Browsing by Subject "ENERGY-INTAKE"

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  • I Family Consortium; Bogl, L. H.; Mehlig, K.; Intemann, T.; Masip, G.; Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Kaprio, J.; Hebestreit, A. (2019)
    Background and aims: By investigating differences in lifestyle behaviours and BMI in sibling pairs, family-level confounding is minimized and causal inference is improved, compared to cross-sectional studies of unrelated children. Thus, we aimed to investigate within-sibling pair differences in different lifestyle behaviours and differences in BMI z-scores in children and adolesents. Methods and results: We examined three groups of sibling pairs 1) all same-sex sibling pairs with maximum 4 years age difference (n = 1209 pairs from 1072 families in 8 countries, mean age 10.7 years, standard deviation 2.4 years), 2) sibling pairs discordant for overweight (n = 262) and 3) twin pairs (n = 85). Usual dietary intake was estimated by 24-h recalls and time spent in light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometers. Screen time, sleep and dieting for weight loss were assessed by questionnaires. Within all 3 groups of sibling pairs, more time in MVPA was associated with lower BMI z-score. Higher energy intake was associated with higher BMI z-score within twin pairs and within all sibling pairs who were not currently dieting for weight loss. Regarding LPA, screen time or sleep duration, no or inconsistent associations were observed for the three groups of sibling pairs. Conclusions: MVPA and energy intake were associated with BMI differences within sibling and twin pairs growing up in the same home, thus independent of family-level confounding factors. Future studies should explore whether genetic variants regulating appetite or energy expenditure behaviours account for weight differences in sibling pairs. (C) 2019 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Konttinen, Hanna; Llewellyn, Clare; Wardle, Jane; Silventoinen, Karri; Joensuu, Anni; Mannisto, Satu; Salomaa, Veikko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaprio, Jaakko; Perola, Markus; Haukkala, Ari (2015)
    The mechanisms through which genes influence body weight are not well understood, but appetite has been implicated as one mediating pathway. Here we use data from two independent population-based Finnish cohorts (4632 adults aged 25-74 years from the DILGOM study and 1231 twin individuals aged 21-26 years from the FinnTwin12 study) to investigate whether two appetitive traits mediate the associations between known obesity-related genetic variants and adiposity. The results from structural equation modelling indicate that the effects of a polygenic risk score (90 obesity-related loci) on measured body mass index and waist circumference are partly mediated through higher levels of uncontrolled eating (beta(indirect) = 0.030-0.032, P <0.001 in DILGOM) and emotional eating (beta(indirect) = 0.020-0.022, P <0.001 in DILGOM and beta(indirect) = 0.013-0.015, P = 0.043-0.044 in FinnTwin12). Our findings suggest that genetic predispositions to obesity may partly exert their effects through appetitive traits reflecting lack of control over eating or eating in response to negative emotions. Obesity prevention and treatment studies should examine the impact of targeting these eating behaviours, especially among individuals having a high genetic predisposition to obesity.
  • Tanner, Tarja; Harju, Laura; Pakkila, Jari; Patinen, Pertti; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko (2020)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of consumption of snack products, as well as the association between snacking and restorative treatment need, and associated factors among a healthy Finnish male population. Approximately 8500 conscripts answered a computer-based questionnaire covering their snacking habits and other health behaviours. Restorative treatment need and history (DT, DMFT) were examined by trained and calibrated dentists. Cross-tabulations were used to investigate the associations between snacking habits and the other researched variables, and logistic regression analyses (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) were used to investigate the variables influencing the restorative treatment need. In the present study, almost one-third of the study group consumed snack products daily, most often fizzy and energy drinks. Only 10% had received a diet counselling. The most common situations involving snacking were at the cinema and while playing computer games. According to Pearson's Chi square test, snacking was associated with smoking and snuffing and infrequent tooth brushing (p <0.001). According to the regression analyses, daily snacking, smoking, and doing exercise daily increased the odds for restorative treatment need whereas higher education level and tooth brushing twice or more often per day decreased the odds for restorative treatment need. It can be concluded that daily snacking is common among Finnish young men and is associated with restorative treatment need. Snacking is also associated with other harmful oral and general health habits. Individual dietary counselling should be routinely offered to everybody in dental clinics.
