Browsing by Subject "ERRORS"

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  • Brugnara, Y.; Auchmann, R.; Broennimann, S.; Allan, R. J.; Auer, I.; Barriendos, M.; Bergstrom, H.; Bhend, J.; Brazdil, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cornes, R. C.; Dominguez-Castro, F.; van Engelen, A. F. V.; Filipiak, J.; Holopainen, J.; Jourdain, S.; Kunz, M.; Luterbacher, J.; Maugeri, M.; Mercalli, L.; Moberg, A.; Mock, C. J.; Pichard, G.; Reznckova, L.; van der Schrier, G.; Slonosky, V.; Ustrnul, Z.; Valente, M. A.; Wypych, A.; Yin, X. (2015)
    The eruption of Mount Tambora (Indonesia) in April 1815 is the largest documented volcanic eruption in history. It is associated with a large global cooling during the following year, felt particularly in parts of Europe and North America, where the year 1816 became known as the "year without a summer". This paper describes an effort made to collect surface meteorological observations from the early instrumental period, with a focus on the years of and immediately following the eruption (1815-1817). Although the collection aimed in particular at pressure observations, correspondent temperature observations were also recovered. Some of the series had already been described in the literature, but a large part of the data, recently digitised from original weather diaries and contemporary magazines and newspapers, is presented here for the first time. The collection puts together more than 50 sub-daily series from land observatories in Europe and North America and from ships in the tropics. The pressure observations have been corrected for temperature and gravity and reduced to mean sea level. Moreover, an additional statistical correction was applied to take into account common error sources in mercury barometers. To assess the reliability of the corrected data set, the variance in the pressure observations is compared with modern climatologies, and single observations are used for synoptic analyses of three case studies in Europe. All raw observations will be made available to the scientific community in the International Surface Pressure Databank.
  • Gutierrez, Alejandro P.; Bean, Tim P.; Hooper, Chantelle; Stenton, Craig A.; Sanders, Matthew B.; Paley, Richard K.; Rastas, Pasi; Bryrom, Michaela; Matika, Oswald; Houston, Ross D. (2018)
    Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV) can cause mass mortality events in Pacific oyster aquaculture. While various factors impact on the severity of outbreaks, it is clear that genetic resistance of the host is an important determinant of mortality levels. This raises the possibility of selective breeding strategies to improve the genetic resistance of farmed oyster stocks, thereby contributing to disease control. Traditional selective breeding can be augmented by use of genetic markers, either via marker-assisted or genomic selection. The aim of the current study was to investigate the genetic architecture of resistance to OsHV in Pacific oyster, to identify genomic regions containing putative resistance genes, and to inform the use of genomics to enhance efforts to breed for resistance. To achieve this, a population of approximate to 1,000 juvenile oysters were experimentally challenged with a virulent form of OsHV, with samples taken from mortalities and survivors for genotyping and qPCR measurement of viral load. The samples were genotyped using a recently-developed SNP array, and the genotype data were used to reconstruct the pedigree. Using these pedigree and genotype data, the first high density linkage map was constructed for Pacific oyster, containing 20,353 SNPs mapped to the ten pairs of chromosomes. Genetic parameters for resistance to OsHV were estimated, indicating a significant but low heritability for the binary trait of survival and also for viral load measures (h2 0.12 - 0.25). A genome-wide association study highlighted a region of linkage group 6 containing a significant QTL affecting host resistance. These results are an important step toward identification of genes underlying resistance to OsHV in oyster, and a step toward applying genomic data to enhance selective breeding for disease resistance in oyster aquaculture.
