Browsing by Subject "EXERCISE"

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  • Poikonen-Saksela, Paula; Kolokotroni, Eleni; Vehmanen, Leena; Mattson, Johanna; Stamatakos, Georgios; Huovinen, Riikka; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Blomqvist, Carl; Saarto, Tiina (2022)
    We aimed to (a) investigate the interplay between depression, symptoms and level of functioning, and (b) understand the paths through which they influence health related quality of life (QOL) during the first year of rehabilitation period of early breast cancer. A network analysis method was used. The population consisted of 487 women aged 35-68 years, who had recently completed adjuvant chemotherapy or started endocrine therapy for early breast cancer. At baseline and at the first year from randomization QOL, symptomatology and functioning by the EORTC QLQ-C30 and BR-23 questionnaires, and depression by the Finnish version of Beck's 13-item depression scale, were collected. The multivariate interplay between the related scales was analysed via regularized partial correlation networks (graphical LASSO). The median global quality of life (gQoL) at baseline was 69.9 +/- 19.0 (16.7-100) and improved to 74.9 +/- 19.0 (0-100) after 1 year. Scales related to mental health (emotional functioning, cognitive functioning, depression, insomnia, body image, future perspective) were clustered together at both time points. Fatigue was mediated through a different route, having the strongest connection with physical functioning and no direct connection with depression. Multiple paths existed connecting symptoms and functioning types with gQoL. Factors with the strongest connections to gQoL included: social functioning, depression and fatigue at baseline; emotional functioning and fatigue at month 12. Overall, the most important nodes were depression, gQoL and fatigue. The graphical LASSO network analysis revealed that scales related to fatigue and emotional health had the strongest associations to the EORTC QLQ-C30 gQoL score. When we plan interventions for patients with impaired QOL it is important to consider both psychological support and interventions that improve fatigue and physical function like exercise.
  • Junno, Juho-Antti; Keisu, Asla; Niemelä, Maisa; Modarress Julin, Marella; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lehenkari, Petri; Oura, Petteri (2022)
    Background: Articular surface size is traditionally considered to be a relatively stable trait throughout adulthood. Increased joint size reduces bone and cartilage tissue strains. Although physical activity (PA) has a clear association with diaphyseal morphology, the association between PA and articular surface size is yet to be confirmed. This cross-sectional study aimed to clarify the role of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in knee morphology in terms of tibiofemoral joint size. Methods: A sample of 1508 individuals from the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 was used. At the age of 46, wrist-worn accelerometers were used to monitor MVPA (≥3.5 METs) during a period of two weeks, and knee radiographs were used to obtain three knee breadth measurements (femoral biepicondylar breadth, mediolateral breadth of femoral condyles, mediolateral breadth of the tibial plateau). The association between MVPA and knee breadth was analyzed using general linear models with adjustments for body mass index, smoking, education years, and accelerometer weartime. Results: Of the sample, 54.8% were women. Most individuals were non-smokers (54.6%) and had 9-12 years of education (69.6%). Mean body mass index was 26.2 (standard deviation 4.3) kg/m2. MVPA was uniformly associated with all three knee breadth measurements among both women and men. For each 60 minutes/day of MVPA, the knee breadth dimensions were 1.8-2.0% (or 1.26-1.42 mm) larger among women (p < 0.001) and 1.4-1.6% (or 1.21-1.28 mm) larger among men (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Higher MVPA is associated with larger tibiofemoral joint size. Our findings indicate that MVPA could potentially increase knee dimensions through similar biomechanical mechanisms it affects diaphyseal morphology, thus offering a potential target in reducing tissue strains and preventing knee problems. Further studies are needed to confirm and investigate the association between articulation area and musculoskeletal health.
