Browsing by Subject "EXCLUSION"

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  • Cai, Yuhua (2022)
    We study the adaptive dynamics of the colonization rate of species living in a patchy habitat when there is a trade-off with the competitive strength for individual patches. To that end, we formulate a continuous-time competition-colonization model that also includes ownership effects as well as random disturbance affecting the mortality rate. We find that intermediate disturbance (as measured by the fluctuation intensity of the mortality rate), a strong competition-colonization trade-off, and a weak ownership effect are necessary conditions for evolutionary branching and hence for the emergence of polymorphisms (i.e., coexistence) by small evolutionary steps. Specifically, concerning ownership we find that with low-intermediate disturbance, a weak ownership advantage favours evolutionary branching while ownership disadvantage does not. This asymmetry disappears at the higher-intermediate disturbance. Moreover, at a low-intermediate disturbance, the effect of the strength of the competition-colonization trade-off on evolutionary branching is non-monotonic disappears because the possibility of branching disappears again when the trade-off is too strong. We also find that there can be multiple evolutionary attractors for polymorphic populations, each with its own basin of attraction. With small but non-zero random evolutionary steps and depending on the initial polymorphic condition just after branching, a coevolutionary trajectory may come arbitrarily close to the shared boundary of two such basins and may even jump from one side to the other, which can lead to various kinds of long-term evolutionary dynamics, including evolutionary branching-extinction cycles. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Arroyo, Beatriz; Millon, Alexandre; Bretagnolle, Vincent (2015)
    Modern farming practices threaten wildlife in different ways, and failure to identify the complexity of multiple threats acting in synergy may result in ineffective management. To protect ground-nesting birds in farmland, monitoring and mitigating impacts of mechanical harvesting is crucial. Here, we use 6years of data from a nationwide volunteer-based monitoring scheme of the Montagu's harrier, a ground-nesting raptor, in French farmlands. We assess the effectiveness of alternative nest protection measures and map their potential benefit to the species. We show that unprotected nests in cultivated land are strongly negatively affected by harvesting and thus require active management. Further, we show that protection from harvesting alone (e.g. by leaving a small unharvested buffer around the nest) is impaired by post-harvest predation at nests that become highly conspicuous after harvest. Measures that simultaneously protect from harvesting and predation (by adding a fence around the nest) significantly enhance nest productivity. The map of expected gain from nest protection in relation to available volunteers' workforce pinpoints large areas of high expected gain from nest protection that are not matched by equally high workforce availability. This mismatch suggests that the impact of nest protection can be further improved by increasing volunteer efforts in key areas where they are low relative to the expected gain they could have.Synthesis and applications. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs large-scale evidence-based conservation actions within an adaptive management framework. This study shows that synergistic interplay of multiple factors (e.g. mechanical harvesting and predation) may completely undermine the success of well-intentioned conservation efforts. However, identifying areas where the greatest expected gains can be achieved relative to effort expended can minimize the risk of wasted volunteer actions. Overall, this study underscores the importance of citizen science for collecting large-scale data useful for producing science and ultimately informs large-scale evidence-based conservation actions within an adaptive management framework.
  • Sgarbi, Luciano F.; Bini, Luis M.; Heino, Jani; Jyrkankallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Landeiro, Victor L.; Santos, Edineusa P.; Schneck, Fabiana; Siqueira, Tadeu; Soininen, Janne; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Melo, Adriano S. (2020)
    Reliable biological assessments are essential to answer ecological and management questions but require well-designed studies and representative sample sizes. However, large sampling effort is rarely possible, because it demands large financial resources and time, restricting the number of sites sampled, the duration of the study and the sampling effort at each site. In this context, we need methods and protocols allowing cost-effective surveys that would, consequently, increase the knowledge about how biodiversity is distributed in space and time. Here, we assessed the minimal sampling effort required to correctly estimate the assemblage structure of stream insects sampled in near-pristine boreal and subtropical regions. We used five methods grouped into two different approaches. The first approach consisted of the removal of individuals 1) randomly or 2) based on a count threshold. The second approach consisted of simplification in terms of 1) sequential removal from rare to common species; 2) sequential removal from common to rare species; and 3) random species removal. The reliability of the methods was assessed using Procrustes analysis, which indicated the correlation between a reduced matrix (after removal of individuals or species) and the complete matrix. In many cases, we found a strong relationship between ordination patterns derived from presence/absence data (the extreme count threshold of a single individual) and those patterns derived from abundance data. Also, major multivariate patterns derived from the complete data matrices were retained even after the random removal of more than half of the individuals. Procrustes correlation was generally high ( > 0.8), even with the removal of 50% of the species. Removal of common species produced lower correlation than removal of rare species, indicating higher importance of the former to estimate resemblance between assemblages. Thus, we conclude that sampling designs can be optimized by reducing the sampling effort at a site. We recommend that such efforts saved should be redirected to increase the number of sites studied and the duration of the studies, which is essential to encompass larger spatial, temporal and environmental extents, and increase our knowledge of biodiversity.