  • Hernandez-Pavon, Julio C.; Makela, Niko; Lehtinen, Henri; Lioumis, Pantelis; Makela, Jyrki P. (2014)
  • Forsell, Sabrina; Kalliala, Ilkka; Halttunen, Mervi; Redman, Charles W. E.; Leeson, Simon; Tropé, Ameli; Moss, Esther; Kyrgiou, Maria; Pyörälä, Eeva; Nieminen, Pekka (2020)
    Simple Summary Cervical cancer prevention is presently undergoing a thorough reformation due to introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV)-testing and vaccines in primary prevention. The screening program, however, is more than a single test or preventive intervention-the possible lesion has to be found, located and treated. Colposcopy plays a major role in this management. Literature dealing with training and learning, especially with colposcopy, is extremely scarce. The aim of the European Federation of Colposcopy, EFC, is to improve the education and training in colposcopy, e.g., by organizing colposcopy courses. The aim of our prospective interventional study was to pilot this intensive participant activating EFC Basic Colposcopy Course on the short- and long-term learning of colposcopy-related knowledge, image recognition and the diagnostic confidence. High-quality colposcopy is essential in cervical cancer prevention. We performed a multicentre prospective interventional pilot-study, evaluating the effect of a six-hour case-based colposcopy course on short- and long-term learning of colposcopy-related knowledge, diagnostic accuracy levels and confidence. We recruited 213 colposcopists participating in three European Federation of Colposcopy (EFC) basic colposcopy courses (Finland, Norway, UK). The study consisted of three tests with identical content performed before, after and 2 months after the course, including ten colposcopic images, ten patient cases and scales for marking confidence in the answers. Outcome measures where mean scores in correct case-management, diagnosis (including high-grade lesion recognition), transformation-zone recognition and confidence in answers. Results were compared between the three tests and stratified according to experience. Mean test scores improved after the course for all participants. The increase was highest for beginners. Confidence in answers improved and the number of colposcopists showing high confidence with low scores decreased. A structured case-based course improves skills and confidence especially for inexperienced colposcopists; however, trainers should be aware of the risk of overconfidence. To complement theoretical training, further hands-on training including high-quality feedback is recommended. Conclusions drawn from long-term learning are limited due to the low participation in the follow-up test.
  • Mononen, Niina; Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä, Marika; Airaksinen, Marja S. A.; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri (2020)
    Objective Finland is one of the few countries that has established a national Medicines Information (MI) Strategy. The ultimate goal of the strategy is a well-implemented medication use process resulting in well-informed adherent patients. This study aimed at evaluating the implementation of the strategy 3years after its launch. Design The evaluation applied a pragmatic approach and was conducted by interviewing stakeholders involved in the National MI Network enhancing the MI Strategy's implementation. The network comprises national key stakeholders producing and using MI. Data were deductively analysed according to the medication use process of the MI Strategy using the framework method, complemented with inductively derived categories. Setting National implementation of the MI Strategy throughout the healthcare system after the first operational period (2012-2014) in 2015. Participants The members of the National MI Network (n=79/111, participation rate 71%, representing 42/53 stakeholder organisations). Outcome measures A new conceptual framework was developed based on stakeholders' views on well-implemented actions and actions needing development in the medication use process at (1) infrastructure (macro), (2) healthcare professionals (meso) and (3) patient (micro) levels. Results Medication counselling by community pharmacists was the primary implemented action, followed by physicians' actions while starting a new medication, and advice given by nurses. The major development needs concerned (1) poor access to patient information and its transfer in healthcare, particularly the lack of reconciled medication lists and electronic health records (macro); (2) poorly functioning medication use process in home care and social care units, such as nursing homes (meso); and (3) limited patient involvement in their care (micro). Conclusions Far more actions for development than well-established practices in the medication use process were identified. Major challenges found in this evaluation are considered in the ongoing Rational Pharmacotherapy Action Plan 2018-2022 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.
  • Schepel, Lotta; Lehtonen, Lasse; Airaksinen, Marja; Ojala, Raimo; Ahonen, Jouni; Lapatto-Reiniluoto, Outi (2018)
    BACKGROUND: 10-30% of hospital stays by older patients are drug-related. The admission phase is important for identifying drug-related problems, but taking an incorrect medication history often leads to medication errors. OBJECTIVES: To enhance medication history recording and identify drug-related problems (DRPs) of older patients admitted to emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: DRPs were identified by pharmacists-led medication reconciliation and review procedures in two EDs in Finland; Helsinki University Hospital (HUS), and Kuopio University Hospital (KUH). One-hundred-and-fifty patients aged >= 65-years, living at home and using >= 6 medicines were studied. RESULTS: 100% of patients (N = 75) in HUS and 99% in KUH (N = 75), had discrepancies in their admission-medication chart recorded by the nurse or physician. Associations between admission-diagnosis and drug-related problems were found in 12 patients (16%) in HUS and 22 patients (29%) in KUH. Of these, high-alert medications (e.g. antithrombotics, cytostatics, opioids) were linked to eight patients (11%) in HUS and six patients (8%) in KUH. Other acute DRPs were identified in 19 patients (25%) in HUS and 54 patients (72%) in KUH. Furthermore, 67 patients (89%) in HUS and all patients in KUH had non-acute DRPs. CONCLUSIONS: Medication reconciliation and review at admission of older ED patients requires improvement in Finland.
