Browsing by Subject "EXCRETION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Ala-Mutka, Eero M.; Rimpelä, Jenni M.; Fyhrquist, Frej; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Hiltunen, Timo P. (2018)
    Aim: To recognize genetic associations of hydrochlorothiazide-induced change in serum uric acid (SUA) concentration. Patients & methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study on hydrochlorothiazide-induced change in SUA in 214 Finnish men from the GENRES study. Replication analyses were performed in 465 Finns from the LIFE study. Results: In GENRES, we identified 31 loci associated with hydrochlorothiazide-induced change in SUA at p <5 x 10(-5). rs1002976 near VEGFC associated with the change in GENRES and in LIFE. rs950569 near BRINP3 associated with the change in SUA in GENRES and LIFE. The analysis of previously reported SNPs and candidate genes provided some proof for PADI4 and ABCC4. Conclusion: We report genetic markers that may predict the increase in SUA concentration during thiazide treatment.
  • Savijoki, Kirsi; Miettinen, Ilkka; Nyman, Tuula; Kortesoja, Maarit; Hanski, Leena; Varmanen, Pekka; Fallarero, Adyary (2020)
    The present study investigated Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 surfaceomes (cell surface proteins) during prolonged growth by subjecting planktonic and biofilm cultures (initiated from exponential or stationary cells) to label-free quantitative surfaceomics and phenotypic confirmations. The abundance of adhesion, autolytic, hemolytic, and lipolytic proteins decreased over time in both growth modes, while an opposite trend was detected for many tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, Fe-S repair, and peptidolytic moonlighters. In planktonic cells, these changes were accompanied by decreasing and increasing adherence to hydrophobic surface and fibronectin, respectively. Specific RNA/DNA binding (cold-shock protein CspD and ribosomal proteins) and the immune evasion (SpA, ClfA, and IsaB) proteins were notably more abundant on fully mature biofilms initiated with stationary-phase cells (SDBF) compared to biofilms derived from exponential cells (EDBF) or equivalent planktonic cells. The fully matured SDBF cells demonstrated higher viability in THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cells compared to the EDBF cells. Peptidoglycan strengthening, specific urea-cycle, and detoxification enzymes were more abundant on planktonic than biofilm cells, indicating the activation of growth-mode specific pathways during prolonged cultivation. Thus, we show that S. aureus shapes its surfaceome in a growth mode-dependent manner to reach high levofloxacin tolerance (>200-times the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration). This study also demonstrates that the phenotypic state of the cells prior to biofilm formation affects the immune-evasion and persistence-related traits of S. aureus.
  • Ylinen, Vappu; Pylkko, Paivi; Peura, Jussi; Valaja, Jarmo (2020)
    To formulate low-protein diets for blue foxes with sufficient amounts of amino acids (AA), AA digestibility and AA requirements of the animals are crucial information. Therefore, a digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance trial was conducted with 20 blue foxes to determine the macronutrient and AA digestibility and N utilisation in low-protein diets supplemented with DL-methionine (Met) and L-histidine (His). In addition, plasma urea and plasma AA were measured. The diets were designated as P24 (control), P20, P20M, P16M and P16MH and contained energy from digestible crude protein (DCP) at 24%, 20% or 16% of total dietary metabolisable energy (ME). The 20% protein level was fed with or without Met and the 16% protein level was fed with Met and with or without His. The apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein linearly decreased with decreasing dietary protein level. The ATTD of dry matter, organic matter and crude carbohydrates increased when wheat starch was added as a replacement for protein. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and ATTD methods were compared to determine the AA digestibility. The decreasing dietary protein supply decreased the ATTD of most of the AA: threonine, tryptophan (Trp), valine, alanine (Ala), aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid, glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), serine (Ser) and total AA. The AID of the AA was constant between diets. Diverging AA showed higher or lower digestibility when determined in the AID or ATTD methods. Isoleucine, lysine, Met, Ala and tyrosine showed higher levels of AID. Arginine, His, cysteine (Cys), Trp, Asp, Gly, Pro and Ser showed higher levels of ATTD, which may reflect the net loss of these AA in the large intestine. Met and His supplementation improved the ATTD and AID of the AA in question, respectively, but did not affect the other variables examined. N retention did not differ between diets and renal N excretion decreased with decreasing protein level; thus N utilisation improved. It was concluded that the protein supply and AA composition in low-protein diets with supplemented Met were adequate for adult blue foxes, since the lower protein supply improved N utilisation and did not affect N retention. However, His supplementation failed to reach the designed level and therefore showed no clear results.
