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  • Myllymaki, Satu-Marja; Mikkola, Marja L. (2019)
    Branching morphogenesis is a fundamental developmental program that generates large epithelial surfaces in a limited three-dimensional space. It is regulated by inductive tissue interactions whose effects are mediated by soluble signaling molecules, and cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Here, we will review recent studies on inductive signaling interactions governing branching morphogenesis in light of phenotypes of mouse mutants and ex vivo organ culture studies with emphasis on developing mammary and salivary glands. We will highlight advances in understanding how cell fate decisions are intimately linked with branching morphogenesis. We will also discuss novel insights into the molecular control of cellular mechanisms driving the formation of these arborized ductal structures and reflect upon how distinct spatial patterns are generated.