Browsing by Subject "ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 45
  • Vanlandewijck, Michael; He, Liqun; Mäe, Maarj A. Andaloussi; Andrae, Johanna; Ando, Koji; Del Gaudio, Francesca; Nahar, Khayrun; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Lavina, Barbara; Gouveia, Leonor; Sun, Ying; Raschperger, Elisabeth; Räsänen, Markus; Zarb, Yvette; Mochizuki, Naoki; Keller, Annika; Lendahl, Urban; Betsholtz, Christer (2018)
    Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in developed countries, but our understanding of the cells that compose the cerebral vasculature is limited. Here, using vascular single-cell transcriptomics, we provide molecular definitions for the principal types of blood vascular and vessel-associated cells in the adult mouse brain. We uncover the transcriptional basis of the gradual phenotypic change (zonation) along the arteriovenous axis and reveal unexpected cell type differences: a seamless continuum for endothelial cells versus a punctuated continuum for mural cells. We also provide insight into pericyte organotypicity and define a population of perivascular fibroblast-like cells that are present on all vessel types except capillaries. Our work illustrates the power of single-cell transcriptomics to decode the higher organizational principles of a tissue and may provide the initial chapter in a molecular encyclopaedia of the mammalian vasculature.
  • FINNPEC (2018)
    Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy disorder. It is not extensively known how the metabolic alterations of PE women contribute to the metabolism of newborn. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted meta bolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between infants born to PE and non-PE pregnancies in the FINNPEC study. Cord plasma was available from 42 newborns born from PE and 53 from non-PE pregnancies. 133 molecular features differed between PE and non-PE newborns after correction for multiple testing. Decreased levels of 4-pyridoxic acid were observed in the cord plasma samples of PE newborns when compared to non-PE newborns. Compounds representing following areas of metabolism were increased in the cord plasma of PE newborns: urea and creatine metabolism; carnitine biosynthesis and acylcarnitines; putrescine metabolites; tryptophan metabolism and phosphatidylcholines. To our knowledge, this study is the first one to apply LC-MS based meta bolomics in cord plasma of PE newborns. We demonstrate that this strategy provides a global picture of the widespread metabolic alterations associated with PE and particularly the elevated levels of carnitine precursors and trimethylated compounds appear to be associated with PE at birth.
  • Haegerling, Rene; Pollmann, Cathrin; Andreas, Martin; Schmidt, Christian; Nurmi, Harri; Adams, Ralf H.; Alitalo, Kari; Andresen, Volker; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Kiefer, Friedemann (2013)
  • Li, Zhilin; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Merlini, Arianna; Strauss, Judith; Wihuri, Eleonoora; Nurmi, Harri; Antila, Salli; Paech, Jennifer; Deutsch, Urban; Engelhardt, Britta; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Koh, Gou Young; Flügel, Alexander; Alitalo, Kari (2020)
    Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a ligand of the endothelial Tie2 tyrosine kinase, is involved in vascular inflammation and leakage in critically ill patients. However, the role of Ang2 in demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases is unknown. Here, we report that Ang2 is critically involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Ang2 expression was induced in CNS autoimmunity, and transgenic mice overexpressing Ang2 specifically in endothelial cells (ECs) developed a significantly more severe EAE. In contrast, treatment with Ang2-blocking Abs ameliorated neuroinflammation and decreased spinal cord demyelination and leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. Similarly, Ang2-binding and Tie2-activating Ab attenuated the development of CNS autoimmune disease. Ang2 blockade inhibited expression of EC adhesion molecules, improved blood-brain barrier integrity, and decreased expression of genes involved in antigen presentation and proinflammatory responses of microglia and macrophages, which was accompanied by inhibition of α5β1 integrin activation in microglia. Taken together, our data suggest that Ang2 provides a target for increasing Tie2 activation in ECs and inhibiting proinflammatory polarization of CNS myeloid cells via α5β1 integrin in neuroinflammation. Thus, Ang2 targeting may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of CNS autoimmune disease.
