noise to 38 +/- 13 (p
  • Acosta, H.; Kantojärvi, K.; Hashempour, N.; Pelto, J.; Scheinin, N. M.; Lehtola, S. J.; Lewis, J. D.; Fonov, V. S.; Collins, D. L.; Evans, A.; Parkkola, R.; Lahdesmaki, T.; Saunavaara, J.; Karlsson, L.; Merisaari, H.; Paunio, T.; Karlsson, H.; Tuulari, J. J. (2020)
    Psychiatric disease susceptibility partly originates prenatally and is shaped by an interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors. A recent study has provided preliminary evidence that an offspring polygenic risk score for major depressive disorder (PRS-MDD), based on European ancestry, interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (GxE) on neonatal right amygdalar (US and Asian cohort) and hippocampal volumes (Asian cohort). However, to date, this GxE interplay has only been addressed by one study and is yet unknown for a European ancestry sample. We investigated in 105 Finnish mother-infant dyads (44 female, 11-54 days old) how offspring PRS-MDD interacts with prenatal maternal depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, gestational weeks 14, 24, 34) on infant amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. We found a GxE effect on right amygdalar volumes, significant in the main analysis, but nonsignificant after multiple comparison correction and some of the control analyses, whose direction paralleled the US cohort findings. Additional exploratory analyses suggested a sex-specific GxE effect on right hippocampal volumes. Our study is the first to provide support, though statistically weak, for an interplay of offspring PRS-MDD and prenatal maternal depressive symptoms on infant limbic brain volumes in a cohort matched to the PRS-MDD discovery sample.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Tuhkanen, Samuel; Järvensivu, Milla; Koskinen, Emmi; Savander, Enikö; Valkia, Kaisa (2021)
    A novel conversation-analytically informed paradigm was used to examine how joint decision-making interaction, with its various types of proposal sequences, is reflected in the physiological responses of participants. Two types of dyads–dyads with one depressed and one non-depressed participant (N = 15) and dyads with two non-depressed participants (N = 15)–engaged in a series of conversational joint decision-making tasks, during which we measured their skin conductance (SC) responses. We found that the participants’ SC response rates were higher and more synchronized during proposal sequences than elsewhere in the conversation. Furthermore, SC response rates were higher when the participant was in the role of a proposal speaker (vs. a proposal recipient), and making a proposal was associated with higher SC response rates for participants with depression (vs. participants without depression). Moreover, the SC response rates in the proposal speaker were higher when the recipient accepted (vs. not accepted) the proposal. We interpret this finding with reference to accepting responses suggesting a commitment to future action, for which the proposal speaker may feel specifically responsible for. A better understanding of the physiological underpinnings of joint decision-making interaction may help improve democratic practices in contexts where certain individuals experience challenges in this regard.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari; Makkonen, Tommi; Nie, Peixin (2021)
    We compared music emotion ratings and their physiological correlates when the participants listened to music at home and in the laboratory. We hypothesized that music emotions are stronger in a familiar environment, that is, at home. Participants listened to their self-selected favorite and neutral music excerpts at home and in the laboratory for 10 min in each environment. They completed the questionnaires about their emotional states and gave saliva samples for the analyses of the stress hormone cortisol. We found that in the context of music listening, the participants’ emotion ratings differed between home and the laboratory. Furthermore, the cortisol levels were generally lower at home than in the laboratory and decreased after music listening at home and in the laboratory. However, the modulatory effects of music listening on cortisol levels did not differ between the home and the laboratory. Our exploratory multimethodological data offer novel insight about the psychological and physiological consequences of music listening. These data reveal the sensitivity of the current research methods to investigate human emotions in various contexts without excluding the use of laboratory environment in investigating them.
  • Peromaa, Tarja; Olkkonen, Maria (2019)
    The color red seems to be consistently associated with the concept of anger. Beyond semantic associations, it has been suggested that the color red enhances our ability to perceive anger in faces. However, previous studies often lack proper color control or the results are confounded by the presence of several emotions. Moreover, the magnitude of the (potential) effect of red has not been quantified. To address these caveats, we quantified the effect of facial color and background color on anger with psychometric functions measured with the method-of-constant-stimuli while facial hue or surround hue was varied in CIELAB color space. Stimulus sequences were generated by morphing between neutral and angry faces. For the facial color, the average chromaticity of the faces was shifted by Delta E 12/20 in red, yellow, green and blue directions. For the background color, the hue was either neutral or saturated red, green or blue. Both facial redness and surround redness enhanced perceived anger slightly, by 3-4 morph-%. Other colors did not affect perceived anger. As the magnitude of the enhancement is generally small and the effect is robust only in a small subset of the participants, we question the practical significance of red in anger recognition.