  • Dubois, Lise; Diasparra, Maikol; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Fontaine-Bisson, Benedicte; Bedard, Brigitte; Tremblay, Richard E.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Boivin, Michel (2016)
    There is a lack of evidence pointing to specific dietary elements related to weight gain and obesity prevention in childhood and adulthood. Dietary intake and obesity are both inherited and culturally transmitted, but most prospective studies on the association between diet and weight status do not take genetics into consideration. The objective of this study was to document the association between dietary intake at 9 years and subsequent Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescent monozygotic boy and girl twin pairs. This research used data from 152 twin pairs. Dietary data were collected from two 24-hour-recall interviews with a parent and the child aged 9 years. Height and weight were obtained when the twins were aged 9, 12, 13, and 14 years. Intrapair variability analysis was performed to identify dietary elements related to BMI changes in subsequent years. BMI-discordant monozygotic twin pairs were also identified to analyze the dietary constituents that may have generated the discordance. After eliminating potential confounding genetic factors, pre-adolescent boys who ate fewer grain products and fruit and consumed more high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence; pre-adolescent girls who consumed more grain products and high-fat meat and milk had higher BMIs during adolescence. Energy intake (EI) at 9 years was not related to BMI in subsequent years. Our study suggests that messages and interventions directed at obesity prevention could take advantage of sex-specific designs and, eventually, genetic information.
  • Konstari, Sanna; Sares-Jäske, Laura; Heliövaara, Markku; Rissanen, Harri; Knekt, Paul; Arokoski, Jari; Sundvall, Jouko; Karppinen, Jaro (2019)
    Objectives To study whether low dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) predict the development of clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The cohort consisted of 4,953 participants of a national health examination survey who were free of knee and hip OA at baseline. Information on the incidence of knee OA leading to hospitalization was drawn from the National Care Register for Health Care. During the follow-up of 10 years, 123 participants developed incident knee OA. Dietary magnesium intake was assessed on the basis of a food frequency questionnaire from the preceding year. We used Cox's proportional hazards model to estimate the strength of the association between the tertiles of dietary Mg intake and incident knee OA, adjusted for baseline age, gender, energy intake, BMI, history of physical workload, leisure time physical activity, injuries, knee complaints, the use of Mg supplements, and serum hs-CRP levels. Results At baseline, dietary Mg intake was inversely associated with serum hs-CRP even after adjustment for all the potential confounding factors. During the follow-up, the adjusted hazard ratios (with their 95% confidence intervals) for incident knee OA in dietary Mg intake tertiles were 1.00, 1.28 (0.78-2.10), and 1.38 (0.73-2.62); the p value for trend was 0.31. Serum hs-CRP level at baseline did not predict incident knee OA. Conclusions The results do not support the hypothesis that low dietary Mg intake contributes to the development of clinical knee OA, although Mg intake is inversely associated with serum hs-CRP level.
  • Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Siani, Alfonso; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hunsberger, Monica; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pigeot, Iris; I Family Consortium (2017)
    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.
  • Sandell, Mari; Hoppu, Ulla; Mikkila, Vera; Mononen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Mannisto, Satu; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T. (2014)
    Genetic variation in bitter taste receptors, such as hTAS2R38, may affect food preferences and intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between bitter taste receptor haplotypes and the consumption of vegetables, fruits, berries and sweet foods among an adult Finnish population. A cross-sectional design utilizing data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort from 2007, which consisted of 1,903 men and women who were 30-45 years of age from five different regions in Finland, was employed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and hTAS2R38 polymorphisms were determined based on three SNPs (rs713598, rs1726866 and rs10246939). Food consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of the bitter taste-sensitive (PAV/PAV) haplotype was 11.3 % and that of the insensitive (AVI/AVI) haplotype was 39.5 % among this Finnish population. PAV homozygotic women consumed fewer vegetables than did the AVI homozygotic women, 269 g/day (SD 131) versus 301 g/day (SD 187), respectively, p = 0.03 (multivariate ANOVA). Furthermore, the intake of sweet foods was higher among the PAV homozygotes of both genders. Fruit and berry consumption did not differ significantly between the haplotypes in either gender. Individuals perceive foods differently, and this may influence their patterns of food consumption. This study showed that the hTAS2R38 taste receptor gene variation was associated with vegetable and sweet food consumption among adults in a Finnish population.