  • Theelen, Thomas L.; Lappalainen, Jari P.; Sluimer, Judith C.; Gurzeler, Erika; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Gijbels, Marion J.; Biessen, Erik A. L.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Alitalo, Kari; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo (2015)
    Objective: Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) blocking agents are currently undergoing clinical trials for use in cancer treatment. Ang-2 has also been associated with rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques in humans, suggesting a role for Ang-2 in plaque stability. Despite the availability of Ang-2 blocking agents, their clinical use is still lacking. Our aim was to establish if Ang-2 has a role in atheroma development and in the transition of subclinical to clinically relevant atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of antibody-mediated Ang-2 blockage on atherogenesis after in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods: Hypercholesterolemic (low-density lipoprotein receptor(-/-) apolipoprotein B-100/100) mice were subjected to high-cholesterol diet for eight weeks, one group with and one group without Ang-2 blocking antibody treatment during weeks 4-8. To enhance plaque development, a peri-adventitial collar was placed around the carotid arteries at the start of antibody treatment. Aortic root, carotid arteries and brachiocephalic arteries were analyzed to evaluate the effect of Ang-2 blockage on atherosclerotic plaque size and stable plaque characteristics. Results: Anti-Ang-2 treatment reduced the size of fatty streaks in the brachiocephalic artery (-72%, p <0.05). In addition, antibody-mediated Ang-2 blockage reduced plasma triglycerides (-27%, p <0.05). In contrast, Ang-2 blockage did not have any effect on the size or composition (collagen content, macrophage percentage, adventitial microvessel density) of pre-existing plaques in the aortic root or collar-induced plaques in the carotid artery. Conclusions: Ang-2 blockage was beneficial as it decreased fatty streak formation and plasma triglyceride levels, but had no adverse effect on pre-existing atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Martinez-Corral, Ines; Zhang, Yan; Petkova, Milena; Ortsater, Henrik; Sjoberg, Sofie; Castillo, Sandra D.; Brouillard, Pascal; Libbrecht, Louis; Saur, Dieter; Graupera, Mariona; Alitalo, Kari; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka; Mäkinen, Taija (2020)
    Lymphatic malformations (LMs) are debilitating vascular anomalies presenting with large cysts (macrocystic) or lesions that infiltrate tissues (microcystic). Cellular mechanisms underlying LM pathology are poorly understood. Here we show that the somatic PIK3CA(H1047R) mutation, resulting in constitutive activation of the p110 alpha PI3K, underlies both macrocystic and microcystic LMs in human. Using a mouse model of PIK3CA(H1047R)-driven LM, we demonstrate that both types of malformations arise due to lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC)-autonomous defects, with the developmental timing of p110 alpha activation determining the LM subtype. In the postnatal vasculature, PIK3CA(H1047R) promotes LEC migration and lymphatic hypersprouting, leading to microcystic LMs that grow progressively in a vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C)-dependent manner. Combined inhibition of VEGF-C and the PI3K downstream target mTOR using Rapamycin, but neither treatment alone, promotes regression of lesions. The best therapeutic outcome for LM is thus achieved by co-inhibition of the upstream VEGF-C/VEGFR3 and the downstream PI3K/mTOR pathways. Lymphatic malformation (LM) is a debilitating often incurable vascular disease. Using a mouse model of LM driven by a disease-causative PIK3CA mutation, the authors show that vascular growth is dependent on the upstream lymphangiogenic VEGF-C signalling, permitting effective therapeutic intervention.
  • Kallio, Pauliina; Jokinen, Elina; Högström, Jenny; Das, Suvendu; Heino, Sarika; Lähde, Marianne; Brodkin, Jefim; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Alitalo, Kari (2020)
    Abnormal vasculature in tumors leads to poor tissue perfusion and cytostatic drug delivery. Although drugs inducing vascular normalization, for example, angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)-blocking antibodies, have shown promising results in preclinical tumor models, clinical studies have so far shown only little efficacy. Because Ang2 is known to play a protective role in stressed endothelial cells, we tested here whether Ang2 blocking could enhance radiation-induced tumor vascular damage. Tumor-bearing mice were treated with anti-Ang2 antibodies every 3 or 4 days starting 3 days before 3 x 2 Gy or 4 x 0.5 Gy whole-body or tumor-focused radiation. Combination treatment with anti-Ang2 and radiation improved tumor growth inhibition and extended the survival of mice with melanoma or colorectal tumors. Single-cell RNA-sequencing revealed that Ang2 blocking rescued radiation-induced decreases inT cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, anti-Ang2 enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells. In vivo, combination treatment decreased tumor vasculature and increased tumor necrosis in comparison with tumors treated with monotherapies. These results suggest that a combination of Ang2-blocking antibodies with radiation increases tumor growth inhibition and extends the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Significance: These findings offer a preclinical rationale for further testing of the use of radiation in combination with Ang2-blocking antibodies to improve the overall outcome of cancer treatment.
