Browsing by Subject "EXPERIENCE"

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  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Garcia-del-Amo, David; Benyei, Petra; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gravani, Konstantina; Junqueira, Andre B.; Labeyrie, Vanesse; Li, Xiaoyue; Matias, Denise M. S.; McAlvay, Alex; Mortyn, Peter Graham; Porcuna-Ferrer, Anna; Schlingmann, Anna; Soleymani-Fard, Ramin (2019)
    Bringing insights from Indigenous and local knowledge into climate change research requires addressing the transferability, integration, and scalability of this knowledge. Using a review of research on place-based observations of climate change impacts, we explore ways to address these challenges. Our search mostly captured scientist-led qualitative research, which - while facilitating place-based knowledge transferability to global research - did not include locally led efforts documenting climate change impacts. We classified and organized qualitative multi-site place-based information into a hierarchical system that fosters dialogue with global research, providing an enriched picture of climate change impacts on local social-ecological systems. A network coordinating the scalability of place-based research on climate change impacts is needed to bring Indigenous and local knowledge into global research and policy agendas.
  • Loukomies, Anni; Petersen, Nadine; Lavonen, Jari (2018)
    In this study, we examined student teachers' learning during their teaching placement period in Finland and South Africa. The setting of the inquiry in both countries was a 'teaching' school, affiliated to a university teacher education programme. The teaching school is also referred to as an educational innovation that was transferred from the Finnish context to the South African context. Data were collected through an interview protocol. The findings show that the students, like many of their counterparts in different parts of the world, focused on teaching tools and methods as well as classroom management as a gateway to their teaching career. The extended teaching placement period at both the university teaching schools was expected to yield some findings about the intersection of teaching practice and its supporting theories because of the close collaboration of the schools and the universities. Some of the findings satisfied this expectation while other parts did not, confirming that initial teacher education may be regarded as a platform for learning to be teachers, but it has its own limits even in a pedagogical 'laboratory'. The transfer of the educational innovation was regarded as successful.
  • Webster, Mike M.; Chouinard-Thuly, Laura; Herczeg, Gabor; Kitano, Jun; Riley, Riva; Rogers, Sean; Shapiro, Michael D.; Shikano, Takahito; Laland, Kevin N. (2019)
    Whether learning primarily reflects general processes or species-specific challenges is a long-standing matter of dispute. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of public information use (PI-use) in sticklebacks (Gasterosteidae). PI-use is a form of social learning by which animals are able to assess the relative quality of resources, here prey patches, by observing the behaviour of others. PI-use was highly specific with only Pungitius and their closest relative Culaea inconstans showing evidence of PI-use. We saw no effects of ontogenetic experience upon PI-use in Pungitius pungitius. Experiments with live demonstrators and animated fish revealed that heightened activity and feeding strikes by foraging conspecifics are important cues in the transmission of PI. Finally, PI-use was the only form of learning in which P. pungitius and another stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus differed. PI-use in sticklebacks is species-specific and may represent an 'ecological specialization' for social foraging. Whether this reflects selection on perception, attentional or cognitive processes remains to be determined.