  • Kalliola, Satu; Malmberg, L. Pekka; Malmstrom, Kristiina; Pelkonen, Anna S.; Mäkelä, Mika J. (2019)
    Background: Recurrent wheezing in early life is transient in most children. The significance of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in persistence of respiratory symptoms from infancy to early childhood is controversial. Objective: We evaluated whether AHR in wheezy infants predicts doctor-diagnosed asthma (DDA) or AHR at the age of 6 years. Methods: Sixty-one wheezy infants (age 6-24 months) were followed up to the median age of 6 years. Lung function and AHR with methacholine challenge test were assessed at infancy and 6 years. The exercise challenge test was performed at the age of 6 years. Atopy was assessed with skin prick tests. Results: At 6 years, 21 (34%) of the children had DDA. Children with DDA had higher logarithmic transformed dose-response slope (LOGDRS) to methacholine in infancy than children without DDA (0.047 vs 0.025; P = .033). Furthermore, AHR to methacholine in infancy and at 6 years were associated with each other (r = 0.324, P = .011). Children with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) at 6 years were more reactive to methacholine in infancy than those without EIB (P = .019). Conclusion: Increased AHR in symptomatic infants was associated with increased AHR, DDA, and EIB at median the age of 6 years, suggesting early establishment of AHR. (C) 2019 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Vestentoft, Pia Siig; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.; Jalo, Elli; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Simpson, Elizabeth J.; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Stratton, Gareth; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Lam, Tony; Muirhead, Roslyn; Poppitt, Sally; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Adam, Tanja; Taylor, Moira A.; Handjiev, Svetoslav; McNarry, Melitta A.; Hansen, Sylvia; Brodie, Shannon; Silvestre, Marta P.; Macdonald, Ian A.; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Mackintosh, Kelly A.; Schlicht, Wolfgang; Liu, Amy; Larsen, Thomas M.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Alfredo Martinez, J. (2021)
    Background: Individuals with pre-diabetes are commonly overweight and benefit from dietary and physical activity strategies aimed at decreasing body weight and hyperglycemia. Early insulin resistance can be estimated via the triglyceride glucose index {TyG = Ln [TG (mg/dl) x fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (mg/dl)/2]} and the hypertriglyceridemic-high waist phenotype (TyG-waist), based on TyG x waist circumference (WC) measurements. Both indices may be useful for implementing personalized metabolic management. In this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), we aimed to determine whether the differences in baseline TyG values and TyG-waist phenotype predicted individual responses to type-2 diabetes (T2D) prevention programs.Methods: The present post-hoc analyses were conducted within the Prevention of Diabetes through Lifestyle intervention and population studies in Europe and around the world (PREVIEW) study completers (n = 899), a multi-center RCT conducted in eight countries (NCT01777893). The study aimed to reduce the incidence of T2D in a population with pre-diabetes during a 3-year randomized intervention with two sequential phases. The first phase was a 2-month weight loss intervention to achieve & GE;8% weight loss. The second phase was a 34-month weight loss maintenance intervention with two diets providing different amounts of protein and different glycemic indices, and two physical activity programs with different exercise intensities in a 2 x 2 factorial design. On investigation days, we assessed anthropometrics, glucose/lipid metabolism markers, and diet and exercise questionnaires under standardized procedures.Results: Diabetes-related markers improved during all four lifestyle interventions. Higher baseline TyG index (p < 0.001) was associated with greater reductions in body weight, fasting glucose, and triglyceride (TG), while a high TyG-waist phenotype predicted better TG responses, particularly in those randomized to physical activity (PA) of moderate intensity.Conclusions: Two novel indices of insulin resistance (TyG and TyG-waist) may allow for a more personalized approach to avoiding progression to T2D.