  • Mattsson, Markus T. (2019)
    The way people behave in traffic is not always optimal from the road safety perspective: drivers exceed speed limits, misjudge speeds or distances, tailgate other road users or fail to perceive them. Such behaviors are commonly investigated using self-report-based latent variable models, and conceptualized as reflections of violation- and error-proneness. However, attributing dangerous behavior to stable properties of individuals may not be the optimal way of improving traffic safety, whereas investigating direct relationships between traffic behaviors offers a fruitful way forward. Network models of driver behavior and background factors influencing behavior were constructed using a large UK sample of novice drivers. The models show how individual violations, such as speeding, are related to and may contribute to individual errors such as tailgating and braking to avoid an accident. In addition, a network model of the background factors and driver behaviors was constructed. Finally, a model predicting crashes based on prior behavior was built and tested in separate datasets. This contribution helps to bridge a gap between experimental/theoretical studies and self-report-based studies in traffic research: the former have recognized the importance of focusing on relationships between individual driver behaviors, while network analysis offers a way to do so for self-report studies.
  • Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Blomgren, Karin; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Lehtonen, Lasse; Helmiö, Päivi (2019)
    Objectives: Patient injuries in children can have lifelong effects on the patient and a marked impact on the whole family. The aim of this study was to identify the errors and incidents leading to patient injuries in pediatric otorhinolaryngology (ORL) by evaluating accepted patient injury claims. Methods: The records of all accepted patient injury claims in ORL between 2001 and 2011 were searched from the nationwide Patient Insurance Centre registry. Pediatric injuries were reviewed and evaluated in detail, and factors contributing to injury were identified. Results: In the 10-year study period, 17 (7.6%) of the 223 patient injuries occurred in children, and of these, 15 (88%) were considered operative care. The median age of the patients was 8 years (range 3-16 years). All operations were performed as daytime elective surgery and by a fully trained specialist in 93% of the cases. One-half of the cases were routine surgeries for common ORL diseases. The most common incidences were incomplete surgery, retained gauze or foreign body, injury to adjacent anatomic structure, and insufficient charts or instructions (each occurred in 3 cases). The most frequent consequence was burn (n = 4). One child died because of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage. Conclusions: Patient injuries in pediatric ORL are strongly related to surgery. Most injuries occurred after routine operations by a fully trained specialist. Clinicians should be aware of the most likely scenarios resulting in claims.
  • Löytynoja, Ari (Humana press, 2021)
    Methods in Molecular Biology
    Evolutionary analyses require sequence alignments that correctly represent evolutionary homology. Evolutionary homology and proteins' structural similarity are not the same and sequence alignments generated with methods designed for structural matching can be seriously misleading in comparative and phylogenetic analyses. The phylogeny-aware alignment algorithm implemented in the program PRANK has been shown to produce good alignments for evolutionary inferences. Unlike other alignment programs, PRANK makes use of phylogenetic information to distinguish alignment gaps caused by insertions or deletions and, thereafter, handles the two types of events differently. As a by-product of the correct handling of insertions and deletions, PRANK can provide the inferred ancestral sequences as a part of the output and mark the alignment gaps differently depending on their origin in insertion or deletion events. As the algorithm infers the evolutionary history of the sequences, PRANK can be sensitive to errors in the guide phylogeny and violations on the underlying assumptions about the origin and patterns of gaps. To mitigate the effects of such model violations, the phylogeny-aware alignment algorithm has been re-implemented in program PAGAN. By using sequence graphs, PAGAN can model and accumulate evidence from more complex gap structures than PRANK does, and incorporate this uncertainty in the inferred ancestral sequences. These issues are discussed in detail below and practical advice is provided for the use of PRANK and PAGAN in evolutionary analysis. The two software packages can be downloaded from
  • Aghanim, N.; Juvela, M.; Kangaslahti, P.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Lindholm, V.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Väliviita, Jussi; Varis, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Kolehmainen, Ville; Lassas, Matti; Ola, Petri; Siltanen, Samuli (2013)
  • Ax, M.; Reito, A.; Koskimaa, M.; Uutela, A.; Paloneva, J. (2019)
    Background and Aims: Traditionally, patients requiring an orthopedic emergency operation were admitted to an inpatient ward to await surgery. This often led to congestion of wards and operation rooms while, for less urgent traumas, the time spent waiting for the operation often became unacceptably long. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flow of patients coded green in a traffic light-based coding process aimed at decreasing the burden on wards and enabling a scheduled emergency operation in Central Finland Hospital. Materials and Methods: Operation urgency was divided into three categories: green (>48 h), yellow (8-48 h), and red (
  • Weldatsadik, Rigbe G.; Wang, Jingwen; Puhakainen, Kai; Jiao, Hong; Jalava, Jari; Raisanen, Kati; Datta, Neeta; Skoog, Tiina; Vuopio, Jaana; Jokiranta, T. Sakari; Kere, Juha (2017)
    Knowledge of the genomic variation among different strains of a pathogenic microbial species can help in selecting optimal candidates for diagnostic assays and vaccine development. Pooled sequencing (Pool-seq) is a cost effective approach for population level genetic studies that require large numbers of samples such as various strains of a microbe. To test the use of Pool-seq in identifying variation, we pooled DNA of 100 Streptococcus pyogenes strains of different emm types in two pools, each containing 50 strains. We used four variant calling tools (Freebayes, UnifiedGenotyper, SNVer, and SAMtools) and one emm1 strain, SF370, as a reference genome. In total 63719 SNPs and 164 INDELs were identified in the two pools concordantly by at least two of the tools. Majority of the variants (93.4%) from six individually sequenced strains used in the pools could be identified from the two pools and 72.3% and 97.4% of the variants in the pools could be mined from the analysis of the 44 complete Str. pyogenes genomes and 3407 sequence runs deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive respectively. We conclude that DNA sequencing of pooled samples of large numbers of bacterial strains is a robust, rapid and cost-efficient way to discover sequence variation.
