Browsing by Subject "ETHANOL"

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  • Lehikoinen, Anni I.; Kärkkäinen, Olli K.; Lehtonen, Marko A.S.; Auriola, Seppo O.K.; Hanhineva, Kati J.; Heinonen, Seppo T. (2018)
    Background: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester. Study design: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40). Results: We observed statistically significantly differences among the study groups in serum levels of glutamate, glutamine, and serotonin (p-values Conclusion: The present study shows that alcohol and drug use were associated with increased glutamate, and decreased glutamine levels, and alcohol use is associated with decreased serotonin levels. This study serves as a proof-of-concept that the metabolite profile of human first trimester serum samples could be used to detect alcohol exposure during pregnancy. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Grotell, Milo; den Hollander, Bjornar; Jalkanen, Aaro; Törrönen, Essi; Ihalainen, Jouni; de Miguel, Elena; Dudek, Mateusz; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Hyytiä, Petri; Forsberg, Markus M.; Kankuri, Esko; Korpi, Esa R. (2021)
    Mephedrone (4-MMC), despite its illegal status, is still a widely used psychoactive substance. Its effects closely mimic those of the classical stimulant drug methamphetamine (METH). Recent research suggests that unlike METH, 4-MMC is not neurotoxic on its own. However, the neurotoxic effects of 4-MMC may be precipitated under certain circumstances, such as administration at high ambient temperatures. Common use of 4-MMC in conjunction with alcohol raises the question whether this co-consumption could also precipitate neurotoxicity. A total of six groups of adolescent rats were treated twice daily for four consecutive days with vehicle, METH (5 mg/kg) or 4-MMC (30 mg/kg), with or without ethanol (1.5 g/kg). To investigate persistent delayed effects of the administrations at two weeks after the final treatments, manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were performed. Following the scans, brains were collected for Golgi staining and spine analysis. 4-MMC alone had only subtle effects on neuronal activity. When administered with ethanol, it produced a widespread pattern of deactivation, similar to what was seen with METH-treated rats. These effects were most profound in brain regions which are known to have high dopamine and serotonin activities including hippocampus, nucleus accumbens and caudate-putamen. In the regions showing the strongest activation changes, no morphological changes were observed in spine analysis. By itself 4-MMC showed few long-term effects. However, when co-administered with ethanol, the apparent functional adaptations were profound and comparable to those of neurotoxic METH.
  • Seppälä, Sanni; Niinistö, Jaakko; Mattinen, Miika; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Räisänen, Jyrki; Noh, Wontae; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    La2O3 thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition from a liquid heteroleptic La precursor, La(iPrCp)2(iPr-amd), with either water, ozone, ethanol, or both water and ozone (separated by a purge) as the oxygen source. The effect of the oxygen source on the film growth rate and properties such as crystallinity and impurities was studied. Saturation of the growth rate was achieved at 225 °C with O3 as the oxygen source. With water, very long purge times were used due to the hygroscopicity of La2O3 but saturation of the growth rate was not achieved. Interestingly, when an O3 pulse was added after the water pulse with a purge in between, the growth rate decreased and the growth saturated at 200 °C. With ethanol lanthanum hydroxide was formed instead of La2O3 at 200–275 °C whereas hexagonal La2O3 films were obtained at 300 °C but the growth was not saturative. Using the separate pulses of water and ozone in the same deposition provided the best results from the four studied deposition processes. After annealing the films deposited with the La(iPrCp)2(iPrAMD)/H2O/O3 process showed pure hexagonal phase in all the films regardless of the deposition temperature, whereas mixtures of cubic and hexagonal La2O3 were seen with the other processes.
  • Ellilä, Simo; Bromann, Paul; Nyyssönen, Mari; Itävaara, Merja; Koivula, Anu; Paulin, Lars; Kruus, Kristiina (2019)
    Xylanases are in important class of industrial enzymes that are essential for the complete hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugars. In the present study, we report the cloning of novel xylanases with interesting properties from compost metagenomics libraries. Controlled composting of lignocellulosic materials was used to enrich the microbial population in lignocellulolytic organisms. DNA extracted from the compost samples was used to construct metagenomics libraries, which were screened for xylanase activity. In total, 40 clones exhibiting xylanase activity were identified and the thermostability of the discovered xylanases was assayed directly from the library clones. Five genes, including one belonging to the more rare family GH8, were selected for subcloning and the enzymes were expressed in recombinant form in E. coli. Preliminary characterization of the metagenome-derived xylanases revealed interesting properties of the novel enzymes, such as high thermostability and specific activity, and differences in hydrolysis profiles. One enzyme was found to perform better than a standard Trichoderma reesei xylanase in the hydrolysis of lignocellulose at elevated temperatures.
