Browsing by Subject "ENDOPEPTIDASE"

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  • Pätsi, Henri T.; Kilpeläinen, Tommi P.; Auno, Samuli; Dillemuth, Pyry M. J.; Arja, Khaled; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija K.; Myöhänen, Timo T.; Wallen, Erik A. A. (2021)
    Different five-membered nitrogen-containing heteroaromatics in the position of the typical electrophilic group in prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) inhibitors were investigated and compared to tetrazole. The 2-imidazoles were highly potent inhibitors of the proteolytic activity. The binding mode for the basic imidazole was studied by molecular docking as it was expected to differ from the acidic tetrazole. A new putative noncovalent binding mode with an interaction to His680 was found for the 2-imidazoles. Inhibition of the proteolytic activity did not correlate with the modulating effect on protein-protein-interaction-derived functions of PREP (i.e., dimerization of alpha-synuclein and autophagy). Among the highly potent PREP inhibiting 2-imidazoles, only one was also a potent modulator of PREP-catalyzed alpha-synuclein dimerization, indicating that the linker length on the opposite side of the molecule from the five-membered heteroaromatic is critical for the disconnected structure-activity relationships.
  • Rostami, Jinar; Jäntti, Maria; Cui, Hengjing; Rinne, Maiju K.; Kukkonen, Jyrki P.; Falk, Anna; Erlandsson, Anna; Myöhänen, Timo (2020)
    Growing evidence emphasizes insufficient clearance of pathological alpha-synuclein (alpha SYN) aggregates in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Consequently, cellular degradation pathways represent a potential therapeutic target. Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is highly expressed in the brain and has been suggested to increase alpha SYN aggregation and negatively regulate the autophagy pathway. Inhibition of PREP with a small molecule inhibitor, KYP-2407, stimulates autophagy and reduces the oligomeric species of alpha SYN aggregates in PD mouse models. However, whether PREP inhibition has any effects on intracellular alpha SYN fibrils has not been studied before. In this study, the effect of KYP2407 on alpha SYN preformed fibrils (PFFs) was tested in SH-SY5Y cells and human astmcytes. Immunostaining analysis revealed that both cell types accumulated alpha SYN PFFs intracellularly but KYP-2047 decreased intracellular alpha SYN deposits only in SH-SY5Y cells, as astrocytes did not show any PREP activity. Western blot analysis confirmed the reduction of high molecular weight alpha SYN species in SH-SY5Y cell lysates, and secretion of aSYN from SH-SY5Y cells also decreased in the presence of KYP-2407. Accumulation of alpha SYN inside the SH-SY5Y cells resulted in an increase of the auto-lysosomal proteins p62 and LC3BII, as well as calpain 1 and 2, which have been shown to be associated with PD pathology. Notably, treatment with KYP-2407 significantly reduced p62 and LC3BII levels, indicating an increased autophagic flux, and calpain 1 and 2 levels returned to normal in the presence of KYP-2407. Our findings indicate that PREP inhibition can potentially be used as therapy to reduce the insoluble intracellular alpha SYN aggregates.
  • Svarcbahs, Reinis; Julku, Ulrika Hannele; Norrbacka, Susanna; Myöhänen, Timo Tapio (2018)
    Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) inhibition by small-molecule inhibitors can reduce alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregation, a key player in Parkinson's disease pathology. However, the significance of PREP protein for aSyn aggregation and toxicity is not known. We studied this in vivo by using PREP knock-out mice with viral vector injections of aSyn and PREP. Animal behavior was studied by locomotor activity and cylinder tests, microdialysis and HPLC were used to analyze dopamine levels, and different aSyn forms and loss of dopaminergic neurons were studied by immunostainings. Additionally, PREP knock-out cells were used to characterize the impact of PREP and aSyn on autophagy, proteasomal system and aSyn secretion. PREP knock-out animals were nonresponsive to aSyn-induced unilateral toxicity but combination of PREP and aSyn injections increased aSyn toxicity. Phosphorylated p129, proteinase K resistant aSyn levels and tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells were decreased in aSyn and PREP injected knock-out animals. These changes were accompanied by altered dopamine metabolite levels. PREP knock-out cells showed reduced response to aSyn, while cells were restored to wild-type cell levels after PREP overexpression. Taken together, our data suggests that PREP can enhance aSyn toxicity in vivo.
  • Kilpeläinen, Tommi P.; Hellinen, Laura; Vrijdag, Johannes; Yan, Xu; Svarcbahs, Reinis; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Huttunen, Henri; Urtti, Arto; Wallen, Erik A. A.; Myohanen, Timo T. (2020)
    Previous studies have shown that prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) negatively regulates autophagy and increases the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (alpha Syn), linking it to the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. Our earlier results have revealed that the potent small molecular PREP inhibitor KYP-2047 is able to increase autophagy and decrease dimerization of alpha Syn but other PREP inhibitors have not been systematically studied for these two protein-protein interaction mediated biological functions of PREP. In this study, we characterized these effects for 12 known PREP inhibitors with IC50-values ranging from 0.2 nM to 1010 nM. We used protein-fragment complementation assay (PCA) to assess alpha Syn dimerization and Western Blot of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B II (LC3B-II) and a GFP-LC3-RFP expressing cell line to study autophagy. In addition, we tested selected compounds in a cell-free alpha Syn aggregation assay, native gel electrophoresis, and determined the compound concentration inside the cell by LC-MS. We found that inhibition of the proteolytic activity of PREP did not predict decreased alpha Syn dimerization or increased autophagy, and we also confirmed that this result did not simply reflect concentration differences of the compounds inside the cell. Thus, PREP ligands regulate the effect of PREP on autophagy and alpha Syn aggregation through a conformational stabilization of the enzyme that is not equivalent to inhibiting its proteolytic activity.