  • Lotta, Schepel; Kirsi, Aronpuro; Kirsi, Kvarnström; Anna-Riia, Holmström; Lasse, Lehtonen; Outi, Lapatto-Reiniluoto; Raisa, Laaksonen; Kerstin, Carlsson; Marja, Airaksinen (2019)
    Background Medication safety risks are the most important preventable factors jeopardizing patient safety. To manage these risks, extending pharmacists’ involvement in patient care and patient safety work has been systematically addressed in patient safety initiatives since the early 2000s. Objective To explore the extent and range of clinical pharmacy services in Finnish hospitals to promote medication safety: 1) in 2011, when the first National Patient Safety Strategy, the new Health Care Act and the Medicines Policy 2020 had been recently enacted; and 2) five years later in 2016. Methods The study was conducted in 2011 and 2016 as a national online survey targeted to hospital pharmacies (n = 24) and medical dispensaries (n = 131 in 2011; n = 28 in 2016). The questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics and qualitative content analysis. Results Overall response rate was 60% in 2011 and 52% in 2016. Clinical pharmacy services were provided by 51% of the responding units in 2011, whereas by 85% in 2016. The reported number of clinical pharmacists had increased during the five years. The most notable increase in reported tasks occurred in conducting medication reconciliations (+63% increase in the number of providing units). By 2016 pharmacists had extended their tasks particularly towards system-based medication safety work: e.g. developing instructions for medication-use (91% of the responding units), creating and updating medication safety plans (87%) and using medication error reports in developing the process of medication use safer (78%). Pharmacists’ participation in long-term continuing education became more common in 2016, which was perceived as helpful in extending their responsibilities to improve medication safety. Conclusion Pharmacists’ involvement in patient care and system-based medication safety work was reported to become more common in Finnish hospitals during 2011–2016. This development is in line with patient safety policy initiatives and its impact on patient care outcomes should be followed up.
  • Niya, Ali Kourosh; Huang, Jinliang; Karimi, Hazhir; Keshtkar, Hamidreza; Naimi, Babak (2019)
    In this study, land use/cover change was systematically investigated in the Qeshm Island to understand how human and nature interact in the largest island of Persian Gulf. Land-use maps were prepared for 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014 using Landsat satellite imagery in six classes including agriculture, bare-land, built-up, dense-vegetation, mangrove, and water-body, and then dynamic of changes in the classes was evaluated using intensity analysis at three levels: interval, category, and transition. Results illustrated that, while the land changes were fast over the first and third time intervals (1996-2002 and 2008-2014), the trend of changes was slow in the second period (2002-2008). Driven by high demand for construction and population growth, the built-up class was identified as an active gainer in all the three time intervals. The class of bare-land was the main supplier of the land for other classes especially for built-up area, while built-up did not act as the active supplier of the land for other classes. The dense-vegetation class was active in all three time intervals. As for the mangrove class, drought and cutting by residents had negative effects, while setting up protected areas can effectively maintain this valuable ecosystem. High demands were observed for land change in relation to built-up and agriculture classes among other classes. The findings of this study can advance our understanding of the relationship and behavior of land use/cover classes among each other over 18 years in a coastal island with arid climate.