  • Muukkonen, Ilkka; Salmela, Viljami (2022)
    Face perception provides an excellent example of how the brain processes nuanced visual differences and trans-forms them into behaviourally useful representations of identities and emotional expressions. While a body of literature has looked into the spatial and temporal neural processing of facial expressions, few studies have used a dimensionally varying set of stimuli containing subtle perceptual changes. In the current study, we used 48 short videos varying dimensionally in their intensity and category (happy, angry, surprised) of expression. We measured both fMRI and EEG responses to these video clips and compared the neural response patterns to the predictions of models based on image features and models derived from behavioural ratings of the stimuli. In fMRI, the inferior frontal gyrus face area (IFG-FA) carried information related only to the intensity of the expres-sion, independent of image-based models. The superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal (IT) and lateral occipital (LO) areas contained information about both expression category and intensity. In the EEG, the coding of expression category and low-level image features were most pronounced at around 400 ms. The expression intensity model did not, however, correlate significantly at any EEG timepoint. Our results show a specific role for IFG-FA in the coding of expressions and suggest that it contains image and category invariant representations of expression intensity.
  • Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Kuusi, Tuire; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Lahdesmaki, Harri; Jarvela, Irma (2015)
    Music performance by professional musicians involves a wide-spectrum of cognitive and multi-sensory motor skills, whose biological basis is unknown. Several neuroscientific studies have demonstrated that the brains of professional musicians and non-musicians differ structurally and functionally and that musical training enhances cognition. However, the molecules and molecular mechanisms involved in music performance remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of music performance on the genome-wide peripheral blood transcriptome of professional musicians by analyzing the transcriptional responses after a 2-hr concert performance and after a 'music-free' control session. The up-regulated genes were found to affect dopaminergic neurotransmission, motor behavior, neuronal plasticity, and neurocognitive functions including learning and memory. Particularly, candidate genes such as SNCA, FOS and DUSP1 that are involved in song perception and production in songbirds, were identified, suggesting an evolutionary conservation in biological processes related to sound perception/production. Additionally, modulation of genes related to calcium ion homeostasis, iron ion homeostasis, glutathione metabolism, and several neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases implied that music performance may affect the biological pathways that are otherwise essential for the proper maintenance of neuronal function and survival. For the first time, this study provides evidence for the candidate genes and molecular mechanisms underlying music performance.
  • Jonauskaite, Domicele; Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Al-Rasheed, Abdulrahman Saud; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Atitsogbe, Kokou Amenyona; Barma, Marodégueba; Barratt, Daniel; Bogushevskaya, Victoria; Bouayed Meziane, Maliha Khadidja; Chamseddine, Amer; Charernboom, Thammanard; Chkonia, Eka; Ciobanu, Teofil; Corona, Violeta; Creed, Allison; Dael, Nele; Daouk, Hassan; Dimitrova, Nevena; Doorenbos, Cornelis B.; Fomins, Sergejs; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Gaspar, Augusta; Gizdic, Alena; Griber, Yulia A.; Grimshaw, Gina; Hasan Aya, Ahmed; Havelka, Jelena; Hirnstein, Marco; Karlsson, Bodil S.A.; Kim, Jejoong; Konstantinou, Nikos; Laurent, Eric; Lindeman, Marjaana; Manav, Banu; Marquardt, Lynn; Mefoh, Philip; Mroczko-Wąsowicz, Aleksandra; Mutandwa, Phillip; Muthusi, Steve; Ngabolo, Georgette; Oberfeld, Daniel; Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta; Perchtold, Corinna M.; Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia; Pouyan, Niloufar; Rashid Soron, Tanjir; Roinishvili, Maya; Romanyuk, Lyudmyla; Salgado Montejo, Alejandro; Sultanova, Aygun; Tau, Ramiro; Uusküla, Mari; Vainio, Suvi; Vargas-Soto, Veronica; Volkan, Eliz; Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Zdravković, Sunčica; Zhang, Meng; Mohr, Christine (2019)
    Across cultures, people associate colours with emotions. Here, we test the hypothesis that one driver of this cross-modal correspondence is the physical environment we live in. We focus on a prime example – the association of yellow with joy, – which conceivably arises because yellow is reminiscent of life-sustaining sunshine and pleasant weather. If so, this association should be especially strong in countries where sunny weather is a rare occurrence. We analysed yellow-joy associations of 6625 participants from 55 countries to investigate how yellow-joy associations varied geographically, climatologically, and seasonally. We assessed the distance to the equator, sunshine, precipitation, and daytime hours. Consistent with our hypotheses, participants who live further away from the equator and in rainier countries are more likely to associate yellow with joy. We did not find associations with seasonal variations. Our findings support a role for the physical environment in shaping the affective meaning of colour.