Browsing by Subject "EUROPEAN COUNTRIES"

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  • Hiltunen, Kaija; Mäntylä, Päivi; Vehkalahti, Miira M (2021)
    Background: Population aging will likely have an impact on oral health care trends. The aim of this study was to describe age-and time-related trends in oral health care in people ages 60 and older in Public Oral Health Services (POHS) in Helsinki, Finland. Materials and methods: Material for the study comprised the electronic documentation of oral health care procedures performed on patients 60 years and older (N = 282,143) in POHS during 2007-2017. Patients were aggregated into 5-year age groups. The 5 most common treatment categories, restorations, periodontal treatment, extractions, endodontics, and prosthetics, were selected for analysis. Changes by time (calendar year) and differences by age group were shown as percentages and percentage points; corresponding trends were assessed by applying linear regression models to the data. Results: The attendance rate for these patients increased from 14.5% in 2007 to 23.1% in 2017, with the total number of visits increasing by 76.4% in the 11-year period. The average number of visits per patient decreased from 3.5 visits in 2007 to 3.0 visits in 2017. In 2007, 60.5% of patients received restorative treatment and 41.3% received periodontal care. In 2017, the corresponding figures were 55.5% and 49.8%, respectively. The older the patient, the fewer the visits and restorative, periodontal, and endodontic treatments and the greater the rate of tooth extractions and prosthetics. Conclusion: A declining age group-related trend was recognized for restorative, periodontal, and endodontic treatments. Owing to ongoing population growth, POHS will be facing huge challenges in providing treatment for all individuals seeking services. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of FDI World Dental Federation. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H.; Schoen, Harald; Bain, Paul G.; Silvester, Jo; Cieciuch, Jan; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Katayama, Miyuki; Posnova, Tetyana; Tabernero, Carmen; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondrakova, Eva; Giovanna Caprara, Maria (2017)
    The current study examines the contribution of left-right (or liberal-conservative) ideology to voting, as well as the extent to which basic values account for ideological orientation. Analyses were conducted in 16 countries from five continents (Europe, North America, South America, Asia, and Oceania), most of which have been neglected by previous studies. Results showed that left-right (or liberal-conservative) ideology predicted voting in all countries except Ukraine. Basic values exerted a considerable effect in predicting ideology in most countries, especially in established democracies such as Australia, Finland, Italy, United Kingdom, and Germany. Pattern of relations with the whole set of 10 values revealed that the critical trade-off underlying ideology is between values concerned with tolerance and protection for the welfare of all people (universalism) versus values concerned with preserving the social order and status quo (security). A noteworthy exception was found in European postcommunist countries, where relations of values with ideology were small (Poland) or near to zero (Ukraine, Slovakia).
  • Peltonen, Riina; Ho, Jessica Y.; Elo, Irma T.; Martikainen, Pekka (2017)
    BACKGROUND Smoking is known to vary by marital status, but little is known about its contribution to marital status differences in longevity. We examined the changing contribution of smoking to mortality differences between married and never married, divorced or widowed Finnish men and women aged 50 years and above in 1971-2010. DATA AND METHODS The data sets cover all persons permanently living in Finland in the census years 1970, 1975 through 2000 and 2005 with a five-year mortality follow-up. Smoking-attributable mortality was estimated using an indirect method that uses lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the impact of smoking on mortality from all other causes. RESULTS Life expectancy differences between the married and the other marital status groups increased rapidly over the 40-year study period because of the particularly rapid decline in mortality among married individuals. In 1971-1975 37-48% of life expectancy differences between married and divorced or widowed men were attributable to smoking, and this contribution declined to 11-18% by 2006-2010. Among women, in 1971-1975 up to 16% of life expectancy differences by marital status were due to smoking, and the contribution of smoking increased over time to 10-29% in 2006-2010. CONCLUSIONS In recent decades smoking has left large but decreasing imprints on marital status differences in longevity between married and previously married men, and small but increasing imprints on these differences among women. Over time the contribution of other factors, such as increasing material disadvantage or alcohol use, may have increased.
