Browsing by Subject "EXPERIENCE"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Garcia-del-Amo, David; Benyei, Petra; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gravani, Konstantina; Junqueira, Andre B.; Labeyrie, Vanesse; Li, Xiaoyue; Matias, Denise M. S.; McAlvay, Alex; Mortyn, Peter Graham; Porcuna-Ferrer, Anna; Schlingmann, Anna; Soleymani-Fard, Ramin (2019)
    Bringing insights from Indigenous and local knowledge into climate change research requires addressing the transferability, integration, and scalability of this knowledge. Using a review of research on place-based observations of climate change impacts, we explore ways to address these challenges. Our search mostly captured scientist-led qualitative research, which - while facilitating place-based knowledge transferability to global research - did not include locally led efforts documenting climate change impacts. We classified and organized qualitative multi-site place-based information into a hierarchical system that fosters dialogue with global research, providing an enriched picture of climate change impacts on local social-ecological systems. A network coordinating the scalability of place-based research on climate change impacts is needed to bring Indigenous and local knowledge into global research and policy agendas.
  • Loukomies, Anni; Petersen, Nadine; Lavonen, Jari (2018)
    In this study, we examined student teachers' learning during their teaching placement period in Finland and South Africa. The setting of the inquiry in both countries was a 'teaching' school, affiliated to a university teacher education programme. The teaching school is also referred to as an educational innovation that was transferred from the Finnish context to the South African context. Data were collected through an interview protocol. The findings show that the students, like many of their counterparts in different parts of the world, focused on teaching tools and methods as well as classroom management as a gateway to their teaching career. The extended teaching placement period at both the university teaching schools was expected to yield some findings about the intersection of teaching practice and its supporting theories because of the close collaboration of the schools and the universities. Some of the findings satisfied this expectation while other parts did not, confirming that initial teacher education may be regarded as a platform for learning to be teachers, but it has its own limits even in a pedagogical 'laboratory'. The transfer of the educational innovation was regarded as successful.
  • Webster, Mike M.; Chouinard-Thuly, Laura; Herczeg, Gabor; Kitano, Jun; Riley, Riva; Rogers, Sean; Shapiro, Michael D.; Shikano, Takahito; Laland, Kevin N. (2019)
    Whether learning primarily reflects general processes or species-specific challenges is a long-standing matter of dispute. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of public information use (PI-use) in sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae). PI-use is a form of social learning by which animals are able to assess the relative quality of resources, here prey patches, by observing the behaviour of others. PI-use was highly specific with only Pungitius and their closest relative Culaea inconstans showing evidence of PI-use. We saw no effects of ontogenetic experience upon PI-use in Pungitius pungitius. Experiments with live demonstrators and animated fish revealed that heightened activity and feeding strikes by foraging conspecifics are important cues in the transmission of PI. Finally, PI-use was the only form of learning in which P. pungitius and another stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus differed. PI-use in sticklebacks is species-specific and may represent an 'ecological specialization' for social foraging. Whether this reflects selection on perception, attentional or cognitive processes remains to be determined.
  • Ryhänen, Eeva; Leijon, Helena; Metso, Saara; Eloranta, Eija; Korsoff, Pirkko; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Kekäläinen, Päivi; Tamminen, Marjo; Ristamaki, Raija; Knutar, Otto; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Niskanen, Leo; Väisänen, Mika; Heiskanen, Ilkka Sten; Välimäki, Matti; Laakso, Markku; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna; Schalin-Jantti, Camilla (2017)
    Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is rare and diagnostically challenging. Reported outcomes are rather poor and the incidence might be increasing.Material and methods: We performed a nationwide study on all cases (n=32) diagnosed in 2000-2011 in Finland, and compared clinical and histopathological characteristics and outcome to atypical parathyroid (APA; n=28) and parathyroid adenomas (PA; n=72). The incidence in years 1955-1999 was compared to that in 2000-2013.Results: Preoperatively, calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations were higher in PC compared to APA and PA (1.76, 1.56 and 1.44mmol/l, p
  • Balla, Viktória Roxána; Szalóki, Szilvia; Kilencz, Tünde; Dalos, Vera Daniella; Németh, Roland; Csifcsák, Gábor (2020)
    The association between an action and its sensory consequence has been linked to our sense of agency (SoA). While ecological validity is crucial in investigating such a complex phenomenon, previous paradigms focusing on the cortical analysis of movement-related images used simplified experimental protocols. Here, we examined the influence of action-associated predictive processes on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) in a paradigm that models everyday actions more precisely, using a commercial gesture control device, ecological stimuli depicting a human hand and a behavioural training to reinforce the sense of control over action outcomes. We assessed whether a more natural setup would result in robust ERP modifications following self-initiated movements relative to passive viewing of the same images. We found no compelling evidence for amplitude modulation for the early occipital C1 and P1 components. Crucially, we observed strong action-associated amplitude enhancement for the posterior N1, an effect that was not present in our previous study that relied on conventional button-presses. We propose that the N1 effect in our ecologically more valid paradigm can either reflect stronger attentional amplification of domain-specific visual processes following self-initiated actions, or indicate that sensory predictions in the visual N1 latency range manifest in larger (rather than reduced) ERPs. Overall, our novel approach utilizing a gesture-control device can be a potent tool for investigating the behavioural and neural manifestations of SoA in the visual modality.
