Browsing by Subject "EPSILON"

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  • Karhu, S. Tuuli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Talman, Virpi (2021)
    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by accumulation and activation of fibroblasts and excessive production of extracellular matrix, which results in myocardial stiffening and eventually leads to heart failure. Although previous work suggests that protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms play a role in cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, the results are conflicting. Moreover, the potential of targeting PKC with pharmacological tools to inhibit pathologic fibrosis has not been fully evaluated. Here we investigated the effects of selected PKC agonists and inhibitors on cardiac fibroblast (CF) phenotype, proliferation, and gene expression using primary adult mouse CFs, which spontaneously transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts in culture. A 48-hour exposure to the potent PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) at 10 nM concentration reduced the intensity of a-smooth muscle actin staining by 56% and periostin mRNA levels by 60% compared with control. The decreases were inhibited with the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 and the inhibitor of classical PKC isoforms Gö6976, suggesting that classical PKCs regulate CF transdifferentiation. PMA also induced a 33% decrease in 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine–positive CFs, which was inhibited with Gö6983 but not with Gö6976, indicating that novel PKC isoforms (nPKCs) regulate CF proliferation. Moreover, PMA downregulated the expression of collagen-encoding genes Col1a1 and Col3a1 nPKC-dependently, showing that PKC activation attenuates matrix synthesis in CFs. The partial PKC agonist isophthalate derivative bis(1-ethylpentyl) 5-(hydroxymethyl)isophthalate induced parallel changes in phenotype, cell cycle activity, and gene expression. In conclusion, our results reveal distinct PKC-dependent regulation of CF transdifferentiation and proliferation and suggest that PKC agonists exhibit potential as an antifibrotic treatment.
  • Sarajärvi, T.; Jäntti, M.; Paldanius, K. M. A.; Natunen, T.; Wu, J. C.; Mäkinen, P.; Tarvainen, I.; Tuominen, R. K.; Talman, V.; Hiltunen, M. (2018)
    Abnormal protein kinase C (PKC) function contributes to many pathophysiological processes relevant for Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. Phorbol esters and other PKC activators have been demonstrated to enhance the secretion of soluble APP alpha (sAPP alpha), reduce the levels of beta-amyloid (A beta), induce synaptogenesis, and promote neuroprotection. We have previously described isophthalate derivatives as a structurally simple family of PKC activators. Here, we characterised the effects of isophthalate derivatives HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 on neuronal viability, neuroinflammatory response, processing of APP and dendritic spine density and morphology in in vitro. HMI-1a3 increased the viability of embryonic primary cortical neurons and decreased the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, but not that of nitric oxide, in mouse neuron-BV2 microglia co-cultures upon LPS- and IFN-gamma-induced neuroinflammation. Furthermore, both HMI-1a3 and HMI-1b11 increased the levels of sAPPa relative to total sAPP and the ratio of A beta 42/A beta 40 in human SH-Sv5v neuroblastoma cells. Finally, bryostatin-1, but not HMI-1a3, increased the number of mushroom spines in proportion to total spine density in mature mouse hippocampal neuron cultures. These results suggest that the PKC activator HMI-1a3 exerts neuroprotective functions in the in vitro models relevant for AD by reducing the production of TNF alpha and increasing the secretion of neuroprotective sAPPa.