  • Mackenbach, Johan P.; Valverde, Jose Rubio; Bopp, Matthias; Bronnum-Hansen, Henrik; Deboosere, Patrick; Kalediene, Ramune; Kovacs, Katalin; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Regidor, Enrique; Nusselder, Wilma J. (2019)
    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in longevity have been found in all European countries. We aimed to assess which determinants make the largest contribution to these inequalities. Methods We did an international comparative study of inequalities in risk factors for shorter life expectancy in Europe. We collected register-based mortality data and survey-based risk factor data from 15 European countries. We calculated partial life expectancies between the ages of 35 years and 80 years by education and gender and determined the effect on mortality of changing the prevalence of eight risk factors-father with a manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high bodyweight, low physical exercise, and low fruit and vegetable consumption-among people with a low level of education to that among people with a high level of education (upward levelling scenario), using population attributable fractions. Findings In all countries, a substantial gap existed in partial life expectancy between people with low and high levels of education, of 2.3-8.2 years among men and 0.6-4.5 years among women. The risk factors contributing most to the gap in life expectancy were smoking (19.8% among men and 18.9% among women), low income (9.7% and 13.4%), and high bodyweight (7.7% and 11.7%), but large differences existed between countries in the contribution of risk factors. Sensitivity analyses using the prevalence of risk factors in the most favourable country (best practice scenario) showed that the potential for reducing the gap might be considerably smaller. The results were also sensitive to varying assumptions about the mortality risks associated with each risk factor. Interpretation Smoking, low income, and high bodyweight are quantitatively important entry points for policies to reduce educational inequalities in life expectancy in most European countries, but priorities differ between countries. A substantial reduction of inequalities in life expectancy requires policy actions on a broad range of health determinants. Copyright (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Sandell, Mari; Hoppu, Ulla; Mikkila, Vera; Mononen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Mannisto, Satu; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T. (2014)
    Genetic variation in bitter taste receptors, such as hTAS2R38, may affect food preferences and intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between bitter taste receptor haplotypes and the consumption of vegetables, fruits, berries and sweet foods among an adult Finnish population. A cross-sectional design utilizing data from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns cohort from 2007, which consisted of 1,903 men and women who were 30-45 years of age from five different regions in Finland, was employed. DNA was extracted from blood samples, and hTAS2R38 polymorphisms were determined based on three SNPs (rs713598, rs1726866 and rs10246939). Food consumption was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of the bitter taste-sensitive (PAV/PAV) haplotype was 11.3 % and that of the insensitive (AVI/AVI) haplotype was 39.5 % among this Finnish population. PAV homozygotic women consumed fewer vegetables than did the AVI homozygotic women, 269 g/day (SD 131) versus 301 g/day (SD 187), respectively, p = 0.03 (multivariate ANOVA). Furthermore, the intake of sweet foods was higher among the PAV homozygotes of both genders. Fruit and berry consumption did not differ significantly between the haplotypes in either gender. Individuals perceive foods differently, and this may influence their patterns of food consumption. This study showed that the hTAS2R38 taste receptor gene variation was associated with vegetable and sweet food consumption among adults in a Finnish population.
  • Barber, Ryan M.; Fullman, Nancy; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Bollyky, Thomas; McKee, Martin; Nolte, Ellen; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abdurahman, Ahmed Abdulahi; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abraham, Biju; Abreha, Girmatsion Fisseha; Adane, Kelemework; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adetifa, Ifedayo Morayo O.; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Arnav; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Agarwal, Sunilkumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Kedir Yimam; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Alexander, Lily; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Syed Danish; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Lallukka, Tea; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; GBD 2015 Healthcare Access Quality (2017)
    Background National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. Methods We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r= 0.88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r= 0.83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r= 0.77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time. Findings Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28.6 to 94.6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40.7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39.0-42.8) in 1990 to 53.7 (52.2-55.4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21.2 in 1990 to 20.1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73.8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015. Interpretation This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-systemcharacteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • MASK Study Grp (2018)
    mHealth, such as apps running on consumer smart devices is becoming increasingly popular and has the potential to profoundly affect healthcare and health outcomes. However, it may be disruptive and results achieved are not always reaching the goals. Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) has evolved from a guideline using the best evidence-based approach to care pathways suited to real-life using mobile technology in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma multimorbidity. Patients largely use over-the-counter medications dispensed in pharmacies. Shared decision making centered around the patient and based on self-management should be the norm. Mobile Airways Sentinel networK (MASK), the Phase 3 ARIA initiative, is based on the freely available MASK app (the Allergy Diary, Android and iOS platforms). MASK is available in 16 languages and deployed in 23 countries. The present paper provides an overview of the methods used in MASK and the key results obtained to date. These include a novel phenotypic characterization of the patients, confirmation of the impact of allergic rhinitis on work productivity and treatment patterns in real life. Most patients appear to self-medicate, are often non-adherent and do not follow guidelines. Moreover, the Allergy Diary is able to distinguish between AR medications. The potential usefulness of MASK will be further explored by POLLAR (Impact of Air Pollution on Asthma and Rhinitis), a new Horizon 2020 project using the Allergy Diary.
