Browsing by Subject "EX-VIVO EXPANSION"

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  • Lou, Yan-Ru; Leung, Alan W. (2018)
    Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous. Currently, major challenges facing human organoid technology include (i) improving the range of cellular heterogeneity for a particular organoid system, (ii) mimicking the native micro- and matrix-environment encountered by cells within organoids, and (iii) developing robust protocols for the in vitro maturation of organoids that remain mostly fetal-like in cultures. To tackle these challenges, we advocate the principle of reverse engineering that replicates the inner workings of in vivo systems with the goal of achieving functionality and maturation of the resulting organoid structures with the input of minimal intrinsic (cellular) and environmental (matrix and niche) constituents. Here, we present an overview of organoid technology development in several systems that employ cell materials derived from fetal and adult tissues and pluripotent stem cell cultures. We focus on key studies that exploit the self-organizing property of embryonic progenitors and the role of designer matrices and cell-free scaffolds in assisting organoid formation. We further explore the relationship between adult stem cells, niche factors, and other current developments that aim to enhance robust organoid maturation. From these works, we propose a standardized pipeline for the development of future protocols that would help generate more physiologically relevant human organoids for various biomedical applications.
  • Hancox, Zoe; Keshel, Saeed Heidari; Yousaf, Safiyya; Saelnasab, Morvarid; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Sefat, Farshid (2020)
    Cornea tissue is in high demand by tissue donation centres globally, and thus tissue engineering cornea, which is the main topic of corneal translational medicine, can serve as a limitless alternative to a donated human cornea tissue. Tissue engineering aims to produce solutions to the challenges associated with conventional cornea tissue, including transplantation and use of human amniotic membrane (HAM), which have issues with storage and immune rejection in patients. Accordingly, by carefully selecting biomaterials and fabrication methods to produce these therapeutic tissues, the demand for cornea tissue can be met, with an improved healing outcome for recipients with less associated harmful risks. In this review paper, we aim to present the recent advancements in the research and clinical applications of cornea tissue, applications including biomaterial selection, fabrication methods, scaffold structure, cellular response to these scaffolds, and future advancements of these techniques.