Browsing by Subject "ENERGY-EXPENDITURE"

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  • IAEA DLW Database Grp; Speakman, John R.; Yamada, Yosuke; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. (2021)
    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method measures total energy expenditure (TEE) in free-living subjects. Several equations are used to convert isotopic data into TEE. Using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) DLW database (5,756 measurements of adults and children), we show considerable variability is introduced by different equations. The estimated rCO(2) is sensitive to the dilution space ratio (DSR) of the two isotopes. Based on performance in validation studies, we propose a new equation based on a new estimate of the mean DSR. The DSR is lower at low body masses (
  • Kantomaa, Marko T.; Tikanmaki, Marjaana; Kankaanpaa, Anna; Vaarasmaki, Marja; Sipola-Leppanen, Marika; Ekelund, Ulf; Hakonen, Harto; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija H. (2016)
    This study examined the association of education level with objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in young adults. Data from the Finnish ESTER study (20092011) (n = 538) was used to examine the association between educational attainment and different subcomponents of physical activity and sedentary time measured using hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT1M) for seven consecutive days. Overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light-intensity physical activity and sedentary time were calculated separately for weekdays and weekend days. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify the different profiles of sedentary time and the subcomponents of physical activity. The educational differences in accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time varied according to the subcomponents of physical activity, and between weekdays and weekend days. A high education level was associated with high MVPA during weekdays and weekend days in both sexes, high sedentary time during weekdays in both sexes, and a low amount of light-intensity physical activity during weekdays in males and during weekdays and weekend days in females. The results indicate different challenges related to unhealthy behaviours in young adults with low and high education: low education is associated with a lack of MVPA, whereas high education is associated with a lack of light-intensity physical activity and high sedentary time especially during weekdays.
  • Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Pirinen, Eija (2017)
    Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD(+)/NADH redox balance and NAD+ is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD(+) homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD(+) pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications.
  • Uutela, Toini I.; Kautiainen, Hannu J.; Häkkinen, Arja H. (2018)
    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation has a detrimental effect on muscle strength. Our objective was to analyse the association between muscle performance and different disease activity levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Method A total of 199 consecutive outpatients were subject to cross-sectional assessment. Measurements of grip strength, endurance of the upper and lower limbs and trunk strength were combined as a muscle performance composite score (MPCS), using a standardised method. The disease activity for 28 joints (DAS28), radiographs of small joints (Larsen score), rheumatoid factor, body mass index (BMI), comorbidities and anti-rheumatic drugs were verified. Patients questionnaires included sociodemographic information, pain level, global disease activity, the Beck Depression Inventory, the mental and physical component scores of Short Form-36 and physical activity level. Results Of the 199 patients, 36%, 17% and 47% patients had remission, low/moderate and high DAS28, respectively. The patients in remission had significantly shorter disease duration, better parameters in terms of pain, physicians assessment, Larsen, Beck or physical component score of Short Form-36, and they were more physically active than other patients. After adjustments for age, sex, RA duration, radiographs and BMI, the decreasing MPCS associated linearly with the increasing DAS28 activity levels (linearity, P Conclusion Poorer MPCS is clearly associated with higher disease activity in patients with RA. Muscle performance is a modifiable risk factor. The findings suggest evaluating muscle performance in clinical practice as a part of patient care.
  • McFarlane, S. Eryn; Ålund, Murielle; Sirkiä, Päivi M.; Qvarnström, Anna (2018)
    Variation in relative fitness of competing recently formed species across heterogeneous environments promotes coexistence. However, the physiological traits mediating such variation in relative fitness have rarely been identified. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is tightly associated with life history strategies, thermoregulation, diet use, and inhabited latitude and could therefore moderate differences in fitness responses to fluctuations in local environments, particularly when species have adapted to different climates in allopatry. We work in a long-term study of collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a recent hybrid zone located on the Swedish island of Oland in the Baltic Sea. Here, we explore whether differences in RMR match changes in relative performance of growing flycatcher nestlings across environmental conditions using an experimental approach. The fitness of pied flycatchers has previously been shown to be less sensitive to the mismatch between the peak in food abundance and nestling growth among late breeders. Here, we find that pied flycatcher nestlings have lower RMR in response to higher ambient temperatures (associated with low food availability). We also find that experimentally relaxed nestling competition is associated with an increased RMR in this species. In contrast, collared flycatcher nestlings did not vary their RMR in response to these environmental factors. Our results suggest that a more flexible nestling RMR in pied flycatchers is responsible for the better adaptation of pied flycatchers to the typical seasonal changes in food availability experienced in this hybrid zone. Generally, subtle physiological differences that have evolved when species were in allopatry may play an important role to patterns of competition, coexistence, or displacements between closely related species in secondary contact.