  • Seppänen, Allan; Törmänen, Iida; Shaw, Christopher; Kennedy, Harry (2018)
    Forensic psychiatric care must be provided within the least restrictive setting possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining appropriate levels of security. This presents particular challenges for the design of forensic psychiatric hospitals, which are required to provide both a therapeutic and a safe material environment, often for extended periods of treatment and rehabilitation. By taking into consideration variable trends in psychiatric service provision and myriad clinical, legal and ethical issues, interdisciplinary forensic facility design teams are at the very forefront in implementing the latest developments in medical architecture. Also, although there are significant differences in how forensic psychiatric services are organized around the world, the underlying clinical challenges and increasingly research-based treatment principles are similar worldwide; it is therefore becoming less acceptable to operate and develop national forensic services without reference to international standards. Accordingly, we here review the literature on what features of forensic psychiatric facilities best serve the needs of those patients who need to rely on them, and we present a systematic and widely applicable approach to the complex and costly challenge of modern forensic psychiatric hospital design.
  • Pekkala, Johanna; Blomgren, Jenni; Pietilainen, Olli; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Musculoskeletal diseases and mental disorders are major causes of long-term sickness absence in Western countries. Although sickness absence is generally more common in lower occupational classes, little is known about class differences in diagnostic-specific absence over time. Focusing on Finland during 2005-2014, we therefore set out to examine the magnitude of and changes in absolute and relative occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence due to major diagnostic causes. Methods: A 70-per-cent random sample of Finns aged 25-64 linked to register data on medically certified sickness absence (of over 10 working days) in 2005-2014 was retrieved from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Information on occupational class was obtained from Statistics Finland and linked to the data. The study focused on female (n = 658,148-694,142) and male (n = 604,715-642,922) upper and lower non-manual employees and manual workers. The age-standardised prevalence, the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) were calculated for each study year to facilitate examination of the class differences. Results: The prevalence of each diagnostic cause of sickness absence declined during the study period, the most common causes being musculoskeletal diseases, mental disorders and injuries. The prevalence of other causes under scrutiny was less than 1 % annually. By far the largest absolute and relative differences were in musculoskeletal diseases among both women and men. Moreover, the absolute differences in both genders (p <0. 0001) and the relative differences in men (p <0.0001) narrowed over time as the prevalence declined most among manual workers. Both genders showed modest and stable occupational class differences in mental disorders. In the case of injuries, no major changes occurred in absolute differences but relative differences narrowed over time in men (p <0.0001) due to a strong decline in prevalence among manual workers. Class differences in the other studied diagnostic causes under scrutiny appeared negligible. Conclusions: By far the largest occupational class differences in long-term sickness absence concerned musculoskeletal diseases, followed by injuries. The results highlight potential targets for preventive measures aimed at reducing sickness absence and narrowing class differences in the future.
  • Repo, Juha Petteri; Timonen, Auli Päivi Tellervo (2017)
    The Single Market of the European Union has progressed during recent decades to encompass more than 500 million consumers in 28 EU Member States and adjoining countries. During the same period, consumer issues have received growing policy interest and policy measures have been put in place to harmonize the Single Market, that is, to make national markets more alike. Yet, in order to provide policy measures that promote desirable market outcomes, the considerable challenge of understanding differences in the market performances of participating countries and the relationships between national markets and the Single Market need to be addressed. Consequently, this article proposes the consideration of differences in terms of regimes, that is, between groups of similar countries, when assessing the performances of markets. Differences in market performances are analysed with the Kruskal–Wallis test using survey data from the European Commission, and results were reviewed against market studies carried out by the Commission. Findings show that regime differences in market performance can indeed be observed and that the regime approach can draw policy attention to commonalities in market arrangements in addition to the consumer issues conventionally examined, such as price differences and consumer awareness.