  • Ryhänen, Eeva; Leijon, Helena; Metso, Saara; Eloranta, Eija; Korsoff, Pirkko; Ahtiainen, Petteri; Kekäläinen, Päivi; Tamminen, Marjo; Ristamaki, Raija; Knutar, Otto; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Niskanen, Leo; Väisänen, Mika; Heiskanen, Ilkka Sten; Välimäki, Matti; Laakso, Markku; Haglund, Caj; Arola, Johanna; Schalin-Jantti, Camilla (2017)
    Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is rare and diagnostically challenging. Reported outcomes are rather poor and the incidence might be increasing.Material and methods: We performed a nationwide study on all cases (n=32) diagnosed in 2000-2011 in Finland, and compared clinical and histopathological characteristics and outcome to atypical parathyroid (APA; n=28) and parathyroid adenomas (PA; n=72). The incidence in years 1955-1999 was compared to that in 2000-2013.Results: Preoperatively, calcium and parathyroid hormone concentrations were higher in PC compared to APA and PA (1.76, 1.56 and 1.44mmol/l, p
  • Balla, Viktória Roxána; Szalóki, Szilvia; Kilencz, Tünde; Dalos, Vera Daniella; Németh, Roland; Csifcsák, Gábor (2020)
    The association between an action and its sensory consequence has been linked to our sense of agency (SoA). While ecological validity is crucial in investigating such a complex phenomenon, previous paradigms focusing on the cortical analysis of movement-related images used simplified experimental protocols. Here, we examined the influence of action-associated predictive processes on visual event-related potentials (ERPs) in a paradigm that models everyday actions more precisely, using a commercial gesture control device, ecological stimuli depicting a human hand and a behavioural training to reinforce the sense of control over action outcomes. We assessed whether a more natural setup would result in robust ERP modifications following self-initiated movements relative to passive viewing of the same images. We found no compelling evidence for amplitude modulation for the early occipital C1 and P1 components. Crucially, we observed strong action-associated amplitude enhancement for the posterior N1, an effect that was not present in our previous study that relied on conventional button-presses. We propose that the N1 effect in our ecologically more valid paradigm can either reflect stronger attentional amplification of domain-specific visual processes following self-initiated actions, or indicate that sensory predictions in the visual N1 latency range manifest in larger (rather than reduced) ERPs. Overall, our novel approach utilizing a gesture-control device can be a potent tool for investigating the behavioural and neural manifestations of SoA in the visual modality.
  • Kangas, Johanna; Ollikainen, Markku (2022)
    Forests can play a significant role both in halting biodiversity loss and in mitigating climate change. A variety of payments for ecosystem services (PES) schemes exists to promote biodiversity conservation in forests. These schemes could be used to strengthen the role of forests as carbon sinks as well. This paper analyzes the implications of supplementing a PES scheme that targets boreal forest biodiversity with a carbon index. We use a site selection framework to examine how the proposed scheme impacts the promotion of both targets. We compare a case where the selection is done solely based on biodiversity values to a case where the selection is done based on both biodiversity and carbon benefits. The carbon index is formulated as current carbon storage or as future carbon sink. Correspondingly, biodiversity is maximized based on either current ecological values or potential ones. We compare equal or differing weights for biodiversity and carbon indexes, and examine trade-offs between biodiversity and CO2 in current and future values. Combined index values increase with the carbon index, but there is a trade-off between biodiversity and CO2 values if the conservation budget is not increased when the carbon index is introduced. There is a temporal trade-off in biodiversity and carbon values between selecting sites based on current or future values. Younger stands are preferred at the expense of old-growth stands with the carbon index. Weights can be used to balance the trade-off between biodiversity and carbon benefits. Overall, risks to losing significant ecological value from the conservation network are negligible, but the limited number of sites decreases the generalizability of the results.
  • Jokela, Johanna; Tapiovaara, Laura; Lundberg, Marie; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Bäck, Leif; Saarinen, Riitta (2018)
    Objectives. To evaluate the incidence and nature of complications associated with diagnostic and interventional sialendoscopies and to report intervention failures in a prospective setup. Study Design. Prospective observational study. Setting. Academic tertiary care university hospital. Subjects and Methods. Patients who underwent diagnostic or interventional sialendoscopy between October 2015 and December 2016 were prospectively enrolled. Patient data, operation-related factors, treatment failures, and complications were recorded into a database and analyzed. Results. A total of 140 sialendoscopies were attempted or performed on 118 patients; 67 (48%) were for a parotid gland and 73 (52%) for a submandibular gland. The sialendoscopy was interventional in 81 cases (58%), diagnostic in 56 (40%), and not possible to perform in 3 (2.1%). A total of 21 complications were registered for 21 sialendoscopies (15%) and 21 patients (18%). The most common complication was infection, in 9 cases (6.4%). Other observed complications were salivary duct perforation (4 cases), prolonged glandular swelling (3 cases), transient lingual nerve analgesia (2 cases), basket entrapment (2 cases), and transient weakness in the marginal branch of the facial nerve (1 case). All complications were related to interventional procedures or papilla dilatation. Failure to treat occurred in 21 (15%) sialendoscopies: sialendoscopy itself was unsuccessful in 3 cases, and an intended intervention failed in 18 cases. Conclusion. Complications in sialendoscopy are usually related to interventional procedures. The complications are mainly minor and temporary but lead to additional follow-up visits, further treatments, and sometimes hospitalization. Sialendoscopic procedures are safe but not free of complications.