  • Oinio, Ville; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Timo; Kiianmaa, Kalervo (2017)
    R**esults from animal gambling models have highlighted the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating decision making when large sucrose rewards are combined with uncertainty. The majority of these models use food restriction as a tool to motivate animals to accomplish operant behavioral tasks, in which sucrose is used as a reward. As enhanced motivation to obtain sucrose due to hunger may impact its reward-seeking effect, we wanted to examine the decision-making behavior of rats in a situation where rats were fed ad libitum. For this purpose, we chose alcohol-preferring AA (alko alcohol) rats, as these rats have been shown to have high preference for sweet agents. In the present study, AA rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellet rewards in a two-lever choice task (one pellet vs. three pellets). Once rational choice behavior had been established, the probability of gaining three pellets was decreased over time (50%, 33%, 25% then 20%). The effect of D-amphetamine on decision making was studied at every probability level, as well as the effect of the dopamine D-1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 and D-2 agonist quinpirole at probability levels of 100% and 25%. D-Amphetamine increased unprofitable choices in a dose-dependent manner at the two lowest probability levels. Quinpirole increased the frequency of unprofitable decisions at the 25% probability level, and SKF-82197 did not affect choice behavior. These results mirror the findings of probabilistic discounting studies using food-restricted rats. Based on this, the use of AA rats provides a new approach for studies on reward-guided decision making. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Jin, Zhe; Bhandage, Amol K.; Bazov, Igor; Kononenko, Olga; Bakalkin, Georgy; Korpi, Esa R.; Birnir, Bryndis (2014)
  • Kaminen-Ahola, Nina (2020)
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. The etiology of the complex FASD phenotype with growth deficit, birth defects and neurodevelopmental impairments is under extensive research. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the wide phenotype: chromosomal rearrangements, risk and protective alleles, environmental‐induced epigenetic alterations as well as gene‐environment interactions are all involved. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of prenatal alcohol exposure can provide tools for prevention or intervention of the alcohol‐induced developmental disorders in the future. By revealing the alcohol‐induced genetic and epigenetic alterations which associate with the variable FASD phenotypes, it is possible to identify biomarkers for the disorder. This would enable early diagnoses and personalized support for development of the affected child.
  • Al-Ani, Anas Aaqel Salim Salim; Mutluay, Murat; Tjaderhane, Leo; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu (2019)
    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or ethanol on the permeability, stiffness and collagen dissociation of demineralized dentin. Dentin cubes (2 x 2 x 2 mm) were demineralized in EDTA and incubated in DMSO or ethanol (0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100%) (n = 10/group) for 30s, followed by 100% HEMA incubation. Extracted HEMA was quantified. For elastic modulus (E), demineralized dentin beams (6 x 2 x 1 mm) were incubated in DMSO or ethanol (1, 10, 20, 50 and 100%) for 10, 30 or 60 min at 3-point bending. Additional demineralized dentin discs (1 mm) were incubated in DMSO (1, 10, 50 and 100%) for 10, 30 and 60 min and the optical clearing effect was observed. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05) using SigmaPlot (Systat Software Inc., San Jose, CA). Compared to controls, HEMA uptake was significantly higher with all DMSO concentrations, and with 0.1% or higher ethanol concentrations (p <0.05). HEMA uptake in DMSO-incubated specimens (0.01, 5 and 10%) was significantly higher than with the ethanol incubation. Significant increase in elastic moduli was observed with 50-100% DMSO- and only with 100% ethanol after 10 min incubation. The optical clearing effect of 50-100% DMSO-incubated dentin disks was observed starting from 10 min. The pretreatment of dentin surfaces with low concentrations of DMSO resulted in significant improvement of the penetration of monomers to demineralized dentin matrices. Increase in penetration of monomers combined with a reversible stiffening of dentin collagenous matrix may explain the previously shown increase in durability of wet- or dry-bonded adhesive interfaces with DMSO treatment.