  • Vila-Real, Catarina; Pimenta-Martins, Ana; Gomes, Ana Maria; Pinto, Elisabete; Maina, Henry Ndegwa (2018)
    Background: Dietary patterns are often considered as one of the main causes of non-communicable diseases worldwide. It is of utmost importance to study dietary habits in developing countries since this work is scarce. Objective: To summarize the most recent research conducted in this field in African countries, namely the most used methodologies and tools. Methods: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, aiming to identify scientific publications focused on studies of dietary intake of different African populations, in a ten-year period. Papers not written in English/Portuguese/Spanish, studies developed among African people but not developed in African countries, studies aiming to assess a particular nutrient/specific food/food toxin and studies that assessed dietary intake among children were excluded. Findings: Out of 99 included studies, the 24-hour recall and the food-frequency questionnaire were the most used dietary intake assessment tools, used to assess diet at an individual level. It was also observed that often country-unspecific food composition databases are used, and the methodologies employed are poorly validated and standardized. Conclusions: There is an emergent need to improve the existing food databases by updating food data and to develop suitable country-specific databases for those that do not have their own food composition table.
  • Kaseva, Nina; Vääräsmaki, Marja; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Sipola, Marika; Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Kanerva, Noora; Heinonen, Kati; Lano, Aulikki; Wolke, Dieter; Andersson, Sture; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Männistö, Satu; Kajantie, Eero (2020)
    Background/Objectives Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and gestational diabetes (GDM) are associated with increased fat deposition in adult offspring. The purpose of this study was to identify if maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (body mass index (BMI) >= 25 kg/m(2)) or GDM are associated with dietary quality or intake in adult offspring. Subjects/Methods Participants (n = 882) from two longitudinal cohort studies (ESTER Maternal Pregnancy Disorders Study and the Arvo Ylppo Longitudinal Study) completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at a mean age of 24.2 years (SD 1.3). Diet quality was evaluated by a Recommended Finnish Diet Index (RDI). The study sample included offspring of normoglycaemic mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (ONO = 155), offspring of mothers with GDM regardless of BMI (OGDM = 190) and offspring of mothers with normal weight and no GDM (controls;n = 537). Results Among men, daily energy and macronutrient intakes were similar in ONO and controls. However, after adjusting for current offspring characteristics, including BMI, daily carbohydrate intake relative to total energy intake was higher in ONO-men [2.2 percentages of total energy intake (95% confidence interval 0.4, 4.0)]. In ONO-women, macronutrient intakes relative to total energy intake were similar with controls, while total daily energy intake seemed lower [-587.2 kJ/day (-1192.0, 4.4)]. After adjusting for confounders, this difference was attenuated. Adherence to a healthy diet, as measured by RDI, was similar in ONO and controls [mean difference: men 0.40 (-0.38, 1.18); women 0.25 (-0.50, 1.00)]. In OGDM vs. controls, total energy and macronutrient intakes were similar for both men and women. Also adherence to a healthy diet was similar [RDI: men 0.09 (-0.62, 0.80); women -0.17 (-0.93, 0.59)]. Conclusions Our study suggested higher daily carbohydrate intake in male offspring exposed to maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity, compared with controls. Prenatal exposure to GDM was not associated with adult offspring dietary intakes.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Konttinen, Hanna (2020)
    Obesity has dramatically increased during the last decades and is currently one of the most serious global health problems. We present a hypothesis that obesity is a neuro-behavioral disease having a strong genetic background mediated largely by eating behavior and is sensitive to the macro-environment; we study this hypothesis from the perspective of genetic research. Genetic family and genome-wide-association studies have shown well that body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) is a highly heritable and polygenic trait. New genetic variation of BMI emerges after early childhood. Candidate genes of BMI notably express in brain tissue, supporting that this new variation is related to behavior. Obesogenic environments at both childhood family and societal levels reinforce the genetic susceptibility to obesity. Genetic factors have a clear influence on macro-nutrient intake and appetite-related eating behavior traits. Results on the gene-by-diet interactions in obesity are mixed, but emerging evidence suggests that eating behavior traits partly mediate the effect of genes on BMI. However, more rigorous prospective study designs controlling for measurement bias are still needed.
