Browsing by Subject "ENCEPHALOPATHY"

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  • Jackson, C. B.; Bauer, M. F.; Schaller, A.; Kotzaeridou, U.; Ferrarini, A.; Hahn, D.; Chehade, H.; Barbey, F.; Tran, C.; Gallati, S.; Haeberli, A.; Eggimann, S.; Bonafe, L.; Nuoffer, J-M. (2016)
    We report a novel homozygous missense mutation in the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase synthesis-like (BCS1L) gene in two consanguineous Turkish families associated with deafness, Fanconi syndrome (tubulopathy), microcephaly, mental and growth retardation. All three patients presented with transitory metabolic acidosis in the neonatal period and development of persistent renal de Toni-Debr,-Fanconi-type tubulopathy, with subsequent rachitis, short stature, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing impairment, mild mental retardation and liver dysfunction. The novel missense mutation c.142A > G (p.M48V) in BCS1L is located at a highly conserved region associated with sorting to the mitochondria. Biochemical analysis revealed an isolated complex III deficiency in skeletal muscle not detected in fibroblasts. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed normal super complex formation, but a shift in mobility of complex III most likely caused by the absence of the BCS1L-mediated insertion of Rieske Fe/S protein into complex III. These findings expand the phenotypic spectrum of BCS1L mutations, highlight the importance of biochemical analysis of different primary affected tissue and underline that neonatal lactic acidosis with multi-organ involvement may resolve after the newborn period with a relatively spared neurological outcome and survival into adulthood. Conclusion: Mutation screening for BCS1L should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe (proximal) tubulopathy in the newborn period.
  • Schwarz, N.; Bast, T.; Gaily, E.; Golla, G.; Gorman, K. M.; Griffiths, L. R.; Hahn, A.; Hukin, J.; King, M.; Korff, C.; Miranda, M. J.; Moller, R. S.; Neubauer, B.; Smith, R. A.; Smol, T.; Striano, P.; Stroud, B.; Vaccarezza, M.; Kluger, G.; Lerche, H.; Fazeli, W. (2019)
    Background: Pathogenic variants in SCN2A are associated with various neurological disorders including epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Few reports have recently described SCN2A-associated episodic ataxia (EA). Our study identifies its broader clinical and genetic spectrum, and describes pharmacological approaches. Results: We report 21 patients with SCN2A-associated EA, of which 9 are unpublished cases. The large majority of patients present with epileptic seizures (18/21, 86%), often starting within the first three months of life (12/18, 67%). In contrast, onset of episodic ataxia ranged from 10 months to 14 years of age. The frequency of EA episodes ranged from brief, daily events up to 1-2 episodes per year each lasting several weeks. Potential triggers include minor head traumas and sleep deprivation. Cognitive outcome is favorable in most patients with normal or mildly impaired cognitive development in 17/21 patients (81%). No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were identified in this cohort. However, two mutational hotspots were identified, i.e. 7/21 patients (33%) harbor the identical pathogenic variant p.A263V, whereas 5/21 (24%) carry pathogenic variants that affect the S4 segment and its cytoplasmic loop within the domain IV. In addition, we identified six novel pathogenic variants in SCN2A. While acetazolamide was previously reported as beneficial in SCN2A-associated EA in one case, our data show a conflicting response in 8 additional patients treated with acetazolamide: three of them profited from acetazolamide treatment, while 5/8 did not. Conclusions: Our study describes the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of SCN2A-associated EA, identifies two mutational hotspots and shows positive effects of acetazolamide in about 50%. (C) 2019 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Summanen, Milla; Seikku, Laura; Rahkonen, Petri; Stefanovic, Vedran; Teramo, Kari; Andersson, Sture; Kaila, Kai; Rahkonen, Leena (2017)
    Background: Birth asphyxia, estimated to account for a million neonatal deaths annually, can cause a wide variety of neurodevelopmental impairments. There is a need to develop new, swift methods to identify those neonates who would benefit from neuroprotective treatments such as hypothermia. Objectives: To examine the utility of cord serum copeptin, a stable byproduct of arginine vasopressin release, as a biomarker of birth asphyxia based on a comparison with 2 biomarkers of hypoxia and brain trauma: erythropoietin and S100B. Methods: The study population consisted of 140 singleton, term neonates: 113 controls and 27 with birth asphyxia (2/3 criteria met: umbilical artery pH
  • EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium; EpiCNV Consortium; Coppola, Antonietta; Cellini, Elena; Saarentaus, Elmo; Palotie, Aarno; Lehesjioki, Anna-Elina; von Spiczak, Sarah (2019)