  • Salaspuro, Mikko (2020)
    Background:Alcohol consumption and ethanol in alcoholic beverages are group 1 carcinogens, that is, carcinogenic to humans. However, ethanol itself is neither genotoxic nor mutagenic. Based on unique gene-epidemiologic and gene-biochemical evidence, the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation - acetaldehyde (ACH) - acts as a local carcinogen in the oropharynx. This review is focused on those facts, which highlight the importance of the oropharynx and local ACH in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related oropharyngeal cancer.Summary:The strongest evidence for the local carcinogenicity of ACH in man provides a point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene, which has randomized millions of alcohol consumers to markedly increased ACH exposure via saliva. This novel human cancer model is associated with manifold risk for oropharyngeal cancer and most importantly it is free from confounding factors markedly hampering epidemiological studies on alcohol-related cancer. The oropharynx is an ideal target organ for the cancer risk assessment of ACH. There is substantial epidemiological data on alcohol-related oropharyngeal cancer risk and also on salivary ACH concentrations among major risk groups for oropharyngeal cancer. Normal human saliva does not contain measurable levels of ACH. However, alcohol ingestion results within seconds in a concentration-dependent accumulation of ACH in saliva, which continues for up to 10-15 min after each sip of alcoholic beverage. This instant ACH exposure phase is followed by a long-term phase derived from ethanol diffused back to saliva from blood circulation. Microbes representing normal oral flora play a major role in local ACH formation from ethanol. In ALDH2-deficient subjects excess ACH during the long-term ACH exposure phase is most probably derived from salivary glands.Key Message:ALDH2gene mutation proves the causal relationship between local ACH exposure via saliva and oropharyngeal cancer and provides new means for the quantitative assessment of local ACH exposure in relation to oropharyngeal cancer risk. Instant ACH formation from ethanol represents approximately 70-100% of total local ACH exposure. Ethanol present in "non-alcoholic" beverages and food forms an epidemiological bias in studies on alcohol-related upper digestive tract cancer.Responses:One should quit smoking, adopt sensible drinking habits, and maintain good oral hygiene. Genetic risk groups could be screened and educated. Consumption of beverages and foodstuffs containing low ethanol levels as well as alcoholic beverages containing high ACH levels should be minimized. To that aim, labelling of alcohol and ACH concentrations of all beverages and foodstuffs should be mandatory.
  • Kriikku, Pirkko; Ojanperä, Ilkka (2020)
    Background: Alcohol may cause death directly by acute poisoning, as well as induce illnesses or accidents that lead to death. Our research question was whether the current decreasing trend in acute fatal alcohol poisonings in Finland is a real phenomenon or an artefact caused by possible changes in the process of determining the cause of death. Methods: All cases in the national post-mortem toxicology database in which the underlying cause of death was acute alcohol poisoning in 1987-2018 were investigated in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC), age and gender. The number of acute alcohol poisonings was compared to the number of deaths from alcohol induced illness in the post-mortem toxicology database. Results: A total of 12 126 acute alcohol poisoning cases were retrieved. Between 2004 and 2017 the number of acute alcohol poisonings decreased 60.1 %. At the same time the number of alcohol induced illnesses in the study material remained stable or decreased marginally. The median BAC in all acute alcohol poisonings was 3.2 g/kg. The annual median BAC values showed a small but significant decrease over the study period. The proportion of women in acute alcohol poisonings increased significantly over the study period, from 17.1%-22.3%. Women were on average 2.5 years older than men. Conclusions: On grounds of the BAC statistics and supporting evidence, we conclude that the significant decrease in the number of fatal alcohol poisonings is true and likely reflects changes in the overall consumption of alcohol.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Voutilainen, Raimo; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo (2020)
    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether first trimester trisomy screening (FTS) parameters are affected by alcohol and drug use. Methods: A routine combined FTS including measurements of maternal serum levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin subunit (free beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) were measured at 9-11 weeks of gestation, and fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NTT) at 11-13 weeks of gestation. In total 544 women with singleton pregnancies [71 alcohol and drug abusers, 88 smokers, 168 non-smokers delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) child, and 217 unexposed control women] were assessed. Results: Free beta-hCG levels were higher in alcohol and drug abusing than in unexposed pregnant women [mean 1.5 vs. 1.2 multiples of medians (MoM); P=0.013]. However, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses suggested that smoking could explain increased free beta-hCG. Additionally, we observed lower PAPP-A levels in the smoking mothers (0.9 vs. 1.2 MoM; P=0.045) and in those giving birth to an SGA child compared to the controls (1.1 vs.. 1.2 MoM; P Conclusions: The present study shows increased free beta-hCG levels in alcohol and drug abusers, but maternal smoking may explain the result. Maternal serum PAPP-A levels were lower in smoking than non-smoking mothers, and in mothers delivering an SGA child. However, FTS parameters (PAPP-A, free beta-hCG and NTT) seem not to be applicable for the use as alcohol biomarkers because of their clear overlap between alcohol abusers and healthy controls.
