Browsing by Subject "ESTROGEN"

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  • Karjula, Salla; Arffman, Riikka K.; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Franks, Stephen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Miettunen, Jouko; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2022)
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder affecting up to 18% of women. Besides metabolic and fertility aspects, attention has lately been directed towards the detrimental effect of PCOS on psychological health. The objective of the study was to investigate whether women with PCOS are at higher risk for psychotic disorders. The study population derives from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (N = 5889 women). The women with PCOS were identified by two simple questions on oligo-amenorrhea and hirsutism at age 31. Women reporting both symptoms were considered PCOS (N = 124) and asymptomatic women as controls (N = 2145). The diagnosis of psychosis was traced using multiple national registers up to the year 2016. Symptoms of psychopathology were identified using validated questionnaires at age 31. Women with PCOS showed an increased risk for any psychosis by age 50 (HR [95% CI] 2.99, [1.52-5.82]). Also, the risk for psychosis after age 31 was increased (HR 2.68 [1.21-5.92]). The results did not change after adjusting for parental history of psychosis, nor were they explained by body mass index or hyperandrogenism at adulthood. The scales of psychopathology differed between women with PCOS and non-PCOS controls showing more psychopathologies among the affected women. PCOS cases were found to be at a three-fold risk for psychosis, and they had increased psychopathological symptoms. PCOS should be taken into consideration when treating women in psychiatric care. More studies are required to further assess the relationship between PCOS and psychotic diseases.
  • Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sihto, Harri; Isola, Jorma; Heikkila, Paivi; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Auvinen, Paivi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Jyrkkio, Sirkku; Lakis, Sotiris; Schlombs, Kornelia; Laible, Mark; Weber, Stefan; Eidt, Sebastian; Sahin, Ugur; Joensuu, Heikki (2016)
    The biological subtype of breast cancer influences the selection of systemic therapy. Distinction between luminal A and B cancers depends on consistent assessment of Ki-67, but substantial intra-observer and inter-observer variability exists when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. We compared RT-qPCR with IHC in the assessment of Ki-67 and other standard factors used in breast cancer subtyping. RNA was extracted from archival breast tumour tissue of 769 women randomly assigned to the FinHer trial. Cancer ESR1, PGR, ERBB2 and MKI67 mRNA content was quantitated with an RT-qPCR assay. Local pathologists assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression using IHC. HER2 amplification was identified with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) centrally. The results were correlated with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). qPCR-based and IHC-based assessments of ER and PgR showed good concordance. Both low tumour MKI67 mRNA (RT-qPCR) and Ki-67 protein (IHC) levels were prognostic for favourable DDFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95 % CI 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001; and HR 0.56, 0.37-0.84, P = 0.005, respectively] and OS. In multivariable analyses, cancer MKI67 mRNA content had independent influence on DDFS (adjusted HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89, P = 0.019) while Ki-67 protein expression had not any influence (P = 0.266) whereas both assessments influenced independently OS. Luminal B patients treated with docetaxel-FEC had more favourable DDFS and OS than those treated with vinorelbine-FEC when the subtype was defined by RT-qPCR (for DDFS, HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.94, P = 0.031), but not when defined using IHC. Breast cancer subtypes approximated with RT-qPCR and IHC show good concordance, but cancer MKI67 mRNA content correlated slightly better with DDFS than Ki-67 expression. The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC.
  • Sievanen, Tero; Tormakangas, Timo; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Seppälä, Toni T.; Peltomäki, Paivi; Sipila, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina (2021)
    Simple Summary Lifestyle modifies cancer risk in the general public. How lifestyle modifies cancer risk in individuals carrying the inherited pathogenic gene variants in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) remains understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, physical activity, and cancer risk among Finnish Lynch syndrome carriers (n = 465, 54% women). The results of our study indicated that longitudinal weight gain increases cancer risk, whereas being highly physically active during adulthood could decrease cancer risk in men. Further, women were observed to be less prone to lifestyle-related risk factors than men. The results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity physical activity throughout the lifespan, especially in men with Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome (LS) increases cancer risk. There is considerable individual variation in LS cancer occurrence, which may be moderated by lifestyle factors, such as body weight and physical activity (PA). The potential associations of lifestyle and cancer risk in LS are understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, PA, and cancer risk among Finnish LS carriers. The participants (n = 465, 54% women) self-reported their adulthood body weight and PA at 10-year intervals. Overall cancer risk and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was analyzed separately for men and women with respect to longitudinal and near-term changes in body weight and PA using extended Cox regression models. The longitudinal weight change was associated with an increased risk of all cancers (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and CRC (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.05) in men. The near-term weight change was associated with a lower CRC risk in women (HR 0.96, 0.92-0.99). Furthermore, 77.6% of the participants retained their PA category over time. Men in the high-activity group had a reduced longitudinal cancer risk of 63% (HR 0.37, 0.15-0.98) compared to men in the low-activity group. PA in adulthood was not associated with cancer risk among women. These results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity PA throughout the lifespan in cancer prevention, particularly in men with LS.