    Objective Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a significant genetic risk for several neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy. As knowledge increases, reanalysis of existing data is essential. Reliable estimates of the contribution of CNVs to epilepsies from sizeable populations are not available. Methods We assembled a cohort of 1255 patients with preexisting array comparative genomic hybridization or single nucleotide polymorphism array based CNV data. All patients had "epilepsy plus," defined as epilepsy with comorbid features, including intellectual disability, psychiatric symptoms, and other neurological and nonneurological features. CNV classification was conducted using a systematic filtering workflow adapted to epilepsy. Results Of 1097 patients remaining after genetic data quality control, 120 individuals (10.9%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as pathogenic; 19 individuals (1.7%) carried at least one autosomal CNV classified as possibly pathogenic. Eleven patients (1%) carried more than one (possibly) pathogenic CNV. We identified CNVs covering recently reported (HNRNPU) or emerging (RORB) epilepsy genes, and further delineated the phenotype associated with mutations of these genes. Additional novel epilepsy candidate genes emerge from our study. Comparing phenotypic features of pathogenic CNV carriers to those of noncarriers of pathogenic CNVs, we show that patients with nonneurological comorbidities, especially dysmorphism, were more likely to carry pathogenic CNVs (odds ratio = 4.09, confidence interval = 2.51-6.68; P = 2.34 x 10(-9)). Meta-analysis including data from published control groups showed that the presence or absence of epilepsy did not affect the detected frequency of CNVs. Significance The use of a specifically adapted workflow enabled identification of pathogenic autosomal CNVs in 10.9% of patients with epilepsy plus, which rose to 12.7% when we also considered possibly pathogenic CNVs. Our data indicate that epilepsy with comorbid features should be considered an indication for patients to be selected for a diagnostic algorithm including CNV detection. Collaborative large-scale CNV reanalysis leads to novel declaration of pathogenicity in unexplained cases and can promote discovery of promising candidate epilepsy genes.
  • Stevenson, N. J.; Oberdorfer, L.; Koolen, N.; O'Toole, J. M.; Werther, T.; Klebermass-Schrehof, K.; Vanhatalo, S. (2017)
    Minimally invasive, automated cot-side tools for monitoring early neurological development can be used to guide individual treatment and benchmark novel interventional studies. We develop an automated estimate of the EEG maturational age (EMA) for application to serial recordings in preterm infants. The EMA estimate was based on a combination of 23 computational features estimated from both the full EEG recording and a period of low EEG activity (46 features in total). The combination function (support vector regression) was trained using 101 serial EEG recordings from 39 preterm infants with a gestational age less than 28 weeks and normal neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months of age. EEG recordings were performed from 24 to 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA). The correlation between the EMA and the clinically determined PMA at the time of EEG recording was 0.936 (95% CI: 0.932-0.976; n = 39). All infants had an increase in EMA between the first and last EEG recording and 57/62 (92%) of repeated measures within an infant had an increasing EMA with PMA of EEG recording. The EMA is a surrogate measure of age that can accurately determine brain maturation in preterm infants.
  • Knuutinen, Oula; Pyle, Angela; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Duff, Jennifer; Froukh, Tawfiq; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Kangas, Salla M.; Cassidy, James; Maraqa, Latifa; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Uusimaa, Johanna; Horvath, Rita; Vieira, Päivi (2020)
    TATA-box binding protein associated factor, RNA polymerase I subunit C (TAF1C) is a component of selectivity factor 1 belonging to RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery. We report two unrelated patients with homozygousTAF1Cmissense variants and an early onset neurological phenotype with severe global developmental delay. Clinical features included lack of speech and ambulation and epilepsy. MRI of the brain demonstrated widespread cerebral atrophy and frontal periventricular white matter hyperintensity. The phenotype resembled that of a previously described variant ofUBTF, which encodes another transcription factor of Pol I.TAF1Cvariants were located in two conserved amino acid positions and were predicted to be deleterious. In patient-derived fibroblasts,TAF1CmRNA and protein expression levels were substantially reduced compared with healthy controls. We propose that the variants impairingTAF1Cexpression are likely pathogenic and relate to a novel neurological disease. This study expands the disease spectrum related to Pol I transcription machinery, associating theTAF1Cmissense variants with a severe neurological phenotype for the first time.
