Browsing by Subject "EMPLOYMENT"

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  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Pesonen, Henri; Tuononen, Tarja; Fabri, Marc; Lahdelma, Minja (2022)
    An unprecedented number of autistic people are completing university and they frequently face unemployment after graduation. However, research focusing on the forms of graduate capital and their employability is scarce. The focus of existing research has been on non-autistic, or neurotypical, graduates. The human, social, cultural, identity and psychological capital might be different for autistic graduates due to the characteristics of autism. Using a participatory approach, our aim was to examine the five areas of graduate capital in the context of autistic graduates. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 15 autistic university graduates from England, Finland, France and the Netherlands. Data were analysed using theory guided content analysis and 'datadriven' approaches. Findings indicate that the five areas of graduate capital are particularly relevant to autistic graduates, who typically expose gaps in several capital, jeopardising their employability.
  • Maury, Olivia (2020)
    This article examines the experiences of non-EU/EEA student-migrants orienting in precarious labour markets in Finland. Drawing on data from in-depth interviews with working student-migrants holding a temporary legal status, the article examines the incidence of unpaid work within a variety of contractual settings and sectors. The findings suggest that exploitation with regard to the subjective capacity to produce is facilitated through the imposition of unpaid work hours on legally constrained migrants in precarious employment. The findings contribute to the sociological analysis of the increasingly fragmented figures of labour as well as to the study of unpaid work as a driver of precarisation.
  • Komp-Leukkunen, Kathrin Susanne (2019)
    Life-courses describe people’s activities from the cradle to the grave. Because life-courses are typically complex, models are used to simplify their description. The most commonly used model is tripartite, representing lives in subsequent periods of education, work, and retirement. However, researchers criticize this model as limited in the activities considered, overly simplistic in the activity sequence, and blind to variation between life-courses. This article explores working age life-courses, which typically show high diversity. Multichannel sequence and cluster analyses are conducted on people’s activities from age 15 to 65. Data stem from the life-history interviews of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, capturing cohorts born before 1945. Findings show that three out of four working age life-courses are in line with the tripartite model. This share is particularly high among men, the cohort born 1935 to 1944, and in Northern and Eastern Europe. In contrast, a considerable share of women spent their working age on homemaking, especially women born before 1935, and those living in Southern Europe. Finally, a smaller number of men spent their working age on paid work, followed by a period of illness or of non-employment. The working age life-course patterns identified are used to develop alternative life-course models. However, for a parsimonious solution, the use of two models suffices. A combination of the tripartite model and the model equating middle age to homemaking captures the lives of more than nine out of ten older Europeans. The prevalence of working age life-course patterns in a population is country-specific, and the country differences align with the welfare regimes. This perspective makes working age life-courses characteristics of a society that can be used to map social inequalities at the macro-level and capture social change over time.
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Kananen, Laura; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Ripatti, Samuli; Pirkola, Sami; Paunio, Tiina; Hovatta, Iiris (2021)
    Telomeres are repeat sequences and an associated protein complex located at the end of the chromosomes. They shorten with every cell division and are regarded markers for cellular aging. Shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been observed in many complex diseases, including psychiatric disorders. However, analyses focusing on psychiatric disorders are mainly based on clinical samples and the significance of shorter LTL on the population level remains uncertain. We addressed this question in a population-based sample from Finland (N = 7142). The survey was performed and the blood samples were collected in 2000-2001 to assess major public health problems and their determinants. DSM-IV diagnoses of major psychiatric illnesses were obtained by interview using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Information regarding their risk factors, including the number of self-reported childhood adversities, recent psychological distress, and sleep difficulties was collected by questionnaires. LTL was measured by qPCR. None of the studied psychiatric illnesses, sleep difficulties, or recent psychological distress associated with LTL. However, individuals with three or more childhood adversities had shorter LTL at adult age (13 = -0.006, P = 0.005). Also, current occupational status was associated with LTL (13 = -0.03, P = 0.04). These effects remained significant after adjusting for known LTLassociated lifestyle or sociodemographic factors. In conclusion, relatively common childhood adversities were associated with shorter LTL at adult age in a nationally representative population-based cohort, implying that childhood adversities may cause accelerated telomere shortening. Our finding has potentially important implications as it supports the view that childhood adversities have an impact on psychological and somatic wellbeing later in life.
  • Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko (2020)
    Objectives: Little is known about the length of working life, even though it is a key indicator for policy-makers. In this paper, we study how the length of working life at age 50 has developed in the United States from a cohort perspective. Methods: We use a large longitudinal sample of U.S. Social Security register data that covers close to 1.7 million individuals of the cohorts born from 1920 to 1965. For all of these cohorts, we study the employment trajectories and working life expectancy (WLE) at age 50 by gender and nativity (native-born/foreign-born). For the cohorts with employment trajectories that are only incompletely observed, we borrow information from older cohorts to predict their WLE. Results: The length of working life has been increasing for the native-born males and females, and the younger cohorts worked longer than the older cohorts. However, WLE might soon peak, and then stall. The gap in WLE between the nativeborn and the foreign-born has increased over time, although latter group might be able to catch up in the coming years. Discussion: Our findings show that studying employment from a cohort perspective reveals crucial information about patterns of working life. The future development of the length of working life should be a major concern for policy-makers.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Niska, Miira; Nevalainen, Henri; Weiste, Elina; Lindholm, Camilla; Valkeapää, Taina (2022)
    In our society, work is generally considered central to citizenship and individual well-being. However, paid employment is often out of reach for individuals with mental illness. The Clubhouse model is a community-based rehabilitation programme that therefore offers people with mental illness the possibility to enjoy some social advantages of work. However, the status of the day-to-day Clubhouse activities as “work” is a matter of discursive contestation. Drawing on 29 meetings of a Clubhouse rehabilitation group as data, and using conversation analysis and discourse analysis as methods, this study examines two competing interpretive repertoires that are systematically manifested in this context: the capitalist “paid work” repertoire used by Clubhouse clients and the more flexible “productive activity” repertoire used by support workers. The adoption of these two repertoires reflects two competing discursive agendas, which define the scope of mental health rehabilitation and the role of the client in their own rehabilitation process in distinct ways. From this perspective, the support workers' central institutional task is essentially of a discursive and ideological nature—exposing the clients to new ways of talking about their lives with reference to work.
  • Ervasti, Jenni; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Pentti, Jaana; Vahtera, Jussi; Suominen, Sakari; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika (2019)
    Objectives We examined the extent to which an increase in physical activity would reduce the excess risk of work disability among overweight and obese people (body mass index >= 25kg/m(2)). Methods We used counterfactual modelling approaches to analyze longitudinal data from two Finnish prospective cohort studies (total N=38 744). Weight, height and physical activity were obtained from surveys and assessed twice and linked to electronic records of two indicators of long-term work disability (>= 90-day sickness absence and disability pension) for a 7-year follow-up after the latter survey. The models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results The confounder-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of long-term sickness absence for overweight compared to normal-weight participants was 1.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35-1.53]. An increase in physical activity among overweight compared to normal-weight individuals was estimated to reduce this HR to 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.48). In pseudo-trial analysis including only the persistently overweight, initially physically inactive participants, the HR for long-term sickness absence was 0.82 (95% CI 0.70-0.94) for individuals with increased physical activity compared to those who remained physically inactive. The results for disability pension as an outcome were similar. Conclusions These findings suggest that the excess risk of work disability among overweight individuals would drop by 3-4% if they increased their average physical activity to the average level of normal-weight people. However, overweight individuals who are physically inactive would reduce their risk of work disability by about 20% by becoming physically active.