  • Rask, Gunilla; Nazemroaya, Anoosheh; Jansson, Malin; Wadsten, Charlotta; Nilsson, Greger; Blomqvist, Carl; Holmberg, Lars; Warnberg, Fredrik; Sund, Malin (2022)
    Purpose To investigate if molecular subtype is associated with outcome in stage 1 breast cancer (BC). Methods Tissue samples from 445 women with node-negative BC
  • Skledar, Darja Gramec; Trontelj, Jurij; Troberg, Johanna; Tomašič, Tihomir; Zega, Anamarija; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin (2019)
    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is in the body mainly metabolized to the corresponding bisphenol AF glucuronide (BPAF-G). While BPAF-G is not commercially available, enzyme-assisted synthesis of BPAF-G using the human recombinant enzyme UGT2A1, purification of BPAF-G by solid phase extraction and semi-preparative HPLC and chemical characterization of BPAF-G by NMR and LC-MS/MS were performed and are described here. Furthermore, BPAF glucuronidation kinetics with the UGT enzymes that showed the highest glucuronidation activity in previous studies (i.e hepatic UGTs 1A3, 2B7, and 2B17, intestinal UGT 1A10 and UGT 2A1 that is present in airways) was performed and data is presented. Hepatic enzymes exhibited high affinities toward BPAF, while extrahepatic UGTs 2A1 and 1A10 showed the high v(max), values (3.3 and 3.0 nmol/min/mg, respectively). To understand molecular interactions of BPA, BPAF and BPAF-G with ligand biding sites of several nuclear receptors, molecular modeling was performed and data on the binding modes of BPAF, BPA, and BPAF-G in the ligand-binding sites of nuclear receptors are presented. This article is related to "Endocrine activities and adipogenic effects of bisphenol AF and its main metabolite" (Skledar et al., 2019). (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki; Airaksinen, Juhani; Ketonen, Matti; Koukkunen, Heli; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesaniemi, Y. Antero; Lyytinen, Heli; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S. (2016)
    Objectives: The role of postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been studied extensively, but less is known of the impact of HT on the mortality risk due to an ACS. Study design and main outcome measures: We extracted from a population-based ACS register, FINAMI, 7258 postmenopausal women with the first ACS. These data were combined with HT use data from the National Drug Reimbursement Register; 625 patients (9%) had used various HT regimens. The death risks due to ACS before admission to hospital, 2-28, or 29-365 days after the incident ACS were compared between HT users and non-users with logistic regression analyses. Results: In all follow-up time points, the ACS death risks in HT ever-users were smaller compared to non-users. Of women with FIT ever use, 42% died within one year as compared with 52% of non-users (OR 0.62, p <0.001). Most deaths (84%) occurred within 28 days after the ACS, and in this group 36% of women with ever use of FIT (OR 0.73, p = 0.002) and 30% of women with >= 5 year FIT use (OR 0.54, p <0.001) died as compared to 43% of the non-users. Age 60 years at the HT initiation was accompanied with similar reductions in ACS mortality risk. Conclusions: Postmenopausal HT use is accompanied with reduced mortality risk after primary ACS. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Leppänen, Jonna; Randell, Kaisa; Schwab, Ursula; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Romppanen, Jarkko; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Laitinen, Tomi (2021)
    We examined possible changes in endothelial function during a long agonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocol. We measured flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and FMD percent (FMD%) from the brachial artery and plasma levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-〈). We studied longitudinally three time points in 27 women undergoing a long agonist IVF treatment at Kuopio University Hospital. The first visit was at the beginning of their period (low estradiol). The other two visits were during gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog downregulation (low estradiol) and at the end of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation (high estradiol). The first visit was used as the reference, and the women served as their own controls. During the stimulation protocol, FMD and FMD% remained. Toward the end of stimulation, hsCRP (P = 0.003), IL-6 (P = 0.04), and TNF-〈 (P = 0.008) concentrations all decreased, while estradiol levels increased (P < 0.001). Correlations between estradiol and proinflammatory factors or FMD were, however, non-significant. The only significant correlation appeared between FMD% and hsCRP at Visit 2 (r = 0.485, P = 0.01). In conclusion, IVF stimulation promoted no change in endothelial function, whereas hsCRP, IL-6, and TNF-〈 decreased. These findings indicate that estrogen may improve the cytokine profile among healthy women undergoing IVF, but this is not reflected in endothelial function.