  • Gailus, Bjoern; Naundorf, Hannah; Welzel, Lisa; Johne, Marie; Roemermann, Kerstin; Kaila, Kai; Loescher, Wolfgang (2021)
    Objective: Birth asphyxia is a major cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates and often associated with mortality, neonatal seizures, brain damage, and later life motor, cognitive, and behavioral impairments and epilepsy. Preclinical studies on rodent models are needed to develop more effective therapies for preventing HIE and its consequences. Thus far, the most popular rodent models have used either exposure of intact animals to hypoxia-only, or a combination of hypoxia and carotid occlusion, for the induction of neonatal seizures and adverse outcomes. However, such models lack systemic hypercapnia, which is a fundamental constituent of birth asphyxia with major effects on neuronal excitability. Here, we use a recently developed noninvasive rat model of birth asphyxia with subsequent neonatal seizures to study later life adverse outcome. Methods: Intermittent asphyxia was induced for 30 min by exposing male and female postnatal day 11 rat pups to three 7 + 3-min cycles of 9% and 5% O-2 at constant 20% CO2. All pups exhibited convulsive seizures after asphyxia. A set of behavioral tests were performed systematically over 14 months following asphyxia, that is, a large part of the rat's life span. Video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was used to determine whether asphyxia led to the development of epilepsy. Finally, structural brain alterations were examined. Results: The animals showed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety when tested at an age of 3-14 months. Video-EEG at similar to 10 months showed an abundance of spontaneous seizures, which was paralleled by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus, and by aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. Significance: The present model of birth asphyxia recapitulates several of the later life consequences associated with human HIE. This model thus allows evaluation of the efficacy of novel therapies designed to prevent HIE and seizures following asphyxia, and of how such therapies might alleviate long-term adverse consequences.
  • Fellman, Vineta; Banerjee, Rishi; Lin, Kai-Lan; Pulli, Ilari; Cooper, Helen; Tyynismaa, Henna; Kallijärvi, Jukka (2022)
    In the diagnostic work-up of a newborn infant with a metabolic crisis, lethal multiorgan failure on day six of life, and increased excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid, we found using whole genome sequencing a homozygous SERAC1 mutation indicating MEGDHEL syndrome (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness-dystonia, hepatopathy, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome). The SERAC1 protein is located at the contact site between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is crucial for cholesterol trafficking. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the homozygous truncating mutation on mitochondrial structure and function. In the patient fibroblasts, no SERAC1 protein was detected, the mitochondrial network was severely fragmented, and the cristae morphology was altered. Filipin staining showed uneven localization of unesterified cholesterol. The calcium buffer function between cytoplasm and mitochondria was deficient. In liver mitochondria, complexes I, III, and IV were clearly decreased. In transfected COS-1 cells the mutant protein with the a 45-amino acid C-terminal truncation was distributed throughout the cell, whereas wild-type SERAC1 partially colocalized with the mitochondrial marker MT-001. The structural and functional mitochondrial abnormalities, caused by the loss of SERAC1, suggest that the crucial disease mechanism is disrupted interplay between the ER and mitochondria leading to decreased influx of calcium to mitochondria and secondary respiratory chain deficiency.
  • D'Amico, Adele; Fattori, Fabiana; Tasca, Giorgio; Petrini, Stefania; Gualandi, Francesca; Bruselles, Alessandro; D'Oria, Valentina; Verardo, Margherita; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Niceta, Marcello; Udd, Bjarne; Ferlini, Alessandra; Tartaglia, Marco; Bertini, Enrico (2017)
    Background: Collagen VI-related disorders (COL6-RD) are a group of heterogenous muscular diseases due to mutations in the COL6A1, COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, encoding for collagen VI, a critical component of the extracellular matrix. Ullrich congenital muscle disorder and Bethlem myopathy represent the ends of a clinical spectrum that includes intermediate phenotypes of variable severity. UCMD are caused by recessive loss of function mutations or de-novo dominant-negative mutations. The intermediate phenotype and BM are more commonly caused by dominantly acting mutations, and less commonly by recessive mutations. Recently parental mosaicism for dominant mutations in COL6 have been reported in four COL6-RD families and germinal mosaicism has been also identified in a family with recurrence of UCMD in two half-sibs. Methods and results: Here we report three unrelated patients affected by a COL6-RD who carried de novo mosaic mutations in COL6A genes. These mutations, missed by Sanger sequencing, were identified by next generation sequencing. Conclusions: This report highlights the importance of a complete diagnostic workup when clinical and histological finding are consistent with a COL6-RD and strengthen the impression that mosaicisms are underestimated events underlying COL6-RD. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Paediatric Neurology Society.
  • Summanen, Milla; Back, Susanne; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai (2018)
    Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O-2 levels) and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels). Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), has been extensively studied in humans. Here we show for the first time that normal rat birth is also accompanied by an AVP surge, and that the fetal AVP surge is further enhanced in a model of birth asphyxia, based on exposing 6-day old rat pups to a gas mixture containing 4% O-2 and 20% CO2 for 45 min. Instead of AVP, which is highly unstable with a short plasma half-life, we measured the levels of copeptin, the C-terminal part of prepro-AVP that is biochemically much more stable. In our animal model, the bulk of AVP/copeptin release occurred at the beginning of asphyxia (mean 7.8 nM after 15 min of asphyxia), but some release was still ongoing even 90 min after the end of the 45 min experimental asphyxia (mean 1.2 nM). Notably, the highest copeptin levels were measured after hypoxia alone (mean 14.1 nM at 45 min), whereas copeptin levels were low during hypercapnia alone (mean 2.7 nM at 45 min), indicating that the hypoxia component of asphyxia is responsible for the increase in AVP/copeptin release. Alternating the O-2 level between 5 and 9% (CO2 at 20%) with 5 min intervals to mimic intermittent asphyxia during prolonged labor resulted in a slower but quantitatively similar rise in copeptin (peak of 8.3 nM at 30 min). Finally, we demonstrate that our rat model satisfies the standard acid-base criteria for birth asphyxia diagnosis, namely a drop in blood pH below 7.0 and the formation of a negative base excess exceeding -11.2 mmol/l. The mechanistic insights from our work validate the use of the present rodent model in preclinical work on birth asphyxia.