  • Nisen, Jessica; Klüsener, Sebastian; Dahlberg, Johan; Dommermuth, Lars; Jasilioniene, Aiva; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Lappegard, Trude; Li, Peng; Martikainen, Pekka; Neels, Karel; Riederer, Bernhard; te Riele, Saskia; Szabó, Laura; Trimarchi, Alessandra; Viciana, Francisco; Wilson, Ben; Myrskylä, Mikko (2021)
    Educational differences in female cohort fertility vary strongly across high-income countries and over time, but knowledge about how educational fertility differentials play out at the sub-national regional level is limited. Examining these sub-national regional patterns might improve our understanding of national patterns, as regionally varying contextual conditions may affect fertility. This study provides for the first time for a large number of European countries a comprehensive account of educational differences in the cohort fertility rate (CFR) at the sub-national regional level. We harmonise data from population registers, censuses, and large-sample surveys for 15 countries to measure women's completed fertility by educational level and region of residence at the end of the reproductive lifespan. In order to explore associations between educational differences in CFRs and levels of economic development, we link our data to regional GDP per capita. Empirical Bayesian estimation is used to reduce uncertainty in the regional fertility estimates. We document an overall negative gradient between the CFR and level of education, and notable regional variation in the gradient. The steepness of the gradient is inversely related to the economic development level. It is steepest in the least developed regions and close to zero in the most developed regions. This tendency is observed within countries as well as across all regions of all countries. Our findings underline the variability of educational gradients in women's fertility, suggest that higher levels of development may be associated with less negative gradients, and call for more in-depth sub-national-level fertility analyses by education.
  • Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Maczulskij, Terhi (2018)
    This paper examines the links between risky health behaviors and labor market success. We provide new evidence on the joint relationships between the most prominent forms of risky health behavior - alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity - and long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women linked to register-based individual information on earnings and labor market attachment. The twin data allow us to account for shared family and environmental factors and to measure risky health behaviors in 1975 and 1981. The long-term labor market outcomes were measured in adulthood as an average over the period 1990-2009. The sample sizes are 2156 and 2498 twins, for men and women, respectively. We find that being both a smoker and a heavy drinker in early adulthood is negatively related to long-term earnings and employment later in life, especially for men. We conclude that how and why risky health behaviors cluster and how that affects individual level outcomes call for more attention.
  • Elfving, Pia; Puolakka, Kari; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Virta, Lauri J.; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili (2018)
    Objectives of this study were to examine work disability (WD) and its leading causes in incident SLE patients. Data were derived from the Finnish nationwide registries to identify all non-retired, 18 to 64-year-old incident SLE patients between 2000 and 2007. Sick benefits and WD pensions and the causes for them were monitored until the end of 2008. A total of 446 working-aged, incident SLE patients available for work force (mean age 42 +/- 13 years, 89% females) were found. During the follow-up (median 5.3 years), WD pension was granted to 27 patients. The most common cause was SLE itself (14 patients, 52%), with cumulative incidence of 3.4% (95% CI 1.9 to 5.8) in 5 years and 5.0% (95% CI 3.0 to 8.5) in 8 years, followed by musculoskeletal and psychiatric causes. The age- and sex- adjusted incidence ratio for WD pension in SLE patients due to any cause was 5.4 (95% CI 3.7 to 7.9) compared to the Finnish population. The mean number of WD days was 32 (95% CI 28 to 35) per patient-year among all SLE patients during the follow-up. The study concludes that SLE patients have an increased risk for WD already in early course of the disease.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Meadows, Robert (2022)
    Considerable attention has been paid to inequalities in health. More recently, focus has also turned to inequalities in 'recovery'; with research, for example, suggesting that lower grade of employment is strongly associated with slower recovery from both poor physical and poor mental health. However, this research has tended to operationalise recovery as 'return to baseline', and we know less about patterns and predictors when recovery is situated as a 'process'. This paper seeks to address this gap. Drawing on data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, we operationalise recovery as both an 'outcome' and as a 'process' and compare patterns and predictors across the two models. Our analysis demonstrates that the determinants of recovery from poor health, measured by the SF-12, are robust, regardless of whether recovery is operationalised as an outcome or as a process. For example, being employed and having a higher degree were found to increase the odds of recovery both from poor physical and mental health functioning, when recovery was operationalised as an outcome. These variables were also important in distinguishing health functioning trajectories following a poor health episode. At one and the same time, our analysis does suggest that understandings of inequalities in recovery will depend in part on how we define it. When recovery is operationalised as a simple transition from poor health state to good, it loses sight of the fact that there may be inequalities (i) within a 'poor health' state, (ii) in how individuals are able to step into the path of recovery, and (iii) in whether health states are maintained over time. We therefore need to remain alert to the additional nuance in understanding which comes from situating recovery as a process; as well as possible methodological artefacts in population research which come from how recovery is operationalised.
