Browsing by Subject "ENTERIC PATHOGENS"

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  • Ottman, Noora; Geerlings, Sharon Y.; Aalvink, Steven; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2017)
    The discovery of Akkermansia muciniphila has opened new avenues for the use of this abundant intestinal symbiont in next generation therapeutic products, as well as targeting microbiota dynamics. A. muciniphila is known to colonize the mucosal layer of the human intestine where it triggers both host metabolic and immune responses. A. muciniphila is particularly effective in increasing mucus thickness and increasing gut barrier function. As a result host metabolic markers ameliorate. The mechanism of host regulation is thought to involve the outer membrane composition, including the type IV pili of A. muciniphila, that directly signal to host immune receptors. At the same time the metabolic activity of A. muciniphila leads to the production of short chain fatty acids that are beneficial to the host and microbiota members. This contributes to host-microbiota and microbe-microbe syntrophy The mucolytic activity and metabolite production make A. muciniphila a key species in the mucus layer, stimulating beneficial mucosal microbial networks. This well studied member of the microbiota has been studied in three aspects that will be further described in this review: i) A. muciniphila characteristics and mucin adaptation, ii) its role as key species in the mucosal microbiome, and iii) its role in host health. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Tailford, Louise E.; Owen, C. David; Walshaw, John; Crost, Emmanuelle H.; Hardy-Goddard, Jemma; Le Gall, Gwenaelle; de Vos, Willem M.; Taylor, Garry L.; Juge, Nathalie (2015)
    The gastrointestinal mucus layer is colonized by a dense community of microbes catabolizing dietary and host carbohydrates during their expansion in the gut. Alterations in mucosal carbohydrate availability impact on the composition of microbial species. Ruminococcus gnavus is a commensal anaerobe present in the gastrointestinal tract of > 90% of humans and overrepresented in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Using a combination of genomics, enzymology and crystallography, we show that the mucin-degrader R. gnavus ATCC 29149 strain produces an intramolecular trans-sialidase (IT-sialidase) that cleaves off terminal alpha 2-3-linked sialic acid from glycoproteins, releasing 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac instead of sialic acid. Evidence of IT-sialidases in human metagenomes indicates that this enzyme occurs in healthy subjects but is more prevalent in IBD metagenomes. Our results uncover a previously unrecognized enzymatic activity in the gut microbiota, which may contribute to the adaptation of intestinal bacteria to the mucosal environment in health and disease.
  • Tuompo, Riitta; Hannu, Timo; Huovinen, Elisa; Sihvonen, Leila; Siitonen, Anja; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta (2017)
    Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) biotype 1A is generally considered non-pathogenic, and the role of it in causing reactive musculoskeletal complications is unclear. We evaluated the capability of YE biotype 1A to induce reactive arthritis (ReA) and other reactive musculoskeletal symptoms. Analysis of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms was supplemented with a telephone interview (with a permission to acquire copies of patient files from a local physician or hospital) and/or clinical examination of subjects with recent musculoskeletal symptoms after a positive stool culture for YE. The diagnoses of ReA and reactive tendinitis and enthesitis (ReTe) were defined as "definite" when based on clinical examination and/or on interview by phone and "probable" when based solely on the questionnaire. Of 120 subjects, who reported musculoskeletal symptoms, 100 were included in the final analysis. Among these 100 patients, 68% had YE biotype 1A, 16% YE bio/serotype 4, and 1% biotype 2 infection; the remaining 15% had different YE-like strains or a non-biotypable strain. Of the 21 patients with ReA and of the 14 patients with ReTe, the diagnosis was definite in 9 and 7 patients and probable in 12 and 7 patients, respectively. The clinical picture of ReA caused by YE biotype 1A was similar with other bio/serotypes of YE. The definite ReA due to YE biotype 1A occurred in middle-aged adults (5 men, 4 women) with the most frequently affected joints being the knees and ankles. We suggest that YE biotype 1A should be taken into account as a new trigger of ReA.