  • Kuisma, Mari; Karppinen, Jaro; Haapea, Marianne; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Heliövaara, Markku; Korpelainen, Raija; Kaikkonen, Kaisu; Taimela, Simo; Natri, Antero; Tervonen, Osmo (2008)
  • Haapala, Eero A.; Gao, Ying; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Vanhala, Anssi; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lakka, Timo A.; Finni, Taija (2021)
    We investigated the associations of motor competence (MC) with peak oxygen uptake (V.O-2peak), peak power output (W-max), and body fat percentage (BF%) and whether measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) modify the associations between MC and BF%. Altogether, 35 children (aged 7-11 years) in the CHIPASE Study and 297 in PANIC Study (aged 9-11 years) participated in the study. MC was assessed using KTK and modified Eurofit tests. V.O-2peak and W-max were measured by maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer and scaled by lean mass (LM) or body mass (BM). BF% was assessed either by bioimpedance (CHIPASE) or DXA (PANIC). MC was not associated with V.O-2peak/LM (standardized regression coefficient beta = 0.073-0.188, P > .083). V.O-2peak/BM and W-max/LM and BM were positively associated with MC (beta = 0.158-0.610, P < .05). MC ( = -0.186 to -0.665, P < .01), but not V.O-2peak/LM ( = -0.169-0.035, P > .381), was inversely associated with BF%. Furthermore, the associations of MC with BF% were not modified by CRF. These results suggest that the positive associations between MC and CRF scaled by BM are a function of adiposity and not peak aerobic power and that CRF is not modifying factor in the associations of MC and BF%.
  • Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2014)
    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. METHODS: Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. RESULTS: PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.
  • Andersson, Therese M-L.; Engholm, Gerda; Lund, Anne-Sofie Q.; Lourenco, Sofia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Pukkala, Eero; Stenbeck, Magnus; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Storm, Hans (2019)
    Background: Physical activity has been shown to reduce the risk of colon, endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer. The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of the cancer burden in the Nordic countries linked to insufficient levels of leisure time physical activity and estimate the potential for cancer prevention for these three sites by increasing physical activity levels. Methods: Using the Prevent macrosimulation model, the number of cancer cases in the Nordic countries over a 30-year period (2016-2045) was modelled, under different scenarios of increasing physical activity levels in the population, and compared with the projected number of cases if constant physical activity prevailed. Physical activity (moderate and vigorous) was categorised according to metabolic equivalents (MET) hours in groups with sufficient physical activity (15+ MET-hours/week), low deficit (9 to Results: If no one had insufficient levels of physical activity, about 11,000 colon, endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer cases could be avoided in the Nordic countries in a 30-year period, which is 1% of the expected cases for the three cancer types. With a 50% reduction in all deficit groups by 2025 or a 100% reduction in the group of high deficit, approximately 0.5% of the expected cases for the three cancer types could be avoided. The number and percentage of avoidable cases was highest for colon cancer. Conclusion: 11,000 cancer cases could be avoided in the Nordic countries in a 30-year period, if deficit in physical activity was eliminated. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Similä, Minna E.; Auranen, Mari; Piirilä, Päivi Liisa (2020)
    Background: A deficiency of muscle phosphofructokinase (PFKM) causes a rare metabolic muscle disease, the Tarui disease (Glycogen storage disease type VII, GSD VII) characterized by exercise intolerance with myalgia due to an inability to use glucose as an energy resource. No medical treatment for GSD VII currently exists. The aim of this study was to determine whether a dietary intervention with excessive fat intake would benefit GSD VII.Patient and Methods: A ketogenic diet (KD) intervention implemented as a modified Atkins diet was established for one patient with PFKM deficiency, with a low late lactate response and very high ammonia levels associated with exercise. We recorded the KD intervention for a total of 5 years with clinical and physiotherapeutic evaluations and regular laboratory parameters. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing, including breath gas analysis and venous lactate and ammonia measurements, was performed before KD and at 3, 8 months and 5 years after initiation of KD.Results: During the 5 years on KD, the patient's muscle symptoms had alleviated and exercise tolerance had improved. In exercise testing, venous ammonia had normalized, the lactate profile remained similar, but oxygen uptake and mechanical efficiency had increased and parameters showing ventilation had improved.Conclusions: This study is the first to show a long-term effect of KD in GSD VII with an alleviation of muscle symptoms, beneficial effects on breathing, and improvement in exercise performance and oxygen uptake. Based on these findings, KD can be recommended under medical and nutritional supervision for selected patients with GSD VII, although further research of this rare disease is warranted.
  • Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Mänty, Minna; Svärd, Anna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni (2017)
    This study aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship between psychotropic medication use and changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among a population cohort study. Phase 1 data were collected by mail surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and phase 2 follow up survey was conducted in 2007. Based on self-report, the respondents were classified as inactive and active (.14.75 MET-hours/week) at the phases 1 and 2. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for subsequent (2007-10) psychotropic medication purchasing according to changes in physical activity (phases 1-2). Odds ratios (OR) for physical inactivity at phase 2 were calculated according to the amount of psychotropic medication between phases 1-2. Overall, 5361 respondents were included (mean age 50 years, 80% women). Compared with the persistently active, the persistently inactive, those decreasing and adopting LTPA had an increased risk for psychotropic medication. Only the persistently inactive remained at increased risk for psychotropic medication use, following the adjustment for prior psychotropic medication use. Compared with those having no medication, the risk for physical inactivity increased as the psychotropic medication increased. Our data suggest that physical activity has an important role in maintaining wellbeing and reducing psychotropic medication usage.
  • Sievanen, Tero; Tormakangas, Timo; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Pylvänäinen, Kirsi; Seppälä, Toni T.; Peltomäki, Paivi; Sipila, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina (2021)
    Simple Summary Lifestyle modifies cancer risk in the general public. How lifestyle modifies cancer risk in individuals carrying the inherited pathogenic gene variants in DNA mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) remains understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, physical activity, and cancer risk among Finnish Lynch syndrome carriers (n = 465, 54% women). The results of our study indicated that longitudinal weight gain increases cancer risk, whereas being highly physically active during adulthood could decrease cancer risk in men. Further, women were observed to be less prone to lifestyle-related risk factors than men. The results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity physical activity throughout the lifespan, especially in men with Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome (LS) increases cancer risk. There is considerable individual variation in LS cancer occurrence, which may be moderated by lifestyle factors, such as body weight and physical activity (PA). The potential associations of lifestyle and cancer risk in LS are understudied. We conducted a retrospective study with cancer register data to investigate associations between body weight, PA, and cancer risk among Finnish LS carriers. The participants (n = 465, 54% women) self-reported their adulthood body weight and PA at 10-year intervals. Overall cancer risk and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk was analyzed separately for men and women with respect to longitudinal and near-term changes in body weight and PA using extended Cox regression models. The longitudinal weight change was associated with an increased risk of all cancers (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.04) and CRC (HR 1.03, 1.01-1.05) in men. The near-term weight change was associated with a lower CRC risk in women (HR 0.96, 0.92-0.99). Furthermore, 77.6% of the participants retained their PA category over time. Men in the high-activity group had a reduced longitudinal cancer risk of 63% (HR 0.37, 0.15-0.98) compared to men in the low-activity group. PA in adulthood was not associated with cancer risk among women. These results emphasize the role of weight maintenance and high-intensity PA throughout the lifespan in cancer prevention, particularly in men with LS.
  • Korhonen, Päivi E.; Mikkola, Tuija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G. (2021)
    High body mass index (BMI) is known to be associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). The present study aims to determine the relative importance of the two components of BMI, fat mass and lean body mass index, on BP levels. We assessed body composition with bioimpedance and performed 24 hour ambulatory BP measurements in 534 individuals (mean age 61 +/- 3 years) who had no cardiovascular medication. Fat mass index and lean mass index were calculated analogously to BMI as fat mass or lean body mass (kg) divided by the square of height (m2). Both fat mass index and lean mass index showed a positive, small to moderate relationship with all 24 hour BP components independently of age, sex, smoking, and leisure-time physical activity. There were no interaction effects between fat mass index and lean mass index on the mean BP levels. Adult lean body mass is a significant determinant of BP levels with an equal, albeit small to moderate magnitude as fat mass. Relatively high amount of muscle mass may not be beneficial to cardiovascular health.
