Browsing by Subject "EPIDERMAL-GROWTH-FACTOR"

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  • Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Siitonen, H. Annika; Soderhall, Cilla; Minhas, Gurinder; Vuola, Jyrki; Tiala, Erica Inkeri; Sormunen, Raija; Samuelsson, Lena; Suomela, Sari; Kere, Juha; Elomaa, Outi (2012)
  • Li, Li; Huang, Yulun; Gao, Yuge; Shi, Tengfei; Xu, Yunyun; Li, Huini; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Jiang, Qiuying; Hu, Yizhou; Du, Zhimin (2018)
    BackgroundGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant central nervous system tumor. Alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. However, the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ is affected by many factors. And, several clinic trials, including co-administration of TMZ with other drugs, have failed in successful treatment of GBM. We have previously reported that Netrin-4 (NTN4), a laminin-like axon guidance protein, plays a protective role in GBM cell senescence upon TMZ-triggered DNA damage. However, the master regulator of NTN4 needs further elucidation. Epidermal growth factor/Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) can modulate the expression of various extracellular matrix related molecules, and prevent DNA damage in GBM cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between EGF/EGFR signaling and NTN4, and explored their effect on therapeutic efficacy in GBM cells upon TMZ treatment.MethodsCo-expression analysis were performed by using the RNA sequencing data from NIH 934 cell lines and from single cell RNA sequencing data of GBM tumor. The co-expressing genes were used for GO enrichment and signaling pathway enrichment. mRNA expression of the target genes were quantified by qPCR, and cell senescence were investigated by Senescence-Associated Beta-Galactosidase Staining. Protein phosphorylation were observed and analyzed by immunoblotting. The RNA sequencing data and clinical information of TMZ treated patients were extracted from TCGA-glioblastoma project, and then used for Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsAnalysis of RNA sequencing data revealed a potential co-expression relationship between NTN4 and EGFR. GO enrichment of EGFR-correlated genes indicated that EGFR regulates GBM cells in a manner similar to that in central nervous system development and neural cell differentiation. Pathway analysis suggested that EGFR and its related genes contribute to cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and caspase related signaling. We also show that EGF stimulates NTN4 expression in GBM cells and cooperates with NTN4 to attenuate GBM cell senescence induced by DNA damage, possibly via AKT and ERK. Clinical analysis showed that co-expression of EGFR and NTN4 significantly predicts poor survival in TMZ-treated GBM patients.ConclusionsThis study indicates that EGF/EGFR regulates and cooperates with NTN4 in DNA damage resistance in GBM. Therefore, our findings provide a potential therapeutic target for GBM.
  • Liu, Yixin; Ribeiro, Orquidea De Castro; Robinson, James; Goldman, Adrian (2020)
    The receptor tyrosine kinase RET is essential in a variety of cellular processes. RET gain-of-function is strongly associated with several cancers, notably multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A), while RET loss-of-function causes Hirschsprung's disease and Parkinson's disease. To investigate the activation mechanism of RET as well as to enable drug development, over-expressed recombinant protein is needed for in vitro functional and structural studies. By comparing insect and mammalian cells expression of the RET extracellular domain (RETECD), we showed that the expression yields of RETECD using both systems were comparable, but mammalian cells produced monomeric functional RETECD, whereas RETECD expressed in insect cells was non-functional and multimeric. This was most likely due to incorrect disulfide formation. By fusing an Fc tag to the C-terminus of RETECD, we were able to produce, in HEK293T cells, dimeric oncogenic RETECD (C634R) for the first time. The protein remained dimeric even after cleavage of the tag via the cysteine disulfide, as in full-length RET in the context of MEN 2A and related pathologies. Our work thus provides valuable tools for functional and structural studies of the RET signaling system and its oncogenic activation mechanisms. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Vierthaler, Marlene; Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Sundquist, Elias; Siponen, Maria; Salo, Tuula; Risteli, Maija (2020)
    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), the most common cancer in the oral cavity, is aggressive and its incidence is increasing globally. Human host defense cationic antimicrobial peptide-18/antimicrobial peptide leucine-leucine-37 (hCAP18/LL-37) plays a complex role in various types of cancers. In the present study, we characterized the effects of exogenous LL-37 on three OTSCC cell lines and determined the expression of hCAP18/LL-37 in oral dysplastic and OTSCC patient samples. Our data revealed that LL-37, especially in high doses, mostly reduced the proliferation of OTSCC cells, but the effect was fluctuating. However, LL-37 stimulated the migration and invasion of OTSCC cells. The high dose of LL-37 also increased the amount of total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) probably due to stabilization of the receptor to the plasma membrane. However, activation of EGFR downstream pathways was mostly decreased. Our immunohistochemical analysis showed that the hCAP18/LL-37 expression was higher in normal/mild dysplasia than in moderate/severe dysplasia and OTSCC. The hCAP18/LL-37 expression did not correlate with clinicopathological features or outcome of OTSCC patients. Our data suggest that LL-37 has a fluctuating effect on proliferation, migration and invasion of OTSCC cells, but it does not seem to play a role in the progression of OTSCC.