  • Kangasniemi, Marika H.; Haverinen, Annina; Luiro, Kaisu; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Komsi, Elina K.; Arffman, Riikka K.; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2020)
    Context: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) alter inflammatory status and lipid metabolism. Whether different estrogens have different effects is poorly understood. Objective: We compared the effects of COCs containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) or estradiol valerate (EV) and dienogest (DNG) with those containing DNG only on inflammation and lipid metabolism. Design: Randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial. Setting: Two-center study in Helsinki and Oulu University Hospitals. Participants: Fifty-nine healthy, young, nonsmoking women with regular menstrual cycles. Age, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were comparable in all study groups at the beginning. Fifty-six women completed the study (EV + DNG, n = 20; EE + DNG, n = 19; DNG only, n = 17). Interventions: Nine-week continuous use of COCs containing either EV + DNG or EE + DNG, or DNG only as control. Main Outcome Measures: Parameters of chronic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], and pentraxin 3 [PTX-3]) and lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], triglycerides, and total cholesterol). Results: Serum hs-CRP increased after 9-week use of EE + DNG (mean change +/- standard deviation 1.10 t 2.11 mg/L) compared with EV + DNG (-0.06 t 0.97 mg/L, P = 0.001) or DNG only (0.13 +/- 0.68 mg/L, P= 0.021). Also, PTX-3 increased in the EE + DNG group compared with EV + DNG and DNG-only groups (P = 0.017 and P = 0.003, respectively). In the EE + DNG group, HDL and triglycerides increased compared with other groups (HDL: EE + DNG 0.20 +/- 0.24 mmol/L vs EV + DNG 0.02 +/- 0.20 mmol/L [P = 0.002] vs DNG 0.02 +/- 0.18 mmol/L [P = 0.002]; triglycerides: EE + DNG 0.45 +/- 0.21 mmol/L vs EV + DNG 0.18 +/- 0.36 mmol/L [P= 0.003] vs DNG 0.06 +/- 0.18 mmol/L [P <0.001]). Conclusions: EV + DNG and DNG only had a neutral effect on inflammation and lipids, while EE + DNG increased both hs-CRP and PTX-3 levels as well as triglycerides and HDL.
  • Olivieri, Fabiola; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Lazzarini, Raffaella; Pollanen, Eija; Capri, Miriam; Lorenzi, Maria; Fulgenzi, Gianluca; Albertini, Maria C.; Salvioli, Stefano; Alen, Markku J.; Kujala, Urho M.; Borghetti, Giulia; Babini, Lucia; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipila, Sarianna; Franceschi, Claudio; Kovanen, Vuokko; Procopio, Antonio D. (2014)
    MiRNAs are fine-tuning modifiers of skeletal muscle regulation, but knowledge of their hormonal control is lacking. We used a co-twin case-control study design, that is, monozygotic postmenopausal twin pairs discordant for estrogen-based hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to explore estrogen-dependent skeletal muscle regulation via miRNAs. MiRNA profiles were determined from vastus lateralis muscle of nine healthy 54-62-years-old monozygotic female twin pairs discordant for HRT (median 7 years). MCF-7 cells, human myoblast cultures and mouse muscle experiments were used to confirm estrogen's causal role on the expression of specific miRNAs, their target mRNAs and proteins and finally the activation of related signaling pathway. Of the 230 miRNAs expressed at detectable levels in muscle samples, qPCR confirmed significantly lower miR-182, miR-223 and miR-142-3p expressions in HRT using than in their nonusing co-twins. Insulin/IGF-1 signaling emerged one common pathway targeted by these miRNAs. IGF-1R and FOXO3A mRNA and protein were more abundantly expressed in muscle samples of HRT users than nonusers. In vitro assays confirmed effective targeting of miR-182 and miR-223 on IGF-1R and FOXO3A mRNA as well as a dose-dependent miR-182 and miR-223 down-regulations concomitantly with up-regulation of FOXO3A and IGF-1R expression. Novel finding is the postmenopausal HRT-reduced miRs-182, miR-223 and miR-142-3p expression in female skeletal muscle. The observed miRNA-mediated enhancement of the target genes' IGF-1R and FOXO3A expression as well as the activation of insulin/IGF-1 pathway signaling via phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR is an important mechanism for positive estrogen impact on skeletal muscle of postmenopausal women.