  • Häyrinen, Liina; Pynnönen, Sari (2020)
    Purpose of Review The review examines recent scientific discussion on the concepts and measurements of human connection to nature (CTN) and pro-environmental behaviour (PEB). In addition to that, we explore the environmental contexts in which study populations are exposed to nature or nature experiences, particularly the contexts in which forests emerge from these studies, and lastly outline gaps in research. Recent Findings Outlining the association between CTN and PEB has been widely researched over the past 5 years. The concepts and measurements referring to these terms vary, but a few commonly used concepts were identified. The review classifies the approaches used for exploring the relationship between CTN and PEB into four categories. The review indicates that the interconnection between CTN and PEB is mostly studied as a part of the wider concept. Approximately half of the reviewed articles explored the actual exposure to some natural environment or nature activity either directly or indirectly. Forests only played a small role as a natural environment in the reviewed articles. Forests appear to be of very little weight or under-represented in CTN and PEB literature as an explicitly identified natural environment. Results also indicate that the human-forest relationship has not been defined precisely in empirically based scientific literature. The paper discusses implications for the future research focusing on emphasizing the role of forests as natural environments in the research of CTN and PEB.
  • Xin, Guanyu; Ruohoalho, Johanna; BÄck, Leif; Aro, Katri; Tapiovaara, Laura (2019)
    PurposeTo review indications, patient characteristics, frequency, and safety for surgical tracheostomies performed by otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons in a single tertiary care center.MethodsSurgical tracheostomies performed by otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons at Helsinki University Hospital between January 2014 and February 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient demographics, surgical data, and peri- and postoperative mortality information were collected from the hospital charts. Minimum follow-up was 18months.ResultsThe total population was 255, with a majority (n=181; 71%) of males. The majority of patients (n=178; 70%) were classified as ASA 3 or 4. A total of 198 (78%) patients suffered from head and neck cancer. Multiple (14 altogether) indications for tracheostomy were identified, and simultaneous major head and neck tumor surgery was common (in 58%). Altogether, 163 (64%) patients were decannulated during follow-up with a median cannulation period of 9days (range 1-425). The surgical mortality was 0.4%.ConclusionSimultaneously performed major tumor surgery was the most common indication for a tracheostomy. A notable number of patients had impaired physical status, but relatively insignificant comorbidities. Almost two-thirds of the patients were decannulated during follow-up, although some patients remained tracheostomy dependent for a prolonged period. Tracheostomy was found to be a safe procedure.Level of evidence2b.
  • Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Spape, Michiel; Ravaja, Niklas (2022)
    Subjective estimates of elapsed time are sensitive to the fluctuations in an emotional state. While it is well known that dangerous and threatening situations, such as electric shocks or loud noises, are perceived as lasting longer than safe events, it remains unclear whether anticipating a threatening event speeds up or slows down subjective time and what defines the direction of the distortion. We examined whether the anticipation of uncertain visual aversive events resulted in either underestimation or overestimation of perceived duration. The participants did a temporal bisection task, where they estimated durations of visual cues relative to previously learnt long and short standard durations. The colour of the to-be-timed visual cue signalled either a 50% or 0% probability of encountering an aversive image at the end of the interval. The cue durations were found to be overestimated due to anticipation of aversive images, even when no image was shown afterwards. Moreover, the overestimation was more pronounced in people who reported feeling more anxious while anticipating the image. These results demonstrate that anxiogenic anticipation of uncertain visual threats induce temporal overestimation, which questions a recently proposed view that temporal underestimation evoked by uncertain threats is due to anxiety.