  • DIABIMMUNE Study Grp; Reinert-Hartwall, Linnea; Siljander, Heli; Härkönen, Taina; Vatanen, Tommi; Ilonen, Jorma; Niemelä, Onni; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Dorshakova, Natalya; Mokurov, Sergei; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Uibo, Raivo; Knip, Mikael; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Jarno (2022)
    Background Decreased exposure to microbial agents in industrialized countries and urban living areas is considered as a risk factor of developing immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and asthma. Epithelial surfaces in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and in the skin constitute the primary areas in contact with the environmental microbial load. Methods We analyzed the levels of 30 cytokines and growth factors in serum or plasma as markers of the immune maturation in the participants in the DIABIMMUNE study from Russian Karelia (n = 60), Estonia (n = 83) and Finland (n = 89), three neighboring countries with remarkable differences in the incidences of allergies, asthma and autoimmune diseases. Results We observed an upregulation of T helper cell signature cytokines during the first 12 months of life, reflecting natural development of adaptive immune responses. During the first years of life, circulating concentrations of epidermal growth factor (EGF) were significantly higher, especially in Russian children compared with Finnish children. The children who developed IgE sensitization showed lower levels of EGF than those without such responses. Conclusion Our results suggest that low circulating EGF levels associate with the risk of allergies possibly via the effects on the epithelial integrity and mucosal homeostasis.
  • Chronopoulos, Antonios; Thorpe, Stephen D.; Cortes, Ernesto; Lachowski, Dariusz; Rice, Alistair J.; Mykuliak, Vasyl V.; Rog, Tomasz; Lee, David A.; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Hernandez, Armando E. del Rio (2020)
    A mechanism of cell response to localized tension shows that syndecan-4 synergizes with EGFR to elicit a mechanosignalling cascade that leads to adaptive cell stiffening through PI3K/kindlin-2 mediated integrin activation. Extensive research over the past decades has identified integrins to be the primary transmembrane receptors that enable cells to respond to external mechanical cues. We reveal here a mechanism whereby syndecan-4 tunes cell mechanics in response to localized tension via a coordinated mechanochemical signalling response that involves activation of two other receptors: epidermal growth factor receptor and beta 1 integrin. Tension on syndecan-4 induces cell-wide activation of the kindlin-2/beta 1 integrin/RhoA axis in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, syndecan-4-mediated tension at the cell-extracellular matrix interface is required for yes-associated protein activation. Extracellular tension on syndecan-4 triggers a conformational change in the cytoplasmic domain, the variable region of which is indispensable for the mechanical adaptation to force, facilitating the assembly of a syndecan-4/alpha-actinin/F-actin molecular scaffold at the bead adhesion. This mechanotransduction pathway for syndecan-4 should have immediate implications for the broader field of mechanobiology.
  • Kazemi, Soheila; Kawaguchi, Shinsaku; Badr, Christian E.; Mattos, Daphne R.; Ruiz-Saenz, Ana; Serrill, Jeffrey D.; Moasser, Mark M.; Dolan, Brian P.; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Oishi, Shinya; McPhail, Kerry L.; Ishmael, Jane E. (2021)
    Coibamide A is a potent cancer cell toxin and one of a select group of natural products that inhibit protein entry into the secretory pathway via a direct inhibition of the Sec61 protein translocon. Many Sec61 client proteins are clinically relevant drug targets once trafficked to their final destination in or outside the cell, however the use of Sec61 inhibitors to block early biosynthesis of specific proteins is at a pre-clinical stage. In the present study we evaluated the action of coibamide A against human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER, ErbB) proteins in representative breast and lung cancer cell types. HERs were selected for this study as they represent a family of Sec61 clients that is frequently dysregulated in human cancers, including coibamide-sensitive cell types. Although coibamide A inhibits biogenesis of a broad range of Sec61 substrate proteins in a presumed substrate nonselective manner, endogenous HER3 (ErbB-3) and EGFR (ErbB-1) proteins were more sensitive to coibamide A, and the related Sec61 inhibitor apratoxin A, than HER2 (ErbB-2). Despite this rank order of sensitivity (HER3 > EGFR > HER2), Sec61-dependent inhibition by coibamide A was sufficient to decrease cell surface expression of HER2. We report that coibamide Aor apratoxin A-mediated block of HER3 entry into the secretory pathway is unlikely to be mediated by the HER3 signal peptide alone. HER3 (G11L/S15L), that is fully resistant to the highly substrate-selective cotransin analogue CT8, was more resistant than wild-type HER3 but only at low coibamide A (3 nM) concentrations; HER3 (G11L/S15L) expression was inhibited by higher concentrations of either natural product. Timeand concentration-dependent decreases in HER protein expression induced a commensurate reduction in AKT/MAPK signaling in breast and lung cancer cell types and loss in cell viability. Coibamide A potentiated the cytotoxic efficacy of small molecule kinase inhibitors lapatinib and erlotinib in breast and lung cancer cell types, respectively. These data indicate that natural product modulators of Sec61 function have value as chemical probes to interrogate HER/ErbB signaling in treatment-resistant human cancers.