  • Jokela, Johanna; Tapiovaara, Laura; Lundberg, Marie; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Bäck, Leif; Saarinen, Riitta (2018)
    Objectives. To evaluate the incidence and nature of complications associated with diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopies and to report intervention failures in a prospective setup. Study Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Academic tertiary care university hospital. Subjects and Methods. Patients who underwent diagnostic or interventional sialendoscopy between October 2015 and December 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Patient data, operation-related factors, treatment failures, and complications were recorded into a database and analyzed. Results. A total of 140 sialendoscopies were attempted or performed on 118 patients; 67 (48%) were for a parotid gland and 73 (52%) for a submandibular gland. The sialendoscopy was interventional in 81 cases (58%), diagnostic in 56 (40%), and not possible to perform in 3 (2.1%). A total of 21 complications were registered for 21 sialendoscopies (15%) and 21 patients (18%). The most common complication was infection, in 9 cases (6.4%). Other observed complications were salivary duct perforation (4 cases), prolonged glandular swelling (3 cases), transient lingual nerve analgesia (2 cases), basket entrapment (2 cases), and transient weakness in the marginal branch of the facial nerve (1 case). All complications were related to interventional procedures or papilla dilatation. Failure to treat occurred in 21 (15%) sialendoscopies: sialendoscopy itself was unsuccessful in 3 cases, and an intended intervention failed in 18 cases. Conclusion. Complications in sialendoscopy are usually related to interventional procedures. The complications are mainly minor and temporary but lead to additional follow-up visits, further treatments, and sometimes hospitalization. Sialendoscopic procedures are safe but not free of complications.
  • Häyrinen, Liina; Pynnönen, Sari (2020)
    Purpose of Review The review examines recent scientific discussion on the concepts and measurements of human connection to nature (CTN) and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). In addition to that, we explore the environmental contexts in which study populations are exposed to nature or nature experiences, particularly the contexts in which forests emerge from these studies, and lastly outline gaps in research. Recent Findings Outlining the association between CTN and PEB has been widely researched over the past 5 years. The concepts and measurements referring to these terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified. The review classifies the approaches used for exploring the relationship between CTN and PEB into four categories. The review indicates that the interconnection between CTN and PEB is mostly studied as a part of the wider concept. Approximately half of the reviewed articles explored the actual exposure to some natural environment or nature activity either directly or indirectly. Forests only played a small role as a natural environment in the reviewed articles. Forests appear to be of very little weight or under-represented in CTN and PEB literature as an explicitly identified natural environment. Results also indicate that the human-forest relationship has not been defined precisely in empirically based scientific literature. The paper discusses implications for the future research focusing on emphasizing the role of forests as natural environments in the research of CTN and PEB.