  • Wu, Ying-Chieh; Sonninen, Tuuli-Maria; Peltonen, Sanni; Koistinaho, Jari; Lehtonen, Sarka (2021)
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the delivery of oxygen and important nutrients to the brain through active and passive transport and prevents neurotoxins from entering the brain. It also has a clearance function and removes carbon dioxide and toxic metabolites from the central nervous system (CNS). Several drugs are unable to cross the BBB and enter the CNS, adding complexity to drug screens targeting brain disorders. A well-functioning BBB is essential for maintaining healthy brain tissue, and a malfunction of the BBB, linked to its permeability, results in toxins and immune cells entering the CNS. This impairment is associated with a variety of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here, we summarize current knowledge about the BBB in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, we focus on recent progress of using human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived models to study the BBB. We review the potential of novel stem cell-based platforms in modeling the BBB and address advances and key challenges of using stem cell technology in modeling the human BBB. Finally, we highlight future directions in this area.
  • Duy Nguyen, Su; Maaninka, Katariina; Lappalainen, Jani; Nurmi, Katariina; Metso, Jari; Oorni, Katariina; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Kovanen, Petri T. (2016)
    Objective Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to possess several atheroprotective functions, including inhibition of inflammation. Protease-secreting activated mast cells reside in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigated the effects of the neutral proteases released by activated mast cells on the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I. Approach and Results Activation of human mast cells triggered the release of granule-associated proteases chymase, tryptase, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A, and granzyme B. Among them, chymase cleaved apoA-I with the greatest efficiency and generated C-terminally truncated apoA-I, which failed to bind with high affinity to human coronary artery endothelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor--activated human coronary artery endothelial cells, the chymase-cleaved apoA-I was unable to suppress nuclear factor-B-dependent upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and to block THP-1 cells from adhering to and transmigrating across the human coronary artery endothelial cells. Chymase-cleaved apoA-I also had an impaired ability to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide-activated GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)- and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-differentiated human macrophage foam cells and to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-activated human neutrophils. Importantly, chymase-cleaved apoA-I showed reduced ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo in mice. Treatment with chymase blocked the ability of the apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F, but not of the protease-resistant D-4F, to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in activated human coronary artery endothelial cells and macrophage foam cells and to prevent reactive oxygen species formation in activated neutrophils. Conclusions The findings identify C-terminal cleavage of apoA-I by human mast cell chymase as a novel mechanism leading to loss of its anti-inflammatory functions. When targeting inflamed protease-rich atherosclerotic lesions with apoA-I, infusions of protease-resistant apoA-I might be the appropriate approach.
  • Brakenhielm, Ebba; Alitalo, Kari (2019)
    The lymphatic vasculature, which accompanies the blood vasculature in most organs, is indispensable in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and nutritional lipid uptake and transport, as well as in reverse cholesterol transport. In this Review, we discuss the physiological role of the lymphatic system in the heart in the maintenance of cardiac health and describe alterations in lymphatic structure and function that occur in cardiovascular pathology, including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. We also briefly discuss the role that immune cells might have in the regulation of lymphatic growth (lymphangiogenesis) and function. Finally, we provide examples of how the cardiac lymphatics can be targeted therapeutically to restore lymphatic drainage in the heart to limit myocardial oedema and chronic inflammation.
