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  • Penketh, J. A.; Nolan, J. P.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Rylander, C.; Frenell; Tirkkonen, J.; Reynolds, E. C.; Parr, M. J. A.; Aneman, A. (2020)
    Aim: To determine the type of airway devices used during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) resuscitation attempts. Methods: International multicentre retrospective observational study of in-patients aged over 18 years who received chest compressions for cardiac arrest from April 2016 to September 2018. Patients were identified from resuscitation registries and rapid response system databases. Data were collected through review of resuscitation records and hospital notes. Airway devices used during cardiac arrest were recorded as basic (adjuncts or bag-mask), or advanced, including supraglottic airway devices, tracheal tubes or tracheostomies. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression modelling were used for data analysis. Results: The final analysis included 598 patients. No airway management occurred in 36 (6%), basic airway device use occurred at any time in 562 (94%), basic airway device use without an advanced airway device in 182 (30%), tracheal intubation in 301 (50%), supraglottic airway in 102 (17%), and tracheostomy in 1 (0.2%). There was significant variation in airway device use between centres. The intubation rate ranged between 21% and 90% while supraglottic airway use varied between 1% and 45%. The choice of tracheal intubation vs. supraglottic airway as the second advanced airway device was not associated with immediate survival from the resuscitation attempt (odds ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.35-1.8). Conclusion: There is wide variation in airway device use during resuscitation after IHCA. Only half of patients are intubated before return of spontaneous circulation and many are managed without an advanced airway. Further investigation is needed to determine optimal airway device management strategies during resuscitation following IHCA.
  • Hiltunen, Pamela; Jantti, Helena; Silfvast, Tom; Kuisma, Markku; Kurola, Jouni; FINNRESUSCI Prehosp Study Grp (2016)
    Background: Though airway management methods during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain controversial, no studies on the topic from Finland have examined adherence to OHCA recommendations in real life. In response, the aim of this study was to document the interventions, success rates, and adverse events in airway management processes in OHCA, as well as to analyse survival at hospital discharge and at follow-up a year later. Methods: During a 6-month study period in 2010, data regarding all patients with OHCA and attempted resuscitation in southern and eastern Finland were prospectively collected. Emergency medical services (EMS) documented the airway techniques used and all adverse events related to the process. Study endpoints included the frequency of different techniques used, their success rates, methods used to verify the correct placement of the endotracheal tube, overall adverse events, and survival at hospital discharge and at follow-up a year later. Results: A total of 614 patients were included in the study. The incidence of EMS-attempted resuscitation was determined to be 51/100,000 inhabitants per year. The final airway technique was endotracheal intubation (ETI) in 413 patients (67.3 %) and supraglottic airway device (SAD) in 188 patients (30.2 %). The overall success rate of ETI was 92.5 %, whereas that of SAD was 85.0 %. Adverse events were reported in 167 of the patients (27.2 %). Having a prehospital EMS physician on the scene (p Conclusions: This study showed acceptable ETI and SAD success rates among Finnish patients with OHCA. Adverse events related to airway management were observed in more than 25 % of patients, and overall survival was 17.8 % at hospital discharge and 14.0 % after 1 year.
  • Tapiovaara, Laura; Back, Leif; Aro, Katri (2017)
    Possible airway compromise further complicates treatment of deep neck infections (DNI). Airway management is crucial, but factors affecting the method of choice are unclear. We retrospectively evaluated adult DNIs in a single tertiary center covering 10 years, with special attention on airway management. Patient data were retrieved from electronic data files from 2007 to 2016, and included adult patients with DNI operated through the neck. Of the 202 patients, 127 (63%) were male, with a median age of 47 years. Odontogenic (n = 74; 35%) infection was the most common etiology. Intubation was the most common method of airway management (n = 165; 82%), and most patients (n = 102; 50%) were extubated immediately after surgery. Tracheotomy was performed primarily for 35 (17%) patients, and secondarily for 25 (15%). Two patients were managed in local anesthesia. Altogether 80 (40%) patients required care in the intensive care unit for a median of 7 days. Median hospital stay was 6 days for intubated patients and 10 days for primarily tracheotomized (p = 0.036). DNI extended to the mediastinal space in 25 (12%) patients, most of whom with odontogenic infection (48%), and necrotizing fasciitis (32%). Odontogenic infection was the most common etiology for DNI with increased risk for mediastinal involvement. Intubation was most common type of airway management with high success in immediate extubation after surgery. The need for tracheotomy seemed to lead to a longer hospital care and was associated with a more severe clinical course.