  • Rahkola-Soisalo, Päivi; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Mika, Gissler; Hoti, Fabian; Vattulainen, Pia; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S. (2019)
    Introduction and hypothesisThe impact of estradiol-based hormone therapy (HT) on the incidence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is unknown. Therefore, we compared the use of such HT regimens and tibolone in women with and without SUI.MethodsThe women with a history of SUI operation (N=15,002) were identified from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the control women without such an operation (N=44,389) from the Finnish Central Population Register. The use of HT was traced from the National Drug Reimbursement Register, and the odd ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for SUI were calculated by using the conditional logistic regression analysis.ResultsThe cases had used any HT more often than the controls. The use of systemic estradiol-only or estradiol-progestin therapy was accompanied by an increased SUI risk (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 3.6-4.0 and OR 2.7, 95% CI: 2.6-2.9 respectively). The use of estradiol with noretisterone acetate showed a higher risk of increase than that with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Age over 55years at the initiation of systemic HT was accompanied by a higher SUI risk increase than that under 55years of age. The use of tibolone, an estradiol + levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device, or vaginal estradiol also increased the risk.ConclusionsThe use of HT regimens may predispose to the de novo development or worsening of pre-existing SUI. Thus, caution is needed when these regimens are prescribed to women with mild stress-related urine leakage or with established SUI risk factors.
  • Pollanen, Eija; Kangas, Reeta; Horttanainen, Mia; Niskala, Paula; Kaprio, Jaakko; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Mouly, Vincent; Sipila, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko (2015)
  • Ogba, Ndiya; Manning, Nicole G.; Bliesner, Brian S.; Ambler, S. Kelly; Haughian, James M.; Pinto, Mauricio P.; Jedlicka, Paul; Joensuu, Kristiina; Heikkila, Paivi; Horwitz, Kathryn B. (2014)
  • Katuwal, Sushmita; Tapanainen, Juha; Pukkala, Eero (2022)
    Purpose This case-control study assesses the independent roles of reproductive history, postmenopausal hormonal therapy (HT), socioeconomic status (SES), and occupational physical activity on the risk of breast cancer (BC). Methods Odds ratios (OR) were estimated from conditional logistic multivariate regression model in a data set of 19,253 Finnish women diagnosed with BC between 1994 and 2013 and 96,265 age-matched population controls. Results Both pre- and postmenopausal white-collar workers had significantly increased risk of ductal and lobular BC as compared to manual workers. Moderate occupational physical activity reduced risk of lobular BC by 14%. There was a transient increase in the risk of BC observed after each birth followed by a protective effect starting some years after the delivery. As the number of children increased, the short-term excess risk was lower and protective effect was observed earlier. Continuous estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) significantly increased the risk of both ductal and lobular BC and the magnitude of risk was directly proportional to duration of use (OR for 5+ years of use 2.26, 95% confidence interval 2.12-2.42). Monthly EPT for 5+ years increased the risk (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.20-1.45). Users of estradiol plus levonorgestrel intrauterine system devices showed ORs of 1.56 (95% CI 1.45-1.69) and 2.18 (95% CI 1.81-2.64) for ductal and lobular BC, respectively. Conclusion This study concludes that pregnancy has a dual effect on BC risk, with a transient increase in risk followed by a long-term protective effect. The SES and HT have a large effect on BC risk while occupational physical activity has only a small independent effect.