  • Cinderby, Steve; Archer, Diane; Mehta, Vishal K.; Neale, Chris; Opiyo, Romanus; Pateman, Rachel M.; Muhoza, Cassilde; Adelina, Charrlotte; Tuhkanen, Heidi (2021)
    To ensure future sustainability, cities need to consider concepts of livability and resident wellbeing alongside environmental, economic and infrastructure development equity. The current rapid urbanization experienced in many regions is leading to sustainability challenges, but also offers the opportunity to deliver infrastructure supporting the social aspects of cities and the services that underpin them alongside economic growth. Unfortunately, evidence of what is needed to deliver urban wellbeing is largely absent from the global south. This paper contributes to filling this knowledge gap through a novel interdisciplinary mixed methods study undertaken in two rapidly changing cities (one Thai and one Kenyan) using qualitative surveys, subjective wellbeing and stress measurements, and spatial analysis of urban infrastructure distribution. We find the absence of basic infrastructure (including waste removal, water availability and quality) unsurprisingly causes significant stress for city residents. However, once these services are in place, smaller variations (inequalities) in social (crime, tenure) and environmental (noise, air quality) conditions begin to play a greater role in determining differences in subjective wellbeing across a city. Our results indicate that spending time in urban greenspaces can mitigate the stressful impacts of city living even for residents of informal neighborhoods. Our data also highlights the importance of places that enable social interactions supporting wellbeing-whether green or built. These results demonstrate the need for diversity and equity in the provision of public realm spaces to ensure social and spatial justice. These findings strengthen the need to promote long term livability in LMIC urban planning alongside economic growth, environmental sustainability, and resilience.
  • Kämppi, Antti; Tanner, Tarja; Viitanen, Olavi; Pohjola, Vesa; Päkkilä, Jari; Tjäderhane, Leo; Anttonen, Vuokko; Patinen, Pertti (2022)
    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence of dental fear among Finnish conscripts. Other aims were to study the association between dental fear and cariological status as well as their self-reported, dentition-related well-being. The study material consisted of 13,564 men and 255 women conscripts who underwent oral examinations. Of those, 8713 responded to a computer-based questionnaire. The mean number of decayed teeth (DT) was used in analyses for cariological status. Self-reported dental fear, dentition-related well-being and regular check-ups were analysed. Data were analysed with cross tables, Pearson Chi-Square tests, Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regressive analysis. High dental fear or finding dental visits very scary was associated with DT > 2 both among women (14.6%, when DT = 0; 33.3%, when DT > 2) and men conscripts (2.3% and 10.8%, respectively). In addition, those reporting that dental health had a negative impact on their well-being and had no regular check-ups were more likely to need cariological treatment than the rest. A high education level, both one's own and parental, was a protective factor for restorative treatment need in male conscripts. The findings of this study support the concept of a vicious cycle of dental fear and dental caries. A preventive, interactive way of work by dental teams would most likely be beneficial for dental health, avoiding the development of dental fear, and dentition-related well-being.
  • Pesonen, Henri; Tuononen, Tarja; Fabri, Marc; Lahdelma, Minja (2022)
    An unprecedented number of autistic people are completing university and they frequently face unemployment after graduation. However, research focusing on the forms of graduate capital and their employability is scarce. The focus of existing research has been on non-autistic, or neurotypical, graduates. The human, social, cultural, identity and psychological capital might be different for autistic graduates due to the characteristics of autism. Using a participatory approach, our aim was to examine the five areas of graduate capital in the context of autistic graduates. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 15 autistic university graduates from England, Finland, France and the Netherlands. Data were analysed using theory guided content analysis and 'datadriven' approaches. Findings indicate that the five areas of graduate capital are particularly relevant to autistic graduates, who typically expose gaps in several capital, jeopardising their employability.
  • Eeroia, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2016)
    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.