  • Lankimaki, Sami; Alahuhta, Seppo; Silfvast, Tom; Kurola, Jouni (2015)
  • Ryynanen, Olli-Pekka; Iirola, Timo; Reitala, Janne; Malmivaara, Antti (2010)
    Background -: Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support) and BLS- (basic life support) levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids, medications and intubation. However, the effectiveness of ALS care compared to BLS has been questionable. Aim -: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of ALS- and BLS-level prehospital care. Material and methods -: In a systematic review, articles where ALS-level prehospital care was compared to BLS-level or any other treatment were included. The outcome variables were mortality or patient's health-related quality of life or patient's capacity to perform daily activities. Results -: We identified 46 articles, mostly retrospective observational studies. The results on the effectiveness of ALS in unselected patient cohorts are contradictory. In cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are essential for survival, but prehospital ALS interventions have not improved survival. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment reduces mortality in patients having a myocardial infarction. The majority of research into trauma favours BLS in the case of penetrating trauma and also in cases of short distance to a hospital. In patients with severe head injuries, ALS provided by paramedics and intubation without anaesthesia can even be harmful. If the prehospital care is provided by an experienced physician and by a HEMS organisation (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service), ALS interventions may be beneficial for patients with multiple injuries and severe brain injuries. However, the results are contradictory. Conclusions -: ALS seems to improve survival in patients with myocardial infarction and BLS seems to be the proper level of care for patients with penetrating injuries. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of ALS among patients with blunt head injuries or multiple injuries. There is also some evidence in favour of ALS among patients with epileptic seizures as well as those with a respiratory distress.
  • Schefold, Joerg C.; Bäcklund, Minna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Zuercher, Patrick; Mukherjee, Rajat; Mistry, Satish; Mayer, Stephan A.; Dziewas, Rainer; Bakker, Jan; Jakob, Stephan M. (2020)
    Introduction: Post-extubation dysphagia is commonly observed in ICU patients and associated with increased aspiration rates, delayed resumption of oral intake/ malnutrition, prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Conventional therapeutic approaches are limited. Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PES) was previously shown to improve swallowing function and airway safety in severely dysphagic tracheostomised stroke patients. Methods: In a multi-center, single-blind, 1:1 randomized controlled study, up to 400 (360 evaluable) mixed emergency adult ICU patients with recent extubation following mechanical ventilation and confirmed oropharyngeal dysphagia will be enrolled at investigational academic ICUs. Primary objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of PES in reducing the severity of unsafe swallows. Patients will be randomized to receive PES (or sham) treatment on 3 consecutive days in addition to best supportive care. Primary endpoint is a composite of 2 endpoints with hierarchy based on clinical priorities: 1) Swallowing safety based on worst penetration-aspiration-scale (PAS) score in series of up to 4 boli using thin stimuli approx. From 24 to 60 hours after treatment completion, converted to a trichotomized ordinal response of safe (PAS 1-3), penetration (PAS 4-5), or aspiration (PAS 6-8). 2) Dysphagia Outcome and Severity Scale scores determined by bedside assessment 7 +/- 1 days after treatment completion. Oropharyngeal dysphagia will be assessed by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing by blinded study staff. Patients will be followed-up for a maximum of 90 days. Discussion: This study will evaluate the effects of PES on swallowing safety in critically ill ICU patients post mechanical ventilation with oropharyngeal dysphagia.