Browsing by Subject "ENDOSOMES"

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  • Islam, Mohammad Majharul; Hlushchenko, Iryna; Pfisterer, Simon (2022)
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) internalization, degradation, and receptor recycling is a fundamental process underlying hypercholesterolemia, a high blood cholesterol concentration, affecting more than 40% of the western population. Membrane contact sites influence endosomal dynamics, plasma membrane lipid composition, and cellular cholesterol distribution. However, if we focus on LDL-related trafficking events we mostly discuss them in an isolated fashion, without cellular context. It is our goal to change this perspective and to highlight that all steps from LDL internalization to receptor recycling are likely associated with dynamic membrane contact sites in which endosomes engage with the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles.
  • Roach, Tiffany G.; Lång, Heljä K. M.; Xiong, Wen; Ryhänen, Samppa J.; Capelluto, Daniel G. S. (2021)
    Lysosomal degradation of ubiquitinated transmembrane protein receptors (cargo) relies on the function of Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) protein complexes. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of five unique oligomeric complexes with distinct functions. Target of Myb1 (TOM1) is an ESCRT protein involved in the initial steps of endosomal cargo sorting. To exert its function, TOM1 associates with ubiquitin moieties on the cargo via its VHS and GAT domains. Several ESCRT proteins, including TOLLIP, Endofin, and Hrs, have been reported to form a complex with TOM1 at early endosomal membrane surfaces, which may potentiate the role of TOM1 in cargo sorting. More recently, it was found that TOM1 is involved in other physiological processes, including autophagy, immune responses, and neuroinflammation, which crosstalk with its endosomal cargo sorting function. Alteration of TOM1 function has emerged as a phosphoinositide-dependent survival mechanism for bacterial infections and cancer progression. Based on current knowledge of TOM1-dependent cellular processes, this review illustrates how TOM1 functions in coordination with an array of protein partners under physiological and pathological scenarios.
  • Toth, Andrea E.; Siupka, Piotr; Augustine, Thomas J. P.; Veno, Susanne T.; Thomsen, Louiza B.; Moos, Torben; Lohi, Hannes T.; Madsen, Peder; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Nielsen, Morten S. (2018)
    Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes. We used primary porcine BEC in monoculture and in co-culture with primary rat astrocytes. The presence of astrocytes changed the intraendothelial vesicular network and significantly impacted vesicular number, morphology, and distribution. Additionally, gene set enrichment analysis revealedthat 60 genes associated with vesicular trafficking showed altered expression in co-cultured BEC. Cytosolic proteins involved in subcellular trafficking were investigated to mark transport routes, such as RAB25 for transcytosis. Strikingly, the adaptor protein called AP1-1B, important for basolateral sorting in epithelial cells, was not expressed in BEC. Altogether, our data pin-point unique features of BEC trafficking network, essentially mapping the endo-lysosomal system of in vitro BBB models. Consequently, our findings constitute a valuable basis for planning the optimal route across the BBB when advancing drug delivery to the brain.
  • Back, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihallib, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A. (2017)
    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4 h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. (C) 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.