  • d'Errico, Angelo; Ricceri, Fulvio; Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Kivimaki, Mika; Bartley, Mel; McCrory, Cathal; Bochud, Murielle; Vollenweider, Peter; Tumino, Rosario; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Barros, Henrique; Giles, Graham; Severi, Gianluca; Costa, Giuseppe; Vineis, Paolo; LIFEPATH Consortium (2017)
    Background Several social indicators have been used in epidemiological research to describe socioeconomic position (SEP) of people in societies. Among SEP indicators, those more frequently used are education, occupational class and income. Differences in the incidence of several health outcomes have been reported consistently, independently from the indicator employed. Main objectives of the study were to present the socioeconomic classifications of the social indicators which will be employed throughout the LIFEPATH project and to compare social gradients in all-cause mortality observed in the participating adult cohorts using the different SEP indicators. Methods Information on the available social indicators (education, own and father's occupational class, income) from eleven adult cohorts participating in LIFEPATH was collected and harmonized. Mortality by SEP for each indicator was estimated by Poisson regression on each cohort and then evaluated using a meta-analytical approach. Results In the meta-analysis, among men mortality was significantly inversely associated with both occupational class and education, but not with father's occupational class; among women, the increase in mortality in lower social strata was smaller than among men and, except for a slight increase in the lowest education category, no significant differences were found. Conclusions Among men, the proposed three-level classifications of occupational class and education were found to predict differences in mortality which is consistent with previous research. Results on women suggest that classifying them through their sole SEP, without considering that of their partners, may imply a misclassification of their social position leading to attenuation of mortality differences.
  • Stringhini, Silvia; Carmeli, Cristian; Jokela, Markus; Avendano, Mauricio; Muennig, Peter; Guida, Florence; Ricceri, Fulvio; d'Errico, Angelo; Barros, Henrique; Bochud, Murielle; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Costa, Giuseppe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Fraga, Silvia; Goldberg, Marcel; Giles, Graham G.; Krogh, Vittorio; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Layte, Richard; Lasserre, Aurelie M.; Marmot, Michael G.; Preisig, Martin; Shipley, Martin J.; Vollenweider, Peter; Zins, Marie; Kawachi, Ichiro; Steptoe, Andrew; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Kivimaki, Mika; LIFEPATH Consortium (2017)
    Background In 2011, WHO member states signed up to the 25 x 25 initiative, a plan to cut mortality due to noncommunicable diseases by 25% by 2025. However, socioeconomic factors influencing non-communicable diseases have not been included in the plan. In this study, we aimed to compare the contribution of socioeconomic status to mortality and years-of-life-lost with that of the 25 x 25 conventional risk factors. Methods We did a multicohort study and meta-analysis with individual-level data from 48 independent prospective cohort studies with information about socioeconomic status, indexed by occupational position, 25 x 25 risk factors (high alcohol intake, physical inactivity, current smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity), and mortality, for a total population of 1 751 479 (54% women) from seven high-income WHO member countries. We estimated the association of socioeconomic status and the 25 x 25 risk factors with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality by calculating minimally adjusted and mutually adjusted hazard ratios [HR] and 95% CIs. We also estimated the population attributable fraction and the years of life lost due to suboptimal risk factors. Findings During 26.6 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 13.3 years [SD 6.4 years]), 310 277 participants died. HR for the 25 x 25 risk factors and mortality varied between 1.04 (95% CI 0.98-1.11) for obesity in men and 2.17 (2.06-2.29) for current smoking in men. Participants with low socioeconomic status had greater mortality compared with those with high socioeconomic status (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.38-1.45 for men; 1.34, 1.28-1.39 for women); this association remained significant in mutually adjusted models that included the 25 x 25 factors (HR 1.26, 1.21-1.32, men and women combined). The population attributable fraction was highest for smoking, followed by physical inactivity then socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 2.1-year reduction in life expectancy between ages 40 and 85 years, the corresponding years-of-life-lost were 0.5 years for high alcohol intake, 0.7 years for obesity, 3.9 years for diabetes, 1.6 years for hypertension, 2.4 years for physical inactivity, and 4.8 years for current smoking. Interpretation Socioeconomic circumstances, in addition to the 25 x 25 factors, should be targeted by local and global health strategies and health risk surveillance to reduce mortality.