  • Salminen, Karoliina; Willman, Mirjami; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Suominen, Merja (2021)
    Background & aims: The temporal trends in protein and other nutrient intakes among older long-term care residents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in energy, protein, and other nutrient intakes between 2007 and 2017-8 in two cross-sectional samples of older longterm care residents in the Helsinki metropolitan area. We also studied how the residents' disability and stage of cognition modified the association between observation year and protein intake (g/body weight kg). Methods: Two cross-sectional samples were collected in 2007 (n = 350) and 2017-8 (n = 476) in longterm care settings. Residents' nutrient intake was determined by a one-or two-day food record. Residents' disability was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) "personal care" question and stage of cognition was determined by the CDR "memory" item. Results: There was no significant difference in energy intake between the observation years. Carbohydrates, total protein, and protein (g/body weight kg) intakes were significantly lower in 2017-8 than in 2007. Fat intake was higher in 2017-8 than in 2007. In 2017-8, the intake of some vitamins and minerals was lower (thiamine, calcium) but some higher (vitamins A, D, C, E) compared to 2007. Residents' disability (p = 0.049) and observation year (p = 0.037) were significantly associated with protein intake (g/body weight kg), but the interaction was not significant (p = 0.35). Furthermore, residents' stage of cognition was not associated with protein intake (p = 0.22) but observation year was (p < 0.001). The interaction was not significant (p = 0.30). Conclusions: Whereas the energy intake remained at the same level in the observation years, the ratio of macronutrient intake changed in an unfavorable way. The intake of protein and some vitamins were lower whereas the relative proportion of fat was higher in 2017-8 compared to 2007. As long-term care residents become more disabled in the future, more attention should be paid to diet quality. 0 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • IDEFICS and I.Family consortia; Masip-Manuel, Guiomar; Foraita, Ronja; Silventoinen, Karri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Bogl, Leonie-Helen; Kaprio, Jaakko (2021)
    Background: Many genes and molecular pathways are associated with obesity, but the mechanisms from genes to obesity are less well known. Eating behaviors represent a plausible pathway, but because the relationships of eating behaviors and obesity may be bi-directional, it remains challenging to resolve the underlying pathways. A longitudinal approach is needed to assess the contribution of genetic risk during the development of obesity in childhood. In this study we aim to examine the relationships between the polygenic risk score for body mass index (PRS-BMI), parental concern of overeating and obesity indices during childhood. Methods: The IDEFICS/I.Family study is a school-based multicenter pan-European cohort of children observed for 6 years (mean +/- SD follow-up 5.8 +/- 0.4). Children examined in 2007/2008 (wave 1) (mean +/- SD age: 4.4 +/- 1.1, range: 2-9 years), in 2009/2010 (wave 2) and in 2013/2014 (wave 3) were included. A total of 5112 children (49% girls) participated at waves 1, 2 and 3. For 2656 children with genome-wide data we constructed a PRS based on 2.1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Z-score BMI and z-score waist circumference (WC) were assessed and eating behaviors and relevant confounders were reported by parents via questionnaires. Parental concern of overeating was derived from principal component analyses from an eating behavior questionnaire. Results: In cross-lagged models, the prospective associations between z-score obesity indices and parental concern of overeating were bi-directional. In mediation models, the association between the PRS-BMI and parental concern of overeating at wave 3 was mediated by baseline z-BMI (beta = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.21) and baseline z-WC (beta = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.23). To a lesser extent, baseline parental concern of overeating also mediated the association between the PRS-BMI and z-BMI at wave 3 (beta = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13) and z-WC at wave 3 (beta = 0.09, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.12). Conclusions: The findings suggest that the prospective associations between obesity indices and parental concern of overeating are likely bi-directional, but obesity indices have a stronger association with future parental concern of overeating than vice versa. The findings suggest parental concern of overeating as a possible mediator in the genetic susceptibility to obesity and further highlight that other pathways are also involved. A better understanding of the genetic pathways that lead to childhood obesity can help to prevent weight gain.