  • Karvinen, Sira; Fachada, Vasco; Sahinaho, Ulla-Maria; Pekkala, Satu; Lautaoja, Juulia H.; Mäntyselkä, Sakari; Permi, Perttu; Hulmi, Juha J.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Kainulainen, Heikki (2022)
    Impaired lipid metabolism is a common risk factor underlying several metabolic diseases such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that include valine, leucine and isoleucine have been proven to share a role in lipid metabolism and hence in maintaining metabolic health. We have previously introduced a hypothesis suggesting that BCAA degradation mechanistically connects to lipid oxidation and storage in skeletal muscle. To test our hypothesis, the present study examined the effects of BCAA deprivation and supplementation on lipid oxidation, lipogenesis and lipid droplet characteristics in murine C2C12 myotubes. In addition, the role of myotube contractions on cell metabolism was studied by utilizing in vitro skeletal-muscle-specific exercise-like electrical pulse stimulation (EPS). Our results showed that the deprivation of BCAAs decreased both lipid oxidation and lipogenesis in C2C12 myotubes. BCAA deprivation further diminished the number of lipid droplets in the EPS-treated myotubes. EPS decreased lipid oxidation especially when combined with high BCAA supplementation. Similar to BCAA deprivation, high BCAA supplementation also decreased lipid oxidation. The present results highlight the role of an adequate level of BCAAs in healthy lipid metabolism.
  • Kokkonen, Kristiina; Tasmuth, Tiina; Lehto, Juho T.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Elme, Anneli; Jaaskelainen, Anna-Stina; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background/Aim: To observe changes in symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) over 7 years among cancer patients at different stages of the disease. Patients and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study at the Helsinki University Hospital Cancer Center, was carried out in 2006 and repeated in 2013. All participants filled in the EORTC-QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Results: Altogether, 581 patients responded (49% in 2006 and 54% in 2013). The disease was local in 51% and advanced in 49% of patients. The HRQoL was significantly lower, except for emotional and cognitive functions, and the symptom burden more severe in advanced cancer. The most prevalent symptoms were fatigue (93% and 85%; moderate/severe 22% and 9%), pain (65% and 47%; moderate/severe 16% and 5%), and insomnia (64% and 60%; moderate/severe 20 and 21%), respectively. No changes in HRQoL or symptoms were found at 7 years. Conclusion: There is a need for early integrated palliative care to improve HRQoL during cancer treatments.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Stenholm, Sari; Heinonen, Olli J.; Pulakka, Anna; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2018)
    This study aims to examine the association between change in physical activity over time and accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors. Four consecutive surveys (Time 1 to 4) were conducted with 4-year intervals in 1997-2013 (the Finnish Public Sector study). Physical activity of 15,634 cardio-metabolically healthy participants (mean age 43.3 (SD 8.7) years, 85% women) was assessed using four-item survey measure and was expressed as weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hours in Time 1, 2, and 3. At each time point, participants were categorised into low (<14 MET-h/week), moderate (>= 14 to<30 MET-h/week), or high (>= 30MET-h/week) activity level and change in physical activity levels between Time 1 and 3 (over 8 years) was determined. The outcome was the number of incident cardiometabolic risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and obesity) at Time 4. Cumulative logistic regression was used for data analysis. Compared to maintenance of low physical activity, increase in physical activity from low baseline activity level was associated with decreased accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors in a dose-response manner (cumulative odds ratio [cOR]= 0.73, 95% CI 0.59-0.90 for low-to-moderate and cOR= 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.89 for low-to-high, P for trend 0.0007). Decrease in physical activity level from high to low was associated with increased accumulation of cardiometabolic risk factors (cOR= 1.60, 95% CI 1.27-2.01) compared to those who remained at high activity level. Thus even a modest long-term increase in physical activity was associated with reduction in cardiometabolic risk whereas decrease in physical activity was related to increased risk.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2020)