  • Saarinen, Tuure; Räsänen, Jari Veli; Salo, Jarmo; Loimaala, Antti; Pitkonen, Miia; Leivonen , Marja; Juuti, Anne (2017)
    Significant weight-loss and diabetes remission have been reported after mini-gastric bypass (MGB). Concern has been raised regarding postoperative bile reflux (BR), but it has not been demonstrated in previous studies. We set out to find out if BR is evident in hepatobiliary scintigraphy after MGB. Nine consecutive patients, seven with type 2 diabetes, underwent MGB (15 cm gastric tube, 250-275 cm biliary limb) at our institution with a 12-month follow-up, with none lost to follow-up. Then, 10.7 months (8.6-13.0) after MGB, all patients underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy and a reflux symptom questionnaire (GerdQ) was filled out. A gastroscopy with biopsies was done for all patients with a bile-reflux-positive scintigraphy. Mean age at operation was 56 years (41-65) and preoperative BMI 43.1 kg/m(2) (34.2-54.6). Mean %EWL was 83.9 (49.5-128.3) at 12 months. Four patients reached diabetes remission and two became insulin-independent. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy showed a transient BR into the gastric tube for five patients. Bile tracer was found in the gastric tube at 23-58 min after the tracer injection and highest activity was 8% (1-8%) at 58 min. Bile tracer was not found in the esophagus of any of the patients. One patient with a positive scintigraphy in the gastric tube required re-operation. Two patients with reflux symptoms had a negative scintigraphy. Our results indicate that transient bile reflux is common after MGB in the gastric tube, but not in the esophagus. The clinical relevance of bile reflux needs further studies.
  • Långström, Satu; Huurre, Anu; Kari, Juho; Lohi, Olli; Sievänen, Harri; Palmu, Sauli (2022)
    In this prospective single-arm study of 50 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we evaluated the clinical performance of a novel bioimpedance spinal needle system in 152 intrathecal treatment lumbar punctures (LP) of these patients. The system detects in real-time when the needle tip reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal canal. The success was defined as getting a CSF sample and/or administering the intrathecal treatment with one needle insertion. Incidence of traumatic LP (TLP) was defined as ≥ 10 erythrocytes/µL of CSF. Post-procedural complications were monitored with a one-week diary and one-month register follow-up. The success of the first attempt was 79.5%, with the CSF detection sensitivity of 86.1%. The incidence of TLP was 17.3%. A successful first attempt was associated with a significantly lower incidence of TLP (10% vs 40%, p = 0.0015). During the week after the procedure, the incidence of post-dural puncture headache was 6%. During the follow-up, no major complications were observed. In conclusion, the novel bioimpedance spinal needle system achieved a high success rate and low incidence of TLP and other complications in pediatric patients with ALL in a real-world clinical setting, indicating clinical utility for this system in pediatric hemato-oncology.
  • Morrison, C. A.; Aunins, A.; Benko, Z.; Brotons, L.; Chodkiewicz, T.; Chylarecki, P.; Escandell, Jose M.; Eskildsen, D. P.; Gamero, A.; Herrando, S.; Jiguet, F.; Kålås, J. A.; Kamp, J.; Klvanova, A.; Kmecl, P.; Lehikoinen, A.; Lindström, Å.; Moshøj, C.; Noble, D. G.; Qien, I. J.; Paquet, J-Y; Reif, J.; Sattler, T.; Seaman, B. S.; Teufelbauer, N.; Trautmann, S.; van Turnhout, C. A. M.; Vorisek, P.; Butler, S. J. (2021)
    Birdsong has long connected humans to nature. Historical reconstructions using bird monitoring and song recordings collected by citizen scientists reveal that the soundscape of birdsong in North America and Europe is both quieter and less varied, mirroring declines in bird diversity and abundance. Natural sounds, and bird song in particular, play a key role in building and maintaining our connection with nature, but widespread declines in bird populations mean that the acoustic properties of natural soundscapes may be changing. Using data-driven reconstructions of soundscapes in lieu of historical recordings, here we quantify changes in soundscape characteristics at more than 200,000 sites across North America and Europe. We integrate citizen science bird monitoring data with recordings of individual species to reveal a pervasive loss of acoustic diversity and intensity of soundscapes across both continents over the past 25 years, driven by changes in species richness and abundance. These results suggest that one of the fundamental pathways through which humans engage with nature is in chronic decline, with potentially widespread implications for human health and well-being.