  • Klaas, Mariliis; Maemets-Allas, Kristina; Heinmäe, Elizabeth; Lagus, Heli; Arak, Terje; Eller, Mart; Kingo, Kulli; Kankuri, Esko; Jaks, Viljar (2022)
    Olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4) is an olfactomedin-domain-containing glycoprotein, which regulates cell adhesion, proliferation, gastrointestinal inflammation, innate immunity and cancer metastasis. In the present study we investigated its role in skin regeneration. We found that OLFM4 expression is transiently upregulated in the proliferative phase of cutaneous wound healing in humans as well as in mice. Moreover, a significant increase in OLFM4 expression was detected in the skin of lesional psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that OLFM4 selectively stimulated keratinocyte proliferation and increased both keratinocyte and fibroblast migration. Using proteotranscriptomic pathway analysis we revealed that transcription factors POU5F1/OCT4 and ESR1 acted as hubs for OLFM4-induced signalling in keratinocytes. In vivo experiments utilizing mouse splinted full-thickness cutaneous wound healing model showed that application of recombinant OLFM4 protein can significantly improve wound healing efficacy. Taken together, our results suggest that OLFM4 acts as a transiently upregulated inflammatory signal that promotes wound healing by regulating both dermal and epidermal cell compartments of the skin.
  • MRI-GENIE & GISCOME Investigators; Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; Bonkhoff, Anna K.; Schirmer, Markus D.; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; McArdle, Patrick F. (2021)
    Acute ischemic stroke affects men and women differently. In particular, women are often reported to experience higher acute stroke severity than men. We derived a low-dimensional representation of anatomical stroke lesions and designed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework tailored to estimate possible sex differences in lesion patterns linked to acute stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale). This framework was developed in 555 patients (38% female). Findings were validated in an independent cohort (n=503, 41% female). Here, we show brain lesions in regions subserving motor and language functions help explain stroke severity in both men and women, however more widespread lesion patterns are relevant in female patients. Higher stroke severity in women, but not men, is associated with left hemisphere lesions in the vicinity of the posterior circulation. Our results suggest there are sex-specific functional cerebral asymmetries that may be important for future investigations of sex-stratified approaches to management of acute ischemic stroke. Acute ischemic stroke impacts men and women differently. Here, the authors show how different lesion patterns in men and women are linked to the extent of stroke severity.
  • Vihma, Veera; Tikkanen, Matti J.; Hämäläinen, Esa (2016)
  • Raj, Rahul; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka; Mikkonen, Era D.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Siironen, Jari (2017)
    Background Previous epidemiological studies suggest that working-aged persons with a history of moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have an increased risk for developing neurodegenerative disease (NDD) while persons with a history of mild TBI do not. In this comprehensive nationwide study in Finland, we assessed the risk of NDD and history of moderate-to-severe TBI in the working-age population. Methods and findings We performed a population-based follow-up study using the Finnish Care Register for Health Care to identify all persons between the ages of 18 and 65 years hospitalized during 1987-2014 due to TBI who did not have a baseline NDD diagnosis. We compared the risk of hospitalization with NDD between persons hospitalized due to moderate-to-severe TBI (intracranial lesions) and persons hospitalized due to mild TBI (no intracranial lesions). Follow-up NDD diagnoses were recorded from 1 year following the TBI to the end of 2014. NDD diagnoses included dementia, Parkinson disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We used a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, sex, education, and socioeconomic group, to assess the association between TBI and NDD. In total, 19,936 and 20,703 persons with a history of moderate-to-severe TBI and mild TBI, respectively, were included. The overall time at risk was 453,079 person-years (median 10 years per person). In total, 3.5% (N = 696) persons in the moderate-to-severe TBI group developed NDD compared to 1.6% (N = 326) in the mild TBI group. After adjusting for covariates, moderate-to-severe TBI was associated with an increased risk for NDD, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.8 (95% CI 1.6-2.1) compared to mild TBI. Of the NDD subtypes, only moderate-to-severe TBI was associated with an increased risk for dementia (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.2). Yet, this large-scale epidemiological study does not prove that there is a causal relationship between moderate-to-severe TBI and NDD. Further, the Care Register for Health Care includes only hospitalized persons; thus, patients diagnosed with NDD in the outpatient setting may have been missed. Additional limitations include the potential for miscoding and unmeasured confounds. Conclusions In working-aged persons, a history of moderate-to-severe TBI is associated with an increased risk for future dementia but not for Parkinson disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  • Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Seppälä, Toni T.; Engel, Christoph; Aretz, Stefan; Macrae, Finlay; Winship, Ingrid; Capella, Gabriel; Thomas, Huw; Hovig, Eivind; Nielsen, Maartje; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Bertario, Lucio; Bonanni, Bernardo; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Mints, Miriam; Gluck, Nathan; Katz, Lior; Heinimann, Karl; Vaccaro, Carlos A.; Green, Kate; Lalloo, Fiona; Hill, James; Schmiegel, Wolff; Vangala, Deepak; Perne, Claudia; Strauss, Hans-Georg; Tecklenburg, Johanna; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Steinke-Lange, Verena; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Plazzer, John-Paul; Pineda, Marta; Navarro, Matilde; Vidal, Joan Brunet; Kariv, Revital; Rosner, Guy; Alejandra Pinero, Tamara; Laura Gonzalez, Maria; Kalfayan, Pablo; Sampson, Julian R.; Ryan, Neil A. J.; Evans, D. Gareth; Moller, Pal; Crosbie, Emma J. (2020)
    Purpose: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. Methods: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. Results: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (similar to 90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). Conclusions: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.