  • Spilling, Kristian; Fuentes-Lema, Antonio; Quemalinos, Daniel; Klais, Riina; Sobrino, Cristina (2019)
    We determined the gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP) for the total community and the <10 mu m size fraction, the net release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the microbial respiration in the Baltic Sea during the spring bloom. Samples (n = 126) were taken from the surface (3 m depth) covering most subbasins and different phases of the bloom, defined by the inorganic nutrient and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations. During the course of the bloom, the NPP rate (i.e., growth rate) decreased from 0.34 d(-1) +/- 0.03 (SE) to 0.15 d(-1) +/- 0.02 (SE), the contribution of the <10 mu m fraction increased from 14% +/- 2.5 (SE) to 47% +/- 4.0 (SE) and the percent extracellular release (PER) increased from 3.8% +/- 0.7 (SE) to 8.9% +/- 1.5 (SE). The assimilation number, was on average 0.13 mol C (g Chl a)(-1) h(-1) +/- 0.01 (SE), and the average GPP:NPP rate was 1.25. The respiration increased with growth rate and was 21% of the GPP rate. The net release of DOC was relatively constant over the bloom phases, with increasing PER compensating for the reduction in biomass, and estimated to 24-36 mu mol DOC L-1 during the whole spring bloom period in all subbasins except in the Bay of Bothnia where it was 75% lower. The assimilation number was surprisingly stable, suggesting it is uncoupled from the inorganic nutrient concentration, likely a reflection of physiological acclimation and changing phytoplankton community.
  • The FinnDiane Study Group; Jansson, Fanny J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M.; Wadén, Johan; Elonen, Nina; Ahola, Aila J.; Saraheimo, Markku; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Our aim was to assess regression of albuminuria and its clinical consequences in type 1 diabetes. Methods The analysis included 3642 participants from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study with a 24 h urine sample and a history of albuminuria available at baseline. A total of 2729 individuals had normal AER, 438 a history of microalbuminuria and 475 a history of macroalbuminuria. Regression was defined as a change from a higher category of albuminuria pre-baseline to a lower category in two out of the three most recent urine samples at baseline. The impact of regression on cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary procedure) and mortality was analysed over a follow-up of 14.0 years (interquartile range 11.9-15.9). Results In total, 102 (23.3%) individuals with prior microalbuminuria and 111 (23.4%) with prior macroalbuminuria had regressed at baseline. For individuals with normal AER as a reference, the age-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for cardiovascular events were 1.42 (0.75, 2.68) in individuals with regression from microalbuminuria, 2.62 (1.95, 3.54) in individuals with sustained microalbuminuria, 3.15 (2.02, 4.92) in individuals with regression from macroalbuminuria and 5.49 (4.31, 7.00) in individuals with sustained macroalbuminuria. Furthermore, for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates, HRs in regressed individuals were comparable with those with sustained renal status at the achieved level (i.e. those who did not regress but remained at the most advanced level of albuminuria noted pre-baseline). Conclusions/interpretation Progression of diabetic nephropathy confers an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Notably, regression reduces the risk to the same level as for those who did not progress.
  • Luta, X.; Hayoz, S.; Krause, C. Grea; Sommerhalder, K.; Roos, E.; Strazzullo, P.; Beer-Borst, S. (2018)
    Background and aims: High sodium (Na) and low potassium (K) intake are associated with hypertension and CVD risk. This study explored the associations of health literacy (HL), food literacy (FL), and salt awareness with salt intake, K intake, and Na/K ratio in a workplace intervention trial in Switzerland. Methods and results: The study acquired baseline data from 141 individuals, mean age 44.6 years. Na and K intake were estimated from a single 24-h urine collection. We applied validated instruments to assess HL and FL, and salt awareness. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate the association of explanatory variables with salt intake, K intake, and Na/K. Mean daily salt intake was 8.9 g, K 3.1 g, and Na/K 1.18. Salt intake was associated with sex (p <0.001), and K intake with sex (p <0.001), age (p = 0.02), and waist-to-height ratio (p = 0.03), as was Na/K. HL index and FL score were not significantly associated with salt or K intake but the awareness variable "salt content impacts food/menu choice" was associated with salt intake (p = 0.005). Conclusion: To achieve the established targets for population Na and K intake, health-related knowledge, abilities, and skills related to Na/salt and K intake need to be promoted through combined educational and structural interventions. (C) 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V.