Browsing by Subject "ER-STRESS"

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  • Danilova, Tatiana; Lindahl, Maria (2018)
    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was originally identified as a secreted trophic factor for dopamine neurons in vitro. It protects and restores damaged cells in rodent models of Parkinson's disease, brain and heart ischemia, spinocerebellar ataxia and retina in vivo. However, its exact mechanism of action is not known. MANF is widely expressed in most human and mouse organs with high levels in secretory tissues. Intracellularly, MANF localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER stress increases it's expression in cells and tissues. Furthermore, increased MANF levels has been detected in the sera of young children with newly diagnosed Type 1 (T1D) diabetes and Type 2 (T2D) diabetic patients. ER stress is caused by the accumulation of misfolded and aggregated proteins in the ER. It activates a cellular defense mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signaling cascade trying to restore ER homeostasis. However, if prolonged, unresolved ER stress leads to apoptosis. Unresolved ER stress contributes to the progressive death of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells in both T1D and T2D. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, caused by the inability of the beta cells to maintain sufficient levels of circulating insulin. The current medications, insulin and antidiabetic drugs, alleviate diabetic symptoms but cannot reconstitute physiological insulin secretion which increases the risk of devastating vascular complications of the disease. Thus, one of the main strategies in improving current diabetes therapy is to define and validate novel approaches to protect beta cells from stress as well as activate their regeneration. Embryonic deletion of the Manf gene in mice led to gradual postnatal development of insulin-deficient diabetes caused by reduced beta cell proliferation and increased beta cell death due to increased and sustained ER stress. In vitro, recombinant MANF partly protected mouse and human beta cells from ER stress-induced beta cell death and potentiated mouse and human beta cell proliferation. Importantly, in vivo overexpression of MANF in the pancreas of T1D mice led to increased beta cell proliferation and decreased beta cell death, suggesting that MANF could be a new therapeutic candidate for beta cell protection and regeneration in diabetes.
  • Kovaleva, Vera; Saarma, Mart (2021)
    Parkinson's disease (PD) pathology involves progressive degeneration and death of vulnerable dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Extensive axonal arborization and distinct functions make this type of neurons particularly sensitive to homeostatic perturbations, such as protein misfolding and Ca2+ dysregulation. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a cell compartment orchestrating protein synthesis and folding, as well as synthesis of lipids and maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. When misfolded proteins start to accumulate in ER lumen the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. UPR is an adaptive signaling machinery aimed at relieving of protein folding load in the ER. When UPR is chronic, it can either boost neurodegeneration and apoptosis or cause neuronal dysfunctions. We have recently discovered that mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) exerts its prosurvival action in dopamine neurons and in an animal model of PD through the direct binding to UPR sensor inositol-requiring protein 1 alpha (IRE1) and attenuation of UPR. In line with this, UPR targeting resulted in neuroprotection and neurorestoration in various preclinical animal models of PD. Therefore, growth factors (GFs), possessing both neurorestorative activity and restoration of protein folding capacity are attractive as drug candidates for PD treatment especially their blood-brain barrier penetrating analogs and small molecule mimetics. In this review, we discuss ER stress as a therapeutic target to treat PD; we summarize the existing preclinical data on the regulation of ER stress for PD treatment. In addition, we point out the crucial aspects for successful clinical translation of UPR-regulating GFs and new prospective in GFs-based treatments of PD, focusing on ER stress regulation.
  • Morel, Jean-David; Paatero, Anja O.; Wei, Jiajie; Yewdell, Jonathan W.; Guenin-Mace, Laure; Van Haver, Delphi; Impens, Francis; Pietrosemoli, Natalia; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Demangel, Caroline (2018)
    Mycolactone is a bacteria-derived macrolide that blocks the biogenesis of a large array of secretory and integral transmembrane proteins (TMP) through potent inhibition of the Sec61 translocon. Here, we used quantitative proteomics to delineate the direct and indirect effects of mycolactone-mediated Sec61 blockade in living cells. In T lymphocytes, dendritic cells and sensory neurons, Sec61 substrates downregulated by mycolactone were in order of incidence: secretory proteins (with a signal peptide but no transmembrane domain), TMPs with a signal peptide (Type I) and TMPs without signal peptide and a cytosolic N terminus (Type II). TMPs without a signal peptide and the opposite N terminus topology (Type III) were refractory to mycolactone inhibition. This rule applied comparably to single- and multi-pass TMPs, and extended to exogenous viral proteins. Parallel to its broad-spectrum inhibition of Sec61-mediated protein translocation, mycolactone rapidly induced cytosolic chaperones Hsp70/Hsp90. Moreover, it activated an atypical endoplasmic reticulum stress response, differing from conventional unfolded protein response by the down-regulation of Bip. In addition to refining our mechanistic understanding of Sec61 inhibition by mycolactone, our findings thus reveal that Sec61 blockade induces proteostatic stress in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum.