  • Leppänen, Jonna; Randell, Kaisa; Schwab, Ursula; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Laitinen, Tomi; Heinonen, Seppo (2020)
    Background This study was made to figure out, does low and high estradiol levels during in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles have a different effect on carotid artery distensibility (Cdis), carotid artery diameter (Cdia), blood pressure and metabolic factors? Can the stimulation protocol be considered safe to women's vasculature? Methods We studied 28 women having a long agonist protocol IVF-treatment in Kuopio University Hospital during the years 2011-2016. Patients were examined at three time points: in the beginning of their own period (low estradiol), during the gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue downregulation (low estradiol) and during the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulation (high estradiol). Women served as their own controls and their menstrual phase (2- to 5-day period after the beginning of menstruation with low estrogen) was used as the reference. Cdis and Cdia were assessed using ultrasound. Blood pressure, weight, estradiol levels and lipids were monitored. Results Cdis, Cdia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures peaked during the GnRH-analogue treatment with the lowest estradiol levels. Cdis, Cdia and systolic blood pressures declined by 11% (P = 0.002), 3,8% (P <0.001) and 2,5% (P = 0.026) during the FSH-stimulation when the estradiol levels were high. Cdis correlated significantly (P <0.05) with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides in high estrogenic environment and with diastolic blood pressure (P <0.05) when estrogen profiles were low. Conclusions Carotid artery stiffens during the high estradiol levels compared to low levels and this was not explained by the higher diameter of the carotid artery, hyperlipidemia or blood pressure profiles. All the changes in Cdis and Cdia are variations of normal, and if there is no history of cardiovascular problems, it can be considered, that the stimulation protocol is not hazardous to vasculature.
  • Suutela, Maria; Miettinen, Päivi J.; Kosola, Silja; Rahkonen, Ossi; Varimo, Tero; Tarkkanen, Annika; Hero, Matti; Raivio, Taneli (2022)
    Objective: To determine whether the timing of puberty associates with school performance. Methods: Growth data on 13,183 children born between 1997 and 2002, were collected from child health clinics and school healthcare and school performance data from school records. Age at peak height velocity (PHV) marked pubertal timing. The relationships between age at PHV and average grades in mathematics, native language, English, and physical education from school years 6 (end of elementary school; age 11-12 years), 7 (start of middle school; 12-13 years), and 9 (end of middle school; 14-15 years) were modeled using generalized estimating equations and linear mixed models, adjusted for the month of birth and annual income and education levels in school catchment areas. Results: The mean (SD) age at PHV was 13.54 (1.17) years in boys and 11.43 (1.18) years in girls. In girls, age at PHV was associated with grades in mathematics (β=0.041–0.062, p<0.005) and physical education (β=0.077–0.107, p<0.001) across the study years, and in school year 9, also with grades in English (β=-0.047, 95%CI -0.072 to -0.021, p<0.001). Among boys, only the grades in physical education were related to age at PHV across the study years (β=0.026–0.073, p<0.01) and in middle school the grades in mathematics decreased dramatically. Conclusions: In both sexes, the timing of puberty was associated with the grades in physical education, and in girls, with academic achievement. The decrease in boys’ mathematics grades and sex difference in academic achievement were unexplained by the timing of puberty.