  • Hakulinen, C.; Elovainio, M.; Arffman, M.; Lumme, S.; Pirkola, S.; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, K.; Böckerman, P. (2019)
    Objective To examine the associations between an onset of serious mental disorders before the age of 25 with subsequent employment, income and education outcomes. Methods Nationwide cohort study including individuals (n = 2 055 720) living in Finland between 1988–2015, who were alive at the end of the year they turned 25. Mental disorder diagnosis between ages 15 and 25 was used as the exposure. The level of education, employment status, annual wage or self‐employment earnings, and annual total income between ages 25 and 52 (measurement years 1988–2015) were used as the outcomes. Results All serious mental disorders were associated with increased risk of not being employed and not having any secondary or higher education between ages 25 and 52. The earnings for individuals with serious mental disorders were considerably low, and the annual median total income remained rather stable between ages 25 and 52 for most of the mental disorder groups. Conclusions Serious mental disorders are associated with low employment rates and poor educational outcomes, leading to a substantial loss of total earnings over the life course.
  • Salmivaara, Anna (2021)
    To increase understanding about the weak implementation of labour rights in global value chains, this paper examines processes of in-fact informalization that in Cambodia's garment industry exclude workers from legal protection in a hidden yet effective manner. Informalization in contemporary global capitalism is often examined as driven by capital. This article broadens the analysis to how states and workers contribute to top-down and bottom-up processes of in-fact informalization, and emphasizes the role of workers' collective organization. In Cambodia, subcontracting and temporary contracts prevent workers from collectively claiming their legal entitlements. In-fact informalization is promoted by the government as a strategy of indirect rule aimed at ensuring political power, and strengthened by the workers' gendered needs and strategies of intergenerational wellbeing. Together, informal work and insecure lives discourage unionization, which further increases top-down and bottom-up informalization.
  • Palokangas, Tapio (2020)
    This document sets up a unionized general oligopolistic equilibrium model of countries, where capital is footloose and governments maximize utilitarian welfare. When capital owners have weak influence on public policy, there is unemployment and the governments compete for jobs, causing a distortion with suboptimal wages. Then globalization -- as characterized by a decrease in impediments to international investment -- increases the wage elasticity of capital flight, decreasing wages and increasing employment. This benefits the capital owners and the unemployed workers getting a job, but harms the other workers. International coordination of public policy alleviates these consequences of globalization.
  • Sarajuuri, Jaana; Vink, Martie; Tokola, Kari (2018)
    Objective: To explore the relation between objectively measured outcomes of neurorehabilitation and subjective self-appraisal of those outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Forty-five adults (34 men; age at injury, mean +/- SD, 30.1 +/- 10.3 years) with chronic moderate-to-severe TBI (9.7 +/- 5.5 years from injury; post-traumatic amnesia, 80% over one week) from two rehabilitation centres, in two countries. The subjects have had to resume working at various levels of competence following post-acute comprehensive neuropsychologically oriented neurorehabilitation, and experienced no functionally incapacitating, medical or psychological problems, for a minimum of six months after discharge. Objective outcome measure was the level of work competence attained post-rehabilitation transposed from the descriptions of the types of work attained by each subject into a number along a 10-point scale. Subjective outcome measure was the personal evaluations by ratings in six consequences of rehabilitation (effort during rehabilitation, meaning in life, productivity, acceptance, social life and intimate relationships) along a 10-point scale. Results: The attained work competence was statistically significantly related to the subjective self-appraisal of the ability to establish intimate relationships [odds ratio (OR), 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20-2.68; P = .005]. Otherwise, no association between subjective ratings and the levels of work was found. Of the patients, 67% attained competitive, 22% subsidized, and 11% volunteer or sheltered work. The subjective self-rated outcomes of the patients were relatively good [median, lower quartile (Q1) - upper quartile (Q3): 8 to 9, 7 to 8 - 8 to 9 out of 10]. The lowest ratings were observed for the ability to establish intimate relationships (8, 7-8 out of 10). Conclusions: The results support the need to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes involving both objective measures and subjective appraisals of them. The findings suggest that community functioning and satisfaction with that are distinct aspects of the subjects ' experience that must be considered in the evaluation of rehabilitation. It seems that comprehensive neurorehabilitation improve outcome, and patients with TBI with tailored placements were largely satisfied with the areas of wellness in their life. Additional larger controlled studies are needed to clarify how composition of neurorehabilitation and individualization in outcomes assessment might enhance the outcome of TBI rehabilitation.