  • Shikov, Alexander N.; Laakso, Into; Pozharitskaya, Olga N.; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Krishtopina, Anna S.; Makarova, Marina N.; Vuorela, Heikki; Makarov, Valery (2017)
    The lipids from gonads and polyhydroxynaphthoquinone pigments from body walls of sea urchins are intensively studied. However, little is known about the body wall (BW) lipids. Ethanol extract (55 degrees C) contained about equal amounts of saturated (SaFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) representing 60% of total fatty acids, with myristic, palmitic and eicosenoic acids as major SaFAs and MUFAs, respectively. Non-methylene-interrupted dienes (13%) were composed of eicosadienoic and docosadienoic acids. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) included two main components, n6 arachidonic and n3 eicosapentaenoic acids, even with equal concentrations (15 mu g/mg) and a balanced n6/n3 PUFA ratio (0.86). The UPLC-ELSD analysis showed that a great majority of the lipids (80%) in the ethanolic extract were phosphatidylcholine (60 mu g/mg) and phosphatidylethanolamine (40 mu g/mg), while the proportion of neutral lipids remained lower than 20%. In addition, alkoxyglycerol derivativeschimyl, selachyl, and batyl alcoholswere quantified. We have assumed that the mechanism of action of body wall lipids in the present study is via the inhibition of MAPK p38, COX-1, and COX-2. Our findings open the prospective to utilize this lipid fraction as a source for the development of drugs with anti-inflammatory activity.
  • Koskela, Sirpa; Mäkelä, Satu; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Outinen, Tuula; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Pörsti, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka; Laine, Outi (2021)
    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), also called nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is mainly endemic in Europe and Russia. The clinical features include a low platelet count, altered coagulation, endothelial activation, and acute kidney injury (AKI). Multiple connections between coagulation pathways and inflammatory mediators, as well as complement and kallikrein-kinin systems, have been reported. The bleeding symptoms are usually mild. PUUV-infected patients also have an increased risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and thrombosis.
  • Finndiane Study Grp; Härma, Mari-Anne; Dahlström, Emma H.; Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Lehto, Markku (2020)
    Aims/hypothesis Plasma kallikrein is the central mediator of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system, which is involved both in vascular control and thrombin formation cascades. The plasma kallikrein-kinin system has also been considered protective in pathological conditions, but the impact of plasma kallikreins on diabetic nephropathy remains unknown. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore the association of plasma kallikrein with diabetic nephropathy. Methods We measured plasma kallikrein activity in 295 individuals with type 1 diabetes at various stages of diabetic nephropathy, and we tested the genetic association between the plasma kallikrein-kinin system and kidney function in 4400 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Results Plasma kallikrein activity was associated with diabetes duration (p <0.001) and eGFR (p <0.001), and plasma kallikrein activity was lower with more advanced diabetic nephropathy, being lowest in individuals on dialysis. The minor alleles of theKNG1rs5030062 and rs710446 variants, which have previously been associated with increased plasma pre-kallikrein and/or factor XI (FXI) protein levels, were associated with higher eGFR (rs5030062 beta = 0.03,p = 0.01; rs710446 beta = 0.03,p = 0.005) in the FinnDiane cohort of 4400 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation Plasma kallikrein activity and genetic variants known to increase the plasma kallikrein level are associated with higher eGFR in individuals with type 1 diabetes, suggesting that plasma kallikrein might have a protective effect in diabetic nephropathy.
  • Corbacioglu, Selim; Carreras, Enric; Mohty, Mohamad; Pagliuca, Antonio; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Damaj, Gandhi; Iacobelli, Massimo; Niederwieser, Dietger; Olavarria, Eduardo; Suarez, Felipe; Ruutu, Tapani; Verdonck, Leo; Hume, Robin; Nejadnik, Bijan; Lai, Chinglin; Finetto, Giorgia; Richardson, Paul (2016)