  • Pajunen, Tuulia; Vuori, Erkki; Vincenzi, Frank F.; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Smith, Gordon; Lunetta, Philippe (2017)
    Background: Alcohol is a well-known risk factor in unintentional drownings. Whereas psychotropic drugs, like alcohol, may cause psychomotor impairment and affect cognition, no detailed studies have focused on their association with drowning. Finland provides extensive post-mortem toxicological data for studies on drowning because of its high medico-legal autopsy rates. Methods: Drowning cases, 2000 through 2009, for which post-mortem toxicological analysis was performed, came from the database of the Toxicological Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, using the ICD-10 nature-of-injury code T75.1. The data were narrowed to unintentional drowning, using the ICD-10 external-injury codes V90, V92, and W65-74. Each drowning case had its blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and concentrations of other drugs recorded. Evaluation of the contribution of psychotropic drugs to drowning was based on their blood concentration by means of a 6-grade scale. Results: Among victims >= 15 years old, unintentional drownings numbered 1697, of which, 303 (17.9%) were boating-related and 1394 (82.1%) non-boating-related. Among these, 65.0% of boating-related and 61.8% of non-boating-related victims were alcohol-positive (=BAC >= 50 mg/dL). The male-to-female ratio in alcohol-positive drownings was 7.3. At least one psychotropic drug appeared in 453 (26.7%) drowning cases, with some victims' bodies showing up to 7 different drugs. Overall 70 different psychotropic drugs were detectable, with 134 (7.9%) cases both alcohol-negative and psychotropic-drug-positive, of these, 59 (3.5%) were graded 4 to 6, indicating a possible to very probable contribution to drowning. Our findings suggest that psychotropic drugs may play a significant role in drowning, in up to 14.5% of cases, independently or in association with alcohol. Conclusions: Psychotropic drugs alone or in association with alcohol may be an overlooked risk factor in drowning, due to their effects on psychomotor function and cognition. Future studies should also address other mechanisms-for instance drug-induced long-QT syndrome-by which drugs may contribute to drowning.
  • Hagel, Sebastian; Kirjoranta, Satu; Mikkonen, Kirsi S.; Tenkanen, Maija; Körner, Ina; Saake, Bodo (2021)
    Street tree pruning residues are a widely available and currently undervalorized bioresource. Their utilization could help alleviate an increasing biomass shortage and offset costs of the pruning process for the municipalities. In this work, a holistic valorization pathway of pruning residues leading to fibers, oligosaccharides, biogas, and compost is presented. For this, representative mixtures of tree pruning materials from the most prevalent street tree genera (oak, linden, maple) found in Hamburg (Germany) were prepared by shredding and cleaning procedures. Collection of sample material was performed in summer and winter to account for seasonality. A steam-based fractionation was conducted using treatment severities ranging from log R-0 = 2.5 to 4.0. At the highest severity, a fiber yield of around 66%, and liquor yield of 26-30% was determined. The fibers were evaluated with respect to their properties for paper product applications, with higher treatment severities leading to higher paper strengths. From the oligosaccharide-rich liquor, emulsions were created, which showed promising stability properties over 8 weeks of storage. The liquors and the rejects from the material preparation also displayed good potential for biomethane production. Overall, the differences between material collected in summer and winter were found to be small, indicating the possibility for a year-round utilization of pruning residues. For the presented utilization pathway, high severity treatments were the most promising, featuring a high liquor yield, good biomethane potential, and the highest paper strengths.