  • Ostergren, Olof; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle (2018)
    To assess the level and changes in contribution of smoking and alcohol-related mortality to educational differences in life expectancy in Sweden. We used register data on the Swedish population at ages 30-74 during 1991-2008. Cause of death was used to identify alcohol-related deaths, while smoking-related mortality was estimated using lung cancer mortality to indirectly assess the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality. Alcohol consumption and smoking contributed to educational differences in life expectancy. Alcohol-related mortality was higher among men and contributed substantially to inequalities among men and made a small (but increasing) contribution to inequalities among women. Smoking-related mortality decreased among men but increased among women, primarily among the low educated. At the end of the follow-up, smoking-related mortality were at similar levels among men and women. The widening gap in life expectancy among women could largely be attributed to smoking. Smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to educational differences in life expectancy among men and women. The majority of the widening in the educational gap in mortality among women can be attributed to alcohol and smoking-related mortality.
  • Nolan, Jerry P.; Berg, Robert A.; Callaway, Clifton W.; Morrison, Laurie J.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Perkins, Gavin D.; Sandroni, Claudio; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Soar, Jasmeet; Sunde, Kjetil; Cariou, Alain (2018)
    The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), disparities in organisation and outcome, recent advances in treatment and ongoing controversies. We also outline the standard of care that should be provided by the critical care specialist and propose future directions for cardiac arrest research. Narrative review with contributions from international resuscitation experts. Although it is recognised that survival rates from OHCA are increasing there is considerable scope for improvement and many countries have implemented national strategies in an attempt to achieve this goal. More resources are required to enable high-quality randomised trials in resuscitation. Increasing international collaboration should facilitate resuscitation research and knowledge translation. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) has adopted a continuous evidence review process, which facilitate the implementation of resuscitation interventions proven to improve patient outcomes.
  • Pelkonen, Margit K.; Laatikainen, Tiina K.; Jousilahti, Pekka (2019)
    Introduction: Our aim was to describe how the prevalence of subjects exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has changed from 1992 to 2012 in Finland. We also investigated the association between ETS and chronic bronchitis and cause-specific and all-cause mortality. Methods: The study population is composed of 38 494 subjects aged 25-74 years who participated in the National FINRISK Study between 1992 and 2012. Each survey included a standardized questionnaire on exposure to ETS, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, smoking habits and other risk factors, and clinical measurements at the study site. Data on mortality was obtained from the National Causes of Death Register. Results: In 2012, 5% of the participants were exposed to ETS compared to 25% in 1992. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for ETS exposure in 2012 compared with that in 1992 was 0.27, p <0.001. Exposure to ETS was more common in men than in women and among smokers than in non-smokers. Exposure to ETS was in turn associated with chronic bronchitis, OR 1.63 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.78),-also separately both at work (OR 1.36) and at home (OR 1.69). Subjects with exposure to ETS had significantly increased all-cause (hazard ratio=HR 1.15, 1.05-1.26) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.26, 1.07-1.47). However, when stratified by smoking ETS was associated with all-cause mortality only in smokers (HR 1.31, 1.15-1.48). Conclusion: The proportion of subjects exposed to ETS decreased substantially during the study. Additionally, ETS exposure was associated with chronic bronchitis throughout the study and increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
  • van Raalte, Alyson A.; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskyla, Mikko (2015)
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Heloma, Antero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lahti, Jouni; Pentala-Nikulainen, Oona; Rahkonen, Ossi; Puska, Pekka (2019)
    ObjectivesSmoking is declining, but it is unevenly distributed among population groups. Our aim was to examine the socio-economic differences in smoking during 1978-2016 in Finland, a country with a history of strict tobacco control policy.MethodsAnnual population-based random sample data of 25-64-year-olds from 1978 to 2016 (N=104,315) were used. Response rate varied between 84 and 40%. In addition to logistic regression analysis, absolute and relative educational differences in smoking were examined.ResultsSmoking was more prevalent among the less educated but declined in all educational groups during the study period. Both absolute and relative differences in smoking between the less and highly educated were larger at the end of the study period than at the beginning. Cigarette price seemed to have a larger effect on the smoking among the less educated.ConclusionsSocio-economic differences in smoking among the Finnish adult population have increased since the 1970s until 2016. Further actions are needed, especially focusing on lower socio-economic positions, to tackle inequalities in health. They should include support for smoking cessation and larger cigarette tax increases.