  • Xin, Guanyu; Ruohoalho, Johanna; BÄck, Leif; Aro, Katri; Tapiovaara, Laura (2019)
    PurposeTo review indications, patient characteristics, frequency, and safety for surgical tracheostomies performed by otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons in a single tertiary care center.MethodsSurgical tracheostomies performed by otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons at Helsinki University Hospital between January 2014 and February 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, surgical data, and peri- and postoperative mortality information were collected from the hospital charts. Minimum follow-up was 18months.ResultsThe total population was 255, with a majority (n=181; 71%) of males. The majority of patients (n=178; 70%) were classified as ASA 3 or 4. A total of 198 (78%) patients suffered from head and neck cancer. Multiple (14 altogether) indications for tracheostomy were identified, and simultaneous major head and neck tumor surgery was common (in 58%). Altogether, 163 (64%) patients were decannulated during follow-up with a median cannulation period of 9days (range 1-425). The surgical mortality was 0.4%.ConclusionSimultaneously performed major tumor surgery was the most common indication for a tracheostomy. A notable number of patients had impaired physical status, but relatively insignificant comorbidities. Almost two-thirds of the patients were decannulated during follow-up, although some patients remained tracheostomy dependent for a prolonged period. Tracheostomy was found to be a safe procedure.Level of evidence2b.
  • Weiste, Elina; Käpykangas, Sari; Uusitalo, Lise-Lotte; Stevanovic, Melisa (2020)
    Contemporary social and health care services exhibit a significant movement toward increasing client involvement in their own care and in the development of services. This major cultural change represents a marked shift in the client's role from a passive patient to an active empowered agent. We draw on interaction-oriented focus group research and conversation analysis to study workshop conversations in which social and health care clients and professionals discussed "client involvement". Our analysis focuses on the participants' mutually congruent or discrepant views on the topic. The professionals and clients both saw client involvement as an ideal that should be promoted. Although both participant groups considered the clients' experience of being heard a prerequisite of client involvement, the clients deviated from the professionals in that they also highlighted the need for actual decision-making power. However, when the professionals invoked the clients' responsibility for their own treatment, the clients were not eager to agree with their view. In addition, in analyzing problems of client involvement during the clients' and professionals' meta-talk about client involvement, the paper also shows how the "client involvement" rhetoric itself may, paradoxically, sometimes serve to hinder here-and-now client involvement.
  • Eeroia, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2016)
    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.
  • Saarinen, Tuure; Räsänen, Jari Veli; Salo, Jarmo; Loimaala, Antti; Pitkonen, Miia; Leivonen, Marja; Juuti, Anne (2017)
    Significant weight-loss and diabetes remission have been reported after mini-gastric bypass (MGB). Concern has been raised regarding postoperative bile reflux (BR), but it has not been demonstrated in previous studies. We set out to find out if BR is evident in hepatobiliary scintigraphy after MGB. Nine consecutive patients, seven with type 2 diabetes, underwent MGB (15 cm gastric tube, 250-275 cm biliary limb) at our institution with a 12-month follow-up, with none lost to follow-up. Then, 10.7 months (8.6-13.0) after MGB, all patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy and a reflux symptom questionnaire (GerdQ) was filled out. A gastroscopy with biopsies was done for all patients with a bile-reflux-positive scintigraphy. Mean age at operation was 56 years (41-65) and preoperative BMI 43.1 kg/m(2) (34.2-54.6). Mean %EWL was 83.9 (49.5-128.3) at 12 months. Four patients reached diabetes remission and two became insulin-independent. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed a transient BR into the gastric tube for five patients. Bile tracer was found in the gastric tube at 23-58 min after the tracer injection and highest activity was 8% (1-8%) at 58 min. Bile tracer was not found in the esophagus of any of the patients. One patient with a positive scintigraphy in the gastric tube required re-operation. Two patients with reflux symptoms had a negative scintigraphy. Our results indicate that transient bile reflux is common after MGB in the gastric tube, but not in the esophagus. The clinical relevance of bile reflux needs further studies.
  • ENCKEP COST Action (2019)
    Background. Considerable differences exist among the living donor Kidney Exchange Programmes (KEPs) that are in use and being built in Europe, contributing to a variation in the number of living donor transplants (Newsletter Transplant; International figures on donation and transplantation 2016). Efforts of European KEPs to exchange (best) practices and share approaches to address challenges have, however, been limited. Methods. Experts from 23 European countries, collaborating on the European Network for Collaboration on Kidney Exchange Programmes Cooperation on Science and Technology Action, developed a questionnaire to collect detailed information on the functioning of all existing KEPs in Europe, as well as their opportunities and challenges. Following a comparative analysis, results were synthesized and interpreted by the same experts. Results. The practices, opportunities and challenges reported by 17 European countries reveal that some of the 10 operating programs are mature, whereas others are in earlier stages of development. Over 1300 transplants were performed through existing KEPs up to the end of 2016, providing approximately 8% of their countries' living kidney donations in 2015. All countries report challenges to either initiating KEPs or increasing volumes. Some challenges are shared, whereas others differ because of differences in context (eg, country size, effectiveness of deceased donor program) and ethical and legal considerations (eg, regarding living donation as such, nonrelated donors, and altruistic donation). Transnational initiatives have started in Central Europe, Scandinavia, and Southern Europe. Conclusions. Exchange of best practices and shared advancement of national programs to address existing challenges, aided by transnational exchanges, may substantially improve access to the most (cost) effective treatment for the increasing number of patients suffering from kidney disease.