  • Eesmaa, Ave; Yu, Li-Ying; Göös, Helka; Nõges, Kristofer; Kovaleva, Vera; Hellman, Maarit; Zimmermann, Richard; Jung, Martin; Permi, Perttu; Varjosalo, Markku; Lindholm, Paivi; Saarma, Mart (2021)
    Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-regulated protein exhibiting cytoprotective properties through a poorly understood mechanism in various in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal and non-neuronal damage. Although initially characterized as a secreted neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopamine neurons, MANF has recently gained more interest for its intracellular role in regulating the ER homeostasis, including serving as a cofactor of the chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). We aimed for a better understanding of the neuroprotective mechanisms of MANF. Here we show for the first time that MANF promotes the survival of ER-stressed neurons in vitro as a general unfolded protein response (UPR) regulator, affecting several UPR pathways simultaneously. Interestingly, MANF does not affect naive neurons. We hypothesize that MANF regulates UPR signaling toward a mode more compatible with neuronal survival. Screening of MANF interacting proteins from two mammalian cell lines revealed a conserved interactome of 15 proteins including several ER chaperones such as GRP78, GRP170, protein disulfide isomerase family A member 1, and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 6. Further characterization confirmed previously published finding that MANF is a cofactor of GRP78 interacting with its nucleotide binding domain. Using microscale thermophoresis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we discovered that MANF is an ATP binding protein and that ATP blocks the MANF-GRP78 interaction. Interestingly, functional analysis of the antiapoptotic properties of MANF mutants in cultured neurons revealed divergent roles of MANF as a GRP78 cofactor and as an antiapoptotic regulator of UPR. We conclude that the co-factor type interaction with GRP78 is dispensable for the survival-promoting activity of MANF in neurons.
  • Siyo, Vuyolwethu; Schaefer, Georgia; Hunter, Roger; Grafov, Andriy; Grafova, Iryna; Nieger, Martin; Katz, Arieh A.; Parker, M. Iqbal; Kaschula, Catherine H. (2017)
    Garlic is a food and medicinal plant that has been used in folk medicine since ancient times for its beneficial health effects, which include protection against cancer. Crushed garlic cloves contain an array of small sulfur-rich compounds such as ajoene. Ajoene is able to interfere with biological processes and is cytotoxic to cancer cells in the low micromolar range. BisPMB is a synthetic ajoene analogue that has been shown in our laboratory to have superior cytotoxicity to ajoene. In the current study we have performed a DNA microarray analysis of bisPMB-treated WHCO1 oesophageal cancer cells to identify pathways and processes that are affected by bisPMB. The most significantly enriched biological pathways as assessed by gene ontology, KEGG and ingenuity pathway analysis were those involving protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the unfolded protein response. In support of these pathways, bisPMB was found to inhibit global protein synthesis and lead to increased levels of ubiquitinated proteins. BisPMB also induced alternate splicing of the transcription factor XBP-1; increased the expression of the ER stress sensor GRP78 and induced expression of the ER stress marker CHOP/GADD153. CHOP expression was found to be central to the cytotoxicity of bisPMB as its silencing with siRNA rendered the cells resistant to bisPMB. The MAPK proteins, JNK and ERK1/2 were activated following bisPMB treatment. However JNK activation was not critical in the cytotoxicity of bisPMB, and ERK1/2 activation was found to play a pro-survival role. Overall the ajoene analogue bisPMB appears to induce cytotoxicity in WHCO1 cells by activating the unfolded protein response through CHOP/GADD153.