  • Fotakopoulos, George; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Kivelev, Juri; Tjahjadi, Mardjono; Goehre, Felix; Hernesniemi, Juha (2022)
    Given the rareness of available data, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on therapeutic strategy microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) and assessed mortality, permanent neurological deficits (PNDs), rebleeding rate, and patients who require reintervention to elucidate the benefits of each treatment modality. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) were used for protocol development and manuscript preparation. After applying all inclusion and exclusion criteria, six remaining articles were included in the final manuscript pool. In total, this meta-analysis included 396 patients, among them 168 patients underwent microsurgical treatment and 228 underwent SRS. Findings of the present meta-analysis suggest that regarding the total group of patients, in terms of mortality, late rebleeding rate, and PNDs, there was no superiority of the one method over the other. Applying the leave-one-out method to our study suggests that with low robust of the results for the bleeding rate and patients who require reintervention outcome factor, there was no statistical difference among the surgical and SRS treatment. Microsurgical treatment of BSCMs immediately eliminates the risk of rehemorrhage; however, it requires complete excision of the lesion and it is associated with a similar rate of PNDs compared with SRS management. Apparently, SRS of BSCMs causes a marked reduction in the risk of rebleeding 2 years after treatment, but when compared with the surgical treatment, there was not any remarkable difference.
  • ENCKEP COST Action; Biro, Peter; Salonen, Mikko (2019)
    Background. Considerable differences exist among the living donor Kidney Exchange Programmes (KEPs) that are in use and being built in Europe, contributing to a variation in the number of living donor transplants (Newsletter Transplant; International figures on donation and transplantation 2016). Efforts of European KEPs to exchange (best) practices and share approaches to address challenges have, however, been limited. Methods. Experts from 23 European countries, collaborating on the European Network for Collaboration on Kidney Exchange Programmes Cooperation on Science and Technology Action, developed a questionnaire to collect detailed information on the functioning of all existing KEPs in Europe, as well as their opportunities and challenges. Following a comparative analysis, results were synthesized and interpreted by the same experts. Results. The practices, opportunities and challenges reported by 17 European countries reveal that some of the 10 operating programs are mature, whereas others are in earlier stages of development. Over 1300 transplants were performed through existing KEPs up to the end of 2016, providing approximately 8% of their countries' living kidney donations in 2015. All countries report challenges to either initiating KEPs or increasing volumes. Some challenges are shared, whereas others differ because of differences in context (eg, country size, effectiveness of deceased donor program) and ethical and legal considerations (eg, regarding living donation as such, nonrelated donors, and altruistic donation). Transnational initiatives have started in Central Europe, Scandinavia, and Southern Europe. Conclusions. Exchange of best practices and shared advancement of national programs to address existing challenges, aided by transnational exchanges, may substantially improve access to the most (cost) effective treatment for the increasing number of patients suffering from kidney disease.
  • Virtala, Paula Maarit; Partanen, Eino Juhani (2018)
    Music and musical activities are often a natural part of parenting. As accumulating evidence shows, music can promote auditory and language development in infancy and early childhood. It may even help to support auditory and language skills in infants whose development is compromised by heritable conditions, like the reading deficit dyslexia, or by environmental factors, such as premature birth. For example, infants born to dyslexic parents can have atypical brain responses to speech sounds and subsequent challenges in language development. Children born very preterm, in turn, have an increased likelihood of sensory, cognitive, and motor deficits. To ameliorate these deficits, we have developed early interventions focusing on music. Preliminary results of our ongoing longitudinal studies suggest that music making and parental singing promote infants' early language development and auditory neural processing. Together with previous findings in the field, the present studies highlight the role of active, social music making in supporting auditory and language development in at-risk children and infants. Once completed, the studies will illuminate both risk and protective factors in development and offer a comprehensive model of understanding the promises of music activities in promoting positive developmental outcomes during the first years of life.