    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, also called sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is an unpredictable and potentially fatal complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) or nontransplantation-associated chemotherapy/radiotherapy. In cases of severe hepatic VOD/SOS, typically defined by associated multiorgan failure (MOF, also known as multiorgan dysfunction), mortality exceeds 80%. Preclinical and early clinical data have provided a rationale for defibrotide treatment in hepatic VOD/SOS. Based on this evidence and in recognition of the dismal prognosis for these patients, defibrotide was made available through an international multicenter compassionate-use program conducted from December 1998 to March 2009. Physicians participating in the program voluntarily provided demographic and outcome data for patients given defibrotide. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed using the data received for 710 treated patients. Defibrotide was given at 10, 25, 40, 60, or 80 mg/kg/day for a median of 15 days (range, 1 to 119 days). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, the estimated overall day +100 survival was 54% (58% in the 25 mg/kg/day dose group). Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 53% of patients. The most common AEs were MOF, progression of hepatic VOD/SOS, sepsis, and graft-versus-host disease, which were consistent with the AEs expected for this patient population. No clinically meaningful trends in AEs were identified by gender, age, or dose group. Safety and efficacy results were consistent with prior studies of defibrotide in hepatic VOD/SOS, and subgroup analyses lend support to the use of the 25 mg/kg/day dose. (C) 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
  • Loukovaara, Sirpa; Sandholm, Jouko; Aalto, Kristiina; Liukkonen, Janne; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Yegutkin, Gennady G. (2017)
    Clear signaling roles for ATP and adenosine have been established in all tissues, including the eye. The magnitude of signaling responses is governed by networks of enzymes; however, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of purinergic signaling in the eye. By employing thin-layer chromatographic assays with 3H-labeled substrates, this study aimed to evaluate the role of nucleotide homeostasis in the pathogenesis of vitreoretinal diseases in humans. We have identified soluble enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73, adenylate kinase-1, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase in the vitreous fluid that control active cycling between proinflammatory ATP and anti-inflammatory adenosine. Strikingly, patients with proliferative form of diabetic retinopathy (DR) had higher adenylate kinase activity and ATP concentration, when compared to non-proliferative DR eyes and non-diabetic controls operated for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, macular hole, and pucker. The non-parametric correlation analysis revealed positive correlations between intravitreal adenylate kinase and concentrations of ATP, ADP, and other angiogenic (angiopoietins-1 and -2), profibrotic (transforming growth factor-similar to 1), and proteolytic (matrix metalloproteinase-9) factors but not erythropoietin and VEGF. Immunohistochemical staining of postmortem human retina additionally revealed selective expression of ecto-5'-nucleotidase/ CD73 on the rod-and-cone-containing photoreceptor cells. Collectively, these findings provide novel insights into the regulatory mechanisms that influence purinergic signaling in diseased eye and open up new possibilities in the development of enzyme-targeted therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.
  • Panahi, Mahmod; Mesri, Naeimeh Yousefi; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt; Coupland, Kirsten G.; Forsell, Charlotte; Graff, Caroline; Tikka, Saara; Winblad, Bengt; Viitanen, Matti; Karlström, Helena; Sundström, Erik; Behbahani, Homira (2018)
    Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial fatal progressive degenerative disorder. One of the pathological hallmarks of CADASIL is a dramatic reduction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in cerebral arteries. Using VSMCs from the vasculature of the human umbilical cord, placenta and cerebrum of CADASIL patients, we found that CADASIL VSMCs had a lower proliferation rate compared to control VSMCs. Exposure of control VSMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) to media derived from CADASIL VSMCs lowered the proliferation rate of all cells examined. By quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we observed increased Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) gene expression in CADASIL VSMCs. Adding TGF beta-neutralizing antibody restored the proliferation rate of CADASIL VSMCs. We assessed proliferation differences in the presence or absence of TGF beta-neutralizing antibody in ECs co-cultured with VSMCs. ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs exhibited a lower proliferation rate than those co-cultured with control VSMCs, and neutralization of TGF beta normalized the proliferation rate of ECs co-cultured with CADASIL VSMCs. We suggest that increased TGF beta expression in CADASIL VSMCs is involved in the reduced VSMC proliferation in CADASIL and may play a role in situ in altered proliferation of neighbouring cells in the vasculature.
