Browsing by Subject "EVASION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo (2015)
  • Bösl, Korbinian; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Than, Thoa T.; Andersen, Petter I.; Kuivanen, Suvi; Teppor, Mona; Zusinaite, Eva; Dumpis, Uga; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Cox, Rebecca J.; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Bergqvist, Anders; Tenson, Tanel; Merits, Andres; Oksenych, Valentyn; Bjørås, Magnar; Anthonsen, Marit W.; Shum, David; Kaarbø, Mari; Vapalahti, Olli; Windisch, Marc P.; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Snijder, Berend; Kainov, Denis; Kandasamy, Richard K. (2019)
    Viruses are one of the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases and thus a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Several studies have shown how viruses have evolved to hijack basic cellular pathways and evade innate immune response by modulating key host factors and signaling pathways. A collective view of these multiple studies could advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of viral diseases. Here, we performed an integrative meta-analysis to elucidate the 17 different host-virus interactomes. Network and bioinformatics analyses showed how viruses with small genomes efficiently achieve the maximal effect by targeting multifunctional and highly connected host proteins with a high occurrence of disordered regions. We also identified the core cellular process subnetworks that are targeted by all the viruses. Integration with functional RNA interference (RNAi) datasets showed that a large proportion of the targets are required for viral replication. Furthermore, we performed an interactome-informed drug re-purposing screen and identified novel activities for broad-spectrum antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus and human metapneumovirus. Altogether, these orthogonal datasets could serve as a platform for hypothesis generation and follow-up studies to broaden our understanding of the viral evasion landscape.
  • Almeida, Gabriel; Hoikkala, Ville; Ravantti, Janne; Rantanen, Noora; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina (2022)
    It is unknown what circumstances promote particular bacterial defenses against bacterial viruses (phages). Almeida & Hoikkala et al. show that mucin, derived from mucus, greatly accelerates CRISPR-Cas defenses against phage in an opportunistic pathogen. Parasitism by bacteriophages has led to the evolution of a variety of defense mechanisms in their host bacteria. However, it is unclear what factors lead to specific defenses being deployed upon phage infection. To explore this question, we co-evolved the bacterial fish pathogen Flavobacterium columnare and its virulent phage V156 in presence and absence of a eukaryotic host signal (mucin) for sixteen weeks. The presence of mucin leads to a dramatic increase in CRISPR spacer acquisition, especially in low nutrient conditions where over 60% of colonies obtain at least one new spacer. Additionally, we show that the presence of a competitor bacterium further increases CRISPR spacer acquisition in F. columnare. These results suggest that ecological factors are important in determining defense strategies against phages, and that the phage-bacterium interactions on mucosal surfaces may select for the diversification of bacterial immune systems.