  • Tan, Xiao; Alen, Markku; Wang, Kun; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Wiklund, Petri; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin (2016)
    Growing evidence suggests that diet alteration affects sleep, but this has not yet been studied in adults with insomnia symptoms. We aimed to determine the effect of a six-month diet intervention on sleep among overweight and obese (Body mass index, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) men with chronic insomnia symptoms. Forty-nine men aged 30-65 years with chronic insomnia symptoms were randomized into diet (n = 28) or control (n = 21) groups. The diet group underwent a six-month individualized diet intervention with three face-to-face counseling sessions and online supervision 1-3 times per week; 300-500 kcal/day less energy intake and optimized nutrient composition were recommended. Controls were instructed to maintain their habitual lifestyle. Sleep parameters were determined by piezoelectric bed sensors, a sleep diary, and a Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire. Compared to the controls, the diet group had shorter objective sleep onset latency after intervention. Within the diet group, prolonged objective total sleep time, improved objective sleep efficiency, lower depression score, less subjective nocturnal awakenings, and nocturia were found after intervention. In conclusion, modest energy restriction and optimized nutrient composition shorten sleep onset latency in overweight and obese men with insomnia symptoms.
  • Tischmann, Lea; Drummen, Mathijs; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine; Raben, Anne; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Matias, Isabelle; Cota, Daniela; Mensink, Ronald P.; Joris, Peter J.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.; Adam, Tanja C. (2019)
    Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 +/- 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 +/- 3.9 kg/m(2)) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p <0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p <0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p <0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.
  • Ruuska, Satu Maria; Laaperi, Mitja Tapani; Hukkinen, Maria; Jalanko, Hannu; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    We addressed growth of biliary atresia (BA) patients living with native livers between ages 0-6 and effects of post-surgical corticosteroid treatment on growth. Growth charts of 28 BA patients born in Finland between 1987 and 2017 were retrospectively evaluated. Dosage and length of corticosteroid treatment and hydrocortisone substitution were reviewed. At birth, BA patients were shorter (median height -0.6 (interquartile range (IQR) -1.3 to -0.1) SDS, n=28, P
  • Engberg, Elina; Figueiredo, Rejane A. O.; Rounge, Trine B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Viljakainen, Heli (2019)
    This cross-sectional study examined the associations of recreational screen time (viewing TV programs on any screen-based device and computer use, performed while sitting) with body mass index (BMI) categories and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) tertiles in 10,228 children (mean age 11.1 years, SD 0.8). We categorized the children into Light, Medium and Heavy TV viewers and computer users, and into Low, Medium and High exercise groups. Compared with Light TV viewers, Medium (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11-1.52, when adjusted for age, sex, language, sleep duration and exercise) and Heavy (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.34-1.83)TV viewers had a higher risk of being overweight. Similarly, Heavy computer users had a higher risk of being overweight (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.21-1.67). We observed interactions between exercise and TV viewing (p = 0.012) or computer use (p = 0.010). However, Heavy TV viewers had a higher risk of being overweight in all exercise groups. The associations of TV viewing and computer use were similar with BMI and WHtR. To conclude, heavy sedentary screen time is associated with overweight and central adiposity in children. Moreover, heavy TV viewers have a higher risk for overweight and central adiposity, regardless of weekly exercise duration.
  • Slopien, Radoslaw; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Rogowicz-Frontczak, Anita; Meczekalski, Blazej; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota; Jaremek, Jesse D.; Cano, Antonio; Chedraui, Peter; Goulis, Dimitrios G.; Lopes, Patrice; Mishra, Gita; Mueck, Alfred; Rees, Margaret; Senturk, Levent M.; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C.; Stute, Petra; Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Paschou, Stavroula A.; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Lambrinoudaki, Irene (2018)
    Introduction: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. Aims: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM. Materials and methods: Literature review and consensus of experts' opinions. Results and conclusion: Metabolic changes during the menopausal transition include an increase in and the central redistribution of adipose tissue, as well as a decrease in energy expenditure. In addition, there is impairment of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity and an increase in the risk of T2DM. MHT has a favourable effect on glucose metabolism, both in women with and in women without T2DM, while it may delay the onset of T2DM. MHT in women with T2DM should be administered according to their risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In women with T2DM and low CVD risk, oral oestrogens may be preferred, while transdermal 17 beta-oestradiol is preferred for women with T2DM and coexistent CVD risk factors, such as obesity. In any case, a progestogen with neutral effects on glucose metabolism should be used, such as progesterone, dydrogesterone or transdermal norethisterone. Postmenopausal women with T2DM should be managed primarily with lifestyle intervention, including diet and exercise. Most of them will eventually require pharmacological therapy. The selection of antidiabetic medications should be based on the patient's specific characteristics and comorbidities, as well on the metabolic, cardiovascular and bone effects of the medications.
  • Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G. (2015)
    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
  • Mantovani, Giovanna; Bastepe, Murat; Monk, David; De Sanctis, Luisa; Thiele, Susanne; Ahmed, S. Faisal; Bufo, Roberto; Choplin, Timothee; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; Devernois, Guillemette; Eggermann, Thomas; Elli, Francesca M.; Garcia Ramirez, Aurora; Germain-Lee, Emily L.; Groussin, Lionel; Hamdy, Neveen A. T.; Hanna, Patrick; Hiort, Olaf; Jueppner, Harald; Kamenicky, Peter; Knight, Nina; Le Norcy, Elvire; Lecumberri, Beatriz; Levine, Michael A.; Mäkitie, Outi; Martin, Regina; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Angel; Minagawa, Manasori; Murray, Philip; Pereda, Arrate; Pignolo, Robert; Rejnmark, Lars; Rodado, Rebeca; Rothenbuhler, Anya; Saraff, Vrinda; Shoemaker, Ashley H.; Shore, Eileen M.; Silve, Caroline; Turan, Serap; Woods, Philip; Zillikens, M. Carola; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Linglart, Agnes (2020)
    Patients affected by pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) or related disorders are characterized by physical findings that may include brachydactyly, a short stature, a stocky build, early-onset obesity, ectopic ossifications, and neurodevelopmental deficits, as well as hormonal resistance most prominently to parathyroid hormone (PTH). In addition to these alterations, patients may develop other hormonal resistances, leading to overt or subclinical hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH) deficiency, impaired growth without measurable evidence for hormonal abnormalities, type 2 diabetes, and skeletal issues with potentially severe limitation of mobility. PHP and related disorders are primarily clinical diagnoses. Given the variability of the clinical, radiological, and biochemical presentation, establishment of the molecular diagnosis is of critical importance for patients. It facilitates management, including prevention of complications, screening and treatment of endocrine deficits, supportive measures, and appropriate genetic counselling. Based on the first international consensus statement for these disorders, this article provides an updated and ready-to-use tool to help physicians and patients outlining relevant interventions and their timing. A life-long coordinated and multidisciplinary approach is recommended, starting as far as possible in early infancy and continuing throughout adulthood with an appropriate and timely transition from pediatric to adult care.
  • Rappou, Elisabeth; Jukarainen, Sakari; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Kaye, Sanna M.; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Saunavaara, Virva; Rissanen, Aila; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Pirinen, Eija; Pietilainen, Kirsi H. (2016)
    Context: Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are 2 important nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)(+)-dependent enzyme families with opposing metabolic effects. Energy shortage increases NAD(+) biosynthesis and SIRT activity but reduces PARP activity in animals. Effects of energy balance on these pathways in humans are unknown. Objective: We compared NAD(+)/SIRT pathway expressions and PARP activities in sc adipose tissue (SAT) between lean and obese subjects and investigated their change in the obese subjects during a 12-month weight loss. Design, Setting and Participants: SAT biopsies were obtained from 19 clinically healthy obese subjects (mean +/- SE body mass index, 34.6 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) during a weight-loss intervention (0, 5, and 12 mo) and from 19 lean reference subjects (body mass index, 22.7 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2)) at baseline. Main Outcome Measures: SAT mRNA expressions of SIRTs 1-7 and the rate-limiting gene in NAD(+) biosynthesis, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) were measured by Affymetrix, and total PARP activity by ELISA kit. Results: SIRT1, SIRT3, SIRT7, and NAMPT expressions were significantly lower, whereas total PARP activity was increased in obese compared with lean subjects. SIRT1 and NAMPT expressions increased in obese subjects between 0 and 5 months, after a mean weight loss of 11.7%. In subjects who continued to lose weight between 5 and 12 months, SIRT1 expression increased progressively, whereas in subjects with weight regain, SIRT1 reverted to baseline levels. PARP activity significantly decreased in all subjects upon weight loss. Conclusions: Calorie restriction is an attractive strategy to improve the NAD(+)/SIRT pathway and decrease PARPs in SAT in human obesity.