  • Miettinen, Helena E.; Rono, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Gylling, Helena (2018)
    Background and aims: Impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy may associate with changes in fetal cholesterol metabolism. We investigated if gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects newborn cholesterol metabolism as determined by cord blood squalene and non-cholesterol sterols. Furthermore, we examined potential correlations between cord blood and maternal serum non-cholesterol sterols. Methods: Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland. GDM was determined from the results of an oral glucose tolerance test. Serum samples were taken in the third trimester of pregnancy, and cord blood samples collected from their newborns at birth. Squalene and non-cholesterol sterols were analyzed from serum and cord blood by gas liquid chromatography. All women with GDM were in good glycaemic control. Results: The ratios of squalene and non-cholesterol sterols to cholesterol (100 x mu mol/mmol of cholesterol) in cord blood did not differ between the infants born to mothers with GDM (n = 15) or mothers with normal glucose tolerance (n = 13). The ratios of sitosterol and campesterol to cholesterol in the cord blood correlated with the corresponding maternal serum ratios (r = 0.70, p <0.0001) in both groups. Conclusions: In obese women under good glycaemic control, GDM did not affect newborn cholesterol metabolism. Cord blood sitosterol and campesterol ratios to cholesterol correlated with the corresponding maternal serum ratios thus potentially reflecting maternal-fetal cholesterol transport. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Packard, Chris J.; Boren, Jan (2019)
    Purpose of ReviewApolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) is known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and function as an important regulator of triglyceride metabolism. In addition, apoC-III has also more recently been identified as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which apoC-III induces hypertriglyceridemia and promotes atherogenesis, as well as the findings from recent clinical trials using novel strategies for lowering apoC-III.Recent FindingsGenetic studies have identified subjects with heterozygote loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in APOC3, the gene coding for apoC-III. Clinical characterization of these individuals shows that the LOF variants associate with a low-risk lipoprotein profile, in particular reduced plasma triglycerides. Recent results also show that complete deficiency of apoC-III is not a lethal mutation and is associated with very rapid lipolysis of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). Ongoing trials based on emerging gene-silencing technologies show that intervention markedly lowers apoC-III levels and, consequently, plasma triglyceride. Unexpectedly, the evidence points to apoC-III not only inhibiting LPL activity but also suppressing removal of TRLs by LPL-independent pathways.SummaryAvailable data clearly show that apoC-III is an important cardiovascular risk factor and that lifelong deficiency of apoC-III is cardioprotective. Novel therapies have been developed, and results from recent clinical trials indicate that effective reduction of plasma triglycerides by inhibition of apoC-III might be a promising strategy in management of severe hypertriglyceridemia and, more generally, a novel approach to CHD prevention in those with elevated plasma triglyceride.
  • Blasiak, Janusz; Watala, Cezary; Tuuminen, Raimo; Kivinen, Niko; Koskela, Ali; Uusitalo-Jarvinen, Hannele; Tuulonen, Anja; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Mackiewicz, Jerzy; Zmorzynski, Szymon; Filip, Agata; Kaarniranta, Kai (2019)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; many of them act in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and RPE degeneration is known to be a critical factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Repeated injections with anti-VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) are the only effective therapy in wet AMD. We investigated the correlation between the expression of 18 miRNAs involved in the regulation of the VEGFA gene in serum of 76 wet AMD patients and 70 controls. Efficacy of anti-VEGFA treatment was evaluated by counting the number of injections delivered up to 12 years. In addition, we compared the relative numbers of deaths in patient with AMD and control groups. We observed a decreased expression of miR-34-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-205-5p in wet AMD patients as compared with controls. These miRNAs are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, cytoprotection and protein clearance. No miRNA was significantly correlated with the treatment outcome. Wet AMD patients had greater mortality than controls, and their survival was inversely associated with the number of anti-VEGFA injections per year. No association was observed between miRNA expression and mortality. Our study emphasizes the need to clarify the role of miRNA regulation in AMD pathogenesis.
  • de Andrade, A. L. D. L.; de Oliveira, C. E.; Dourado, M. R.; Macedo, C. C. S.; Winck, F. V.; Paes Leme, A. F.; Salo, T.; Coletta, R. D.; de Almeida Freitas, R.; Galvao, H. C. (2018)
    BackgroundA new intercellular communication mode established by neoplastic cells and tumor microenvironment components is based on extracellular vesicles (EVs). However, the biological effects of the EVs released by tumor cells on angiogenesis are not completely understood. Here, we aimed to understand the biological effects of EVs isolated from two cell lines of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (SCC15 and HSC3) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis. MethodsOSCC-derived EVs were isolated with a polymer-based precipitation method, quantified using nanoparticle tracking analysis and verified for EV markers by dot blot. Functional assays were performed to assess the angiogenic potential of the OSCC-derived EVs. ResultsThe results showed that EVs derived from both cell lines displayed typical spherical-shaped morphology and expressed the EV markers CD63 and Annexin II. Although the average particle concentration and size were quite similar, SCC15-derived EVs promoted a pronounced tubular formation associated with significant migration and apoptosis rates of the endothelial cells, whereas EVs derived from HSC3 cells inhibited significantly endothelial cell tubulogenesis and proliferation. ConclusionThe findings of this study reveal that EVs derived from different OSCC cell lines by a polymer-based precipitation method promote pro- or anti-angiogenic effects.