    Objective To compare recent and long-term physical activity levels as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in a risk factor-free adult population. Design A 12-year prospective cohort study. Setting The Finnish Public Sector study with surveys conducted in four waves at 4-year intervals. Participants 19 230 participants (mean age 50.2 (SD 9.1) years, 84% women) with no prevalent cardiometabolic risk factors at wave 3 were included. Physical activity was assessed at waves 1, 2 and 3. The long-term physical activity level was determined as the mean of activity from wave 1 to 3 (over 8 years). Outcome measure 4-year incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) after wave 3, measured individually and as a sum (accumulation of two or more risk factors vs none). Logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used for the analysis. Results Graded associations between higher physical activity levels and lower odds of all risk factors were observed (p for trend = 60 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week), those who were persistently inactive (= 2 risk factors). Conclusion Cardiometabolic risk associated with physical inactivity is better captured by repeated measurements of physical activity than by a single measurement of the most recent activity level.
  • Laine, M. K.; Kujala, R.; Eriksson, J. G.; Kautiainen, H.; Sarna, S.; Kujala, U. M. (2017)
    Aims Regular physical activity plays a major role, in both prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Less is known whether vigorous physical activity during young adulthood is associated with costs of diabetes medication in later life. The aim of this study is to evaluate this question. Methods The study population consisted of 1314 former elite-class athletes and 860 matched controls. The former athletes were divided into three groups based on their active career sport: endurance, mixed and power sports. Information on purchases of diabetes medication between 1995 and 2009 was obtained from the drug purchase register of the Finnish Social Insurance Institution. Results The total cost of diabetes medication per person year was significantly lower among the former endurance (mean 81 theta [95% CI 33-151 theta ]) and mixed group athletes (mean 272 theta [95% CI 181- 388 theta]) compared with the controls (mean 376 theta [95% CI 284- 485 theta]), (p <0.001 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of the former endurance athletes, 0.4% used insulin, while 5.2% of the controls used insulin (p = 0.018). Conclusions A career as former endurance, sprint, jumper or team game athlete seems to reduce the costs of diabetes medication in later life.
  • Lundbom, Jesper; Bierwagen, Alessandra; Bodis, Kalman; Szendroedi, Julia; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Lundbom, Nina; Roden, Michael; Pietilainen, Kirsi H. (2016)
    Background. Obese twins have lower saturated and higher long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compared to their lean monozygotic (MZ) co-twin. Whether this holds for metabolically distinct deep (DSAT) and superficial (SSAT) depots is unknown. Here we use non-invasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the FA unsaturation in body mass index (BMI) discordant MZ twins in DSAT and SSAT and their relationship to ectopic fat content and body fat distribution. The main finding is further confirmed in an independent cohort using standardized measurement times. Methods. MRS and magnetic resonance imaging were used to measure DSAT and SSAT unsaturation and their relationship to intramyocellular lipids (IMCL), hepatocellular lipids (HCL) and the amount of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in 16 pairs of healthy monozygotic twins (MZ) discordant for BMI. A second independent cohort of 12 healthy volunteers was used to measure DSAT unsaturation and IMCL with standardized measurement time. One volunteer also underwent repeated random measurements of DSAT unsaturation and IMCL. Results. In accordance with biopsy studies SSAT unsaturation was higher in the heavier twins (15.2 +/- 1.0% vs. 14.4 +/- 1.5%, P = 0.024) and associated with SAT volume (R = 0.672, P = 0.001). DSAT unsaturation did not differ between twins (11.4 +/- 0.8 vs. 11.0 +/- 1.0, P = 0.267) and associated inversely with IMCL content (R = -0.462, P = 0.001). The inverse association between DSAT unsaturation and IMCL was also present in the participants of the second cohort (R = -0.641, P = 0.025) and for the repeated sampling at random of one person (R = -0.765, P = 0.027). Conclusions. DSAT and SSAT FA unsaturation shows distinct associations with obesity and IMCL in MZ twins, reflecting compartment-specific metabolic activities. The FA unsaturation in the DSAT depot associates inversely with IMCL content, which raises the possibility of cross talk between the DSAT depot and the rapid turnover IMCL depot. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hansen, Sylvia; Huttunen-Lenz, Maija; Sluik, Diewertje; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Drummen, Mathijs; Fogelholm, Mikael; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Macdonald, Ian; Martinez, Alfredo J.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Poppitt, Sally; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang (2018)