  • Hikmat, Omar; Naess, Karin; Engvall, Martin; Klingenberg, Claus; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Tallaksen, Chantal M. E.; Samsonsen, Christian; Brodtkorb, Eylert; Ostergaard, Elsebet; de Coo, Rene; Pias-Peleteiro, Leticia; Isohanni, Pirjo; Uusimaa, Johanna; Darin, Niklas; Rahman, Shamima; Bindoff, Laurence A. (2020)
    Objective To study the impact of gender, puberty, and pregnancy on the expression of POLG disease, one of the most common mitochondrial diseases known. Methods Clinical, laboratory, and genetic data were collected retrospectively from 155 patients with genetically confirmed POLG disease recruited from seven European countries. We used the available data to study the impact of gender, puberty, and pregnancy on disease onset and deterioration. Results We found that disease onset early in life was common in both sexes but there was also a second peak in females around the time of puberty. Further, pregnancy had a negative impact with 10 of 14 women (71%) experiencing disease onset or deterioration during pregnancy. Interpretation Gender clearly influences the expression of POLG disease. While onset very early in life was common in both males and females, puberty in females appeared associated both with disease onset and increased disease activity. Further, both disease onset and deterioration, including seizure aggravation and status epilepticus, appeared to be associated with pregnancy. Thus, whereas disease activity appears maximal early in life with no subsequent peaks in males, both menarche and pregnancy appear associated with disease onset or worsening in females. This suggests that hormonal changes may be a modulating factor.
  • Johannesen, Katrine M.; Gardena, Elena; Encinas, Alejandra C.; Lehesjoki, Anna-Enna; Linnankivi, Tarja; Petersen, Michael B.; Lund, Ida Charlotte Bay; Blichfeldt, Susanne; Miranda, Maria J.; Pal, Deb K.; Lascelles, Karine; Procopis, Peter; Orsini, Alessandro; Bonuccelli, Alice; Giacomini, Thea; Helbig, Ingo; Fenger, Christina D.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Hernandez-Hernandez, Laura; Krithika, Sundararaman; Rumple, Melissa; Masnada, Silvia; Valente, Marialuisa; Cereda, Cristina; Giordano, Lucio; Accorsi, Patrizia; Burki, Sarah; Mancardi, Margherita; Korff, Christian; Guerrini, Renzo; von Spiczak, Sarah; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Mazurczak, Tomasz; Coppola, Antonietta; Buono, Salvatore; Vecchi, Marilena; Hammer, Michael F.; Varesio, Costanza; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Lal, Dennis; Bruenger, Tobias; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale; Rohholi, Guido; Moller, Rikke S. (2019)
    Objective: Pathogenic variants in SCN8A have been associated with a wide spectrum of epilepsy phenotypes, ranging from benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) to epileptic encephalopathies with variable severity. Furthermore, a few patients with intellectual disability (ID) or movement disorders without epilepsy have been reported. The vast majority of the published SCN8A patients suffer from severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). In this study, we aimed to provide further insight on the spectrum of milder SCN8A-related epilepsies. Methods: A cohort of 1095 patients were screened using a next generation sequencing panel. Further patients were ascertained from a network of epilepsy genetics clinics. Patients with severe DEE and BFIS were excluded from the study. Results: We found 36 probands who presented with an SCN8A-related epilepsy and normal intellect (33%) or mild (61%) to moderate ID (6%). All patients presented with epilepsy between age 1.5 months and 7 years (mean = 13.6 months), and 58% of these became seizure-free, two-thirds on monotherapy. Neurological disturbances included ataxia (28%) and hypotonia (19%) as the most prominent features. Interictal electroencephalogram was normal in 41%. Several recurrent variants were observed, including Ile763Val, Val891Met, Gly1475Arg, Gly1483Lys, Phe1588Leu, Arg1617Gln, Ala1650Val/Thr, Arg1872Gln, and Asn1877Ser. Significance: With this study, we explore the electroclinical features of an intermediate SCN8A-related epilepsy with mild cognitive impairment, which is for the majority a treatable epilepsy.