  • Haapanen, Markus J.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Perttilä, Niko M.; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Monika E.; Strandberg, Arto Y.; Strandberg, Timo E. (2020)
    Objectives To study the association between retirement characteristics and frailty in a homogenous population of former business executives. Design Cross-sectional cohort study using data from the Helsinki Businessmen Study. Setting Helsinki, Finland. Participants 1324 Caucasian men, born in 1919-1934, who had worked as business executives and managers and of whom 95.9% had retired by the year 2000. Questions on age at and type of retirement, lifestyle and chronic conditions were embedded in questionnaires. Primary and secondary outcome measures Frailty assessed according to a modified phenotype definition at mean age 73.3 years. Results Mean age at retirement was 61.3 years (SD 4.3) and 37.1% had retired due to old age. The prevalence of frailty was lowest among men retiring at ages 66-67 years but increased among those who worked up to age 70 years or older. Compared with men who retired before age 55 years, those retiring at ages 58-69 years were at decreased risk of frailty in old age relative to non-frailty (adjusted ORs 0.07-0.29, p
  • Niemi, Tuukka; Komp-Leukkunen, Kathrin (2021)
    Purpose Interest in older employees increases in times of population ageing. Previous research exploring the situation has underlined older employees' struggle with workplace changes. However, it has not explored their master narrative - the socially shared narrative about older employees that steers behaviour. This study explores this narrative and its differences across changing workplaces. It draws on Lyotard's suggestion that master narratives disintegrate in post-modern societies. Design/methodology/approach This study conducts focus groups among older Finnish employees of an airline, postal service and social care. These groups experienced different kinds of workplace changes, namely mass layoffs, digitalisation and restructuring. The focus groups highlight the individuals' shared narratives, thereby pinpointing the master narrative. Findings The master narrative describes how simultaneous changes at the workplace and in their health lead older employees to look for ways to exit their jobs. This narrative is largely stable across workplaces, showing no disintegration but some variation. Originality/value This is the first study on the master narrative of older employees and its disintegration. To the authors' knowledge, it is also the first study to use focus groups to explore a master narrative.
  • Tuononen, Tarja; Hyytinen, Heidi (2022)
    The transition from university to working life is a challenging phase for graduates. The focus in the present longitudinal study is on employability factors and their association with this transition and with early career success. The participants were 43 graduates who were interviewed at the time of their graduation and filled in a follow-up questionnaire three years later. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results revealed five employability factors relating early career success: (1) career plans and goals, (2) perceived competences related to the degree, (3) self-efficacy beliefs, (4) activity and (5) work experience and networks. Three transition groups emerged based on the differences in employability factors and career success, which we labelled smooth transition, progressive transition and a rocky road. The results revealed individual variation in employability factors and in the kind of challenges these graduates encountered in the transition phase and in their early career. An awareness of the ways in which graduates differ could help educators to develop practises that better support students and graduates in the transition to working life. These findings highlight the importance of active career planning during one's studies.