    PurposeWeight loss has been demonstrated to be a successful strategy in diabetes prevention. Although weight loss is greatly influenced by dietary behaviors, social-cognitive factors play an important role in behavioral determination. This study aimed to identify demographic and social-cognitive factors (intention, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, social support, and motivation with regard to dietary behavior and goal adjustment) associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants from the PREVIEW study who had pre-diabetes.MethodProspective correlational data from 1973 adult participants were analyzed. The participants completed psychological questionnaires that assessed social-cognitive variables with regard to dietary behavior. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to identify baseline demographic and social-cognitive factors associated with weight loss.ResultsOverall, being male, having a higher baseline BMI, having a higher income, perceiving fewer disadvantages of a healthy diet (outcome expectancies), experiencing less discouragement for healthy eating by family and friends (social support), and lower education were independently linked to greater weight loss. When evaluating females and males separately, education was no longer associated with weight loss.ConclusionThe results indicate that a supportive environment in which family members and friends avoid discouraging healthy eating, with the application of a strategy that uses specific behavior change techniques to emphasize the benefits of outcomes, i.e., the benefits of a healthy diet, may support weight loss efforts. Weight loss programs should therefore always address the social environment of persons who try to lose body weight because family members and friends can be important supporters in reaching a weight loss goal.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Rintala, Mirva; Seppanen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Pollanen, Eija; Alen, Markku; Sipila, Sarianna; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kovanen, Vuokko; Rahkila, Paavo; Oresic, Matej; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2010)
    High physical activity/aerobic fitness predicts low morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to identify the most up-regulated gene sets related to long-term physical activity vs. inactivity in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues and to obtain further information about their link with cardio-metabolic risk factors. We studied ten same-sex twin pairs (age range 50-74 years) who had been discordant for leisure-time physical activity for 30 years. The examinations included biopsies from m. vastus lateralis and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. RNA was analyzed with the genome-wide Illumina Human WG-6 v3.0 Expression BeadChip. For pathway analysis we used Gene Set Enrichment Analysis utilizing active vs. inactive co-twin gene expression ratios. Our findings showed that among the physically active members of twin pairs, as compared to their inactive co-twins, gene expression in the muscle tissue samples was chronically up-regulated for the central pathways related to energy metabolism, including oxidative phosphorylation, lipid metabolism and supportive metabolic pathways. Up-regulation of these pathways was associated in particular with aerobic fitness and high HDL cholesterol levels. In fat tissue we found physical activity-associated increases in the expression of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and branched-chain amino acid degradation gene sets both of which associated with decreased 'high-risk' ectopic body fat and plasma glucose levels. Consistent with other findings, plasma lipidomics analysis showed up-regulation of the triacylglycerols containing the polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our findings identified skeletal muscle and fat tissue pathways which are associated with the long-term physical activity and reduced cardio-metabolic disease risk, including increased aerobic fitness. In particular, improved skeletal muscle oxidative energy and lipid metabolism as well as changes in adipocyte function and redistribution of body fat are associated with reduced cardio-metabolic risk.