  • Virtala, Paula Maarit; Partanen, Eino Juhani (2018)
    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life.
  • Kanerva, Anna; Koski, Anniina; Liikanen, Ilkka; Oksanen, Minna; Joensuu, Timo; Hemminki, Otto; Palmgren, Juni; Hemminki, Kari; Hemminki, Akseli (2015)
  • Steinzeig, Anna; Molotkov, Dmitry; Castren, Eero (2017)
    Growing interest in long-term visualization of cortical structure and function requires methods that allow observation of an intact cortex in longitudinal imaging studies. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the "transparent skull" (TS) preparation based on skull clearing with cyanoacrylate, which is applicable for long-term imaging through the intact skull in mice. We characterized the properties of the TS in imaging of intrinsic optical signals and compared them with the more conventional cranial window preparation. Our results show that TS is less invasive, maintains stabile transparency for at least two months, and compares favorably to data obtained from the conventional cranial window. We applied this method to experiments showing that a four-week treatment with the antidepressant fluoxetine combined with one week of monocular deprivation induced a shift in ocular dominance in the mouse visual cortex, confirming that fluoxetine treatment restores critical-period-like plasticity. Our results demonstrate that the TS preparation could become a useful method for long-term visualization of the living mouse brain.
  • Koivusalo, Antti I.; Rintala, Risto J.; Pakarinen, Mikko P. (2019)
    Background and aim: We describe a series of three successive patients with perianal rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) from 2014 to 2017 managed with combined chemotherapy, radical surgery, and radiotherapy. Methods: Ethical consent was obtained. Data including tumor presentation, treatment, and survival was collected from hospital reports. Results: Two girls aged 15 and 16 years (patient #1 and #2) and one boy aged five years (patient #3) were referred because of a suspected perianal abscess. MRI showed large perianal tumors from 7 to 12 cm in diameter that surrounded or infiltrated the anal sphincters and were inconsistent with abscess. Tumor biopsies showed RMS of alveolar (#1 and #2) and embryonal (#3) types. Patient #1 had lymph node and bone metastases, patient #2 lymph node metastases, and patient # 3 no metastases. Pretreatment staging, IRS Clinical Group, and Risk Groups were: Stage 4, II, high; Stage 3, GII, intermediate; and Stage 3, I, low, respectively. All underwent colostomy before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CWS-RMS 2009 program). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy failed to clear the tumors from anal sphincters preventing anus-saving surgery, and all patients underwent abdominoperineal excision. All removed specimens had freemargins with negative lymph nodes. After adjuvant chemotherapy and local radiation, the patients were tumor free after 48, 13, and 18 months. Conclusion: In PRMS local surgical control required abdominoperineal excision. Confusion between PRMS and abscess may cause unnecessary delay in management. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Pajula, Susanna; Jyränki, Janne; Tukiainen, Erkki; Koljonen, Virve (2019)
    Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss positively affects a patient's quality of life. However, the procedure is prone to complications. Herein, we stratified complications timewise. Furthermore, we examined whether the weight loss method - bariatric surgery or lifestyle changes - affected the frequency or severity of complications. In this single-centre retrospective analysis, we included 158 patients with massive weight loss undergoing body contouring surgery between 2009 and 2015. We recorded 96 complications in 80 patients, with an overall rate of 51%. Most complications (80.2%) were minor (Clavien-Dindo grades 1 and 2) and superficial wound infections. Immediate complications (0-24 hours postoperation) affected 8.3% of patients, with early complications (1-7 post-operative days) affecting 16.7% of them and late complications (8-30 post-operative days) affecting 58.3% of them. We found no statistical difference in complication rates when comparing bariatric and non-bariatric patients. Older age (p = 0.042) at operation is associated with an increased risk for immediate haematoma or bleeding requiring surgery. Among early complications, a high maximum weight (p = 0.035) and a high preoperative weight (p = 0.0053) significantly correlated with a haematoma or bleeding requiring surgery. For late complications, seroma correlated with older age (p =0.0061). Complications are primarily minor and non-life threatening after body contouring surgery because of frequent massive weight loss. Here, no particular subgroup of massive weight loss patients appeared more prone to complications. Thus, for each patient, the risks associated with body contouring surgery following massive weight loss should be considered individually. (C) 2018 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Marttila, E.; Thoren, H.; Törnwall, J.; Viitikko, A.; Wilkman, T. (2018)
    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the incidence of complications and loss of flaps after primary reconstructions for oral cancer in 191 patients at our hospital over the five years 2005-2010. The patients' clinical and personal details, characteristics of the tumours, types of microvascular flap, complications, and outcomes were recorded. The soft tissue flaps used most often were the fasciocutaneous radial forearm free flap (RFFF) (n = 86, 45%) and the anterolateral thigh free flap (ALTFF) (n = 48, 25%) while the most commonly used osseous flap was the deep circumflex iliac artery flap (DCIA) (n = 25, 13%). There were postoperative complications that required intervention in a quarter of the patients, most often in the age group 41-50 years (p = 0.018). Older age was not associated with the development of complications. The overall survival of all free flaps was 181/191 (95%), and the only significant individual predictor of loss of a flap was reconstruction with a DCIA (p = 0.016), five of the 25 of which were lost. We conclude therefore that DCIA free flaps are associated with an increased risk of failure; the method of osseous reconstruction for maxillofacial reconstruction should be selected carefully; and carefully chosen older patients do not seem to be at increased risk of morbidity. (C) 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kontio, R.; Hagström, J.; Lindholm, P.; Böhling, T.; Sampo, M.; Mesimäki, K.; Saarilahti, K.; Koivunen, P.; Mäkitie, A. A. (2019)
    Background: Osteosarcomas (OS) in the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) region are typically diagnosed at later age than long-bone OS, but they are reported to have better 5-year survival. Curative treatment warrants wide surgical resection, which is often not possible in the CMF region. The purpose of this article is to present a nationwide series of CMF in Finland to discuss the role of surgery. Patients and methods: All 21 CMF OS patients managed in Finland from 1992 to 2009 were included. The mean age was 40 years (range 15e72). Data on patient and tumor characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival were recorded. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 5 years or until death. Results: OS was evenly represented in the mandible and maxillary bones, which together constituted 76% of all sites. Surgery with curative intent was carried out in 20 patients. Clear margins were achieved in only five cases. Eight (40%) of these 20 patients died due to OS, and their average survival time was 1.3 years. Seven (35%) out of the 20 patients received radiotherapy due to close/intralesional surgical margins, and four of them did not develop recurrences during the follow-up. Conclusions: The results suggest that postoperative radiotherapy may alter the prognosis in CMF OS, particularly in cases with close or intralesional margins. This may increase the survival rates achieved by prompt action in performing radical surgery. (C) 2019 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Paananen, Kaisa Karoliina; Minoia, Paola (2019)
    International cruise passengers moving in urban destinations have particular time limitation that can make enabling and disabling elements of mobility meaningful on the quality of their visit. Identifying these elements is essential to improve their independent movement. Based on a staging mobilities framework that considers the dimensions of physical settings, material spaces, design (PMD), social interactions (SI) and embodied performances (EP) in situ, the research has analysed location-specific information in Helsinki, a popular port of call in the Baltic Sea. The study has used go-along observations and mobile application in data collection. The produced dataset was analysed by combining GIS-methods and content analyses. As a result, five categories were identified under the dimension of PMD: wayfinding tools, unexpected situations, lack of rest spots and walkability. Categories identified under the dimension of SI were local people, service providers and travel companions, and other tourists. Categories identified under the dimension of EP were traffic behaviour, occasioned activities, sense of direction, planning, and time-related anxiety. Urban destinations such as Helsinki can apply these results in practice, to make the movement of independently moving cruise passengers as effortless as possible, contributing to a better experience of the city space for both tourists and other city users. The proposed methodology